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Campbell A.D.,University of Utah | McIntosh S.E.,University of Utah | Nyberg A.,University of Utah | Powell A.P.,University of Utah | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine | Year: 2015

High-altitude athletes and adventurers face a number of environmental and medical risks. Clinicians often advise participants or guiding agencies before or during these experiences. Preparticipation evaluation (PPE) has the potential to reduce risk of high-altitude illnesses in athletes and adventurers. Specific conditions susceptible to high-altitude exacerbation also important to evaluate include cardiovascular and lung diseases. Recommendations by which to counsel individuals before participation in altitude sports and adventures are few and of limited focus. We reviewed the literature, collected expert opinion, and augmented principles of a traditional sport PPE to accommodate the high-altitude wilderness athlete/adventurer. We present our findings with specific recommendations on risk stratification during a PPE for the high-altitude athlete/adventurer. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc and Wilderness Medical Society. Source


Keyes L.E.,University of Colorado at Denver | Paterson R.,University of Colorado at Denver | Boatright D.,University of Colorado at Denver | Browne V.,University of Colorado at Denver | And 3 more authors.
Wilderness and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2013

Objective: Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) may contribute to acute mountain sickness (AMS). Measuring optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) by ultrasound (US) is a noninvasive technique to detect elevated ICP, and increased ONSD has been associated with AMS. We hypothesized that ONSD would increase with acute, rapid ascent to 4300 m and that increased ONSD would be associated with symptoms of AMS. We further hypothesized that treatment with oxygen at 4300 m would reduce symptoms and ONSD. Methods: A cohort study was performed comparing US measurement of ONSD in healthy subjects at 1400 m and 18 hours after rapid ascent to 4300 m, both before and after oxygen treatment and between subjects with and without AMS (Lake Louise Score ≥3). Results: Among 57 subjects, 29 (51%) experienced AMS after rapid ascent to 4300 m. In subjects without AMS, mean ONSD did not increase at 4300 m. In subjects with AMS, mean ONSD increased at 4300 m and was higher than in those without AMS. Treatment with oxygen lowered mean ONSD in subjects with AMS but not in those without AMS. Individual responses to altitude and oxygen varied greatly within groups, and the relationship between ONSD and AMS symptoms was weak. Conclusions: In this controlled study, mean ONSD increased in subjects with AMS at high altitude. However, individual variation was high, and most ONSD values were below the clinical threshold for raised ICP. Observed differences were small, of questionable clinical importance, and within the range of precision of the US machine. Overall, our data do not support a role for increased ICP in mild to moderate AMS. © 2013 Wilderness Medical Society. Source


Schwartz K.L.,Wayne State University | Bartoces M.,Wayne State University | Campbell-Voytal K.,Wayne State University | West P.,St. John Hospital Family Medicine Residency Program | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine | Year: 2013

Objective: Assessing health literacy during the clinical encounter is difficult. Many established instruments are lengthy and not practical for use in a busy practice setting. Our objective was to compare the performance of 3 health literacy screening questions against the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy for Adults (S-TOFHLA) in an urban, ethnically diverse primary care practice-based research network. Methods: A convenience sample of patients in clinics in the Detroit area were recruited to complete a questionnaire that included the S-TOFHLA and 3 items similar to the Chew screening questions. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves compared the test characteristics of the screening questions to the S-TOFHLA. Results: The participation rate was 92% (N = 599). Most participants were women (65%) and African American (51%); 51.8% had a household annual income of <$20,000. Almost all (96.7%) had an adequate score on the S-TOFHLA. The screening question with the largest AUROC (0.83; 95% CI, 0.70-0.95) was "How often do you have someone help you read instructions, pamphlets or other written materials from your doctor or pharmacy?"; the AUROC for all 3 questions was 0.90 (95% CI, 0.85- 0.95). Conclusions: Self-administration of the 3 screening questions demonstrated high performance compared with the 36-item S-TOFHLA interview instrument. These screening questions should help providers identify patients who may need extra support to follow health prescriptions. Source


Luks A.M.,University of Washington | McIntosh S.E.,University of Utah | Grissom C.K.,University of Utah | Auerbach P.S.,Stanford University | And 5 more authors.
Wilderness and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2010

To provide guidance to clinicians about best practices, the Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the prevention and treatment of acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude cerebral edema (HACE), and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). These guidelines present the main prophylactic and therapeutic modalities for each disorder and provide recommendations for their roles in disease management. Recommendations are graded based on the quality of supporting evidence and balance between the benefits and risks/burdens according to criteria put forth by the American College of Chest Physicians. The guidelines also provide suggested approaches to the prevention and management of each disorder that incorporate these recommendations. © 2010 Wilderness Medical Society. Source


Luks A.M.,University of Washington | McIntosh S.E.,University of Utah | Grissom C.K.,University of Utah | Auerbach P.S.,Stanford University | And 4 more authors.
Wilderness and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2014

To provide guidance to clinicians about best practices, the Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for prevention and treatment of acute mountain sickness, high altitude cerebral edema, and high altitude pulmonary edema. These guidelines present the main prophylactic and therapeutic modalities for each disorder and provide recommendations about their role in disease management. Recommendations are graded based on the quality of supporting evidence and balance between the benefits and risks/burdens according to criteria put forth by the American College of Chest Physicians. The guidelines also provide suggested approaches to prevention and management of each disorder that incorporate these recommendations. This is an updated version of the original WMS Consensus Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Acute Altitude Illness published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2010;21(2):146-155. © 2014 Wilderness Medical Society. Source

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