Alta Genetics Incorporated

Watertown, WI, United States

Alta Genetics Incorporated

Watertown, WI, United States
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Dogan S.,Mississippi State University | Mason M.C.,Mississippi State University | Mason M.C.,Alcorn State University | Govindaraju A.,Mississippi State University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Reproduction and Development | Year: 2013

Male fertility, the ability of sperm to fertilize and activate the egg and support early embryogenesis, is vital for mammalian reproduction. Despite producing adequate numbers of sperm with normal motility and morphology, some males suffer from low fertility whose molecular mechanisms are not known. The objective was to determine apoptosis in sperm from high and low fertility bulls and its relationship with male fertility. DNA damage, phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation, and expression of proand anti-apoptotic proteins (BAX and BCL-2) in the sperm were determined using TUNEL, Annexin V, and immunoblotting approaches, respectively. Amounts of apoptotic spermatozoa were 2.86 (± 1.31) and 3.00 (± 0.96) in high and low fertility bulls, respectively (P=0.548), and were not correlated with fertility. There was a negative correlation between early necrotic spermatozoa and viable spermatozoa (r = -0.99, P<0.0001). Fertility scores were correlated with live spermatozoa detected by eosin-nigrosin test and necrotic spermatozoa determined via fow cytometry (r = -0.49, P<0.006 and r = -0.266, P<0.0113, respectively). BAX level was higher in low fertile group than high fertile group; however, this difference was not statistically significant due to the variations of bull samples (Bull 1-3 vs. Bull 4-5) in low fertile group (P<0.283). BCL-2 was not detectable in any of the sperm samples. The results shed light onto molecular and cellular underpinnings of male fertility. © 2013 by the Society for Reproduction and Development.


Govindaraju A.,Mississippi State University | Uzun A.,Brown University | Robertson L.,Mississippi State University | Atli M.O.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 8 more authors.
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Background: MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and thus play important roles in mammalian development. However, the comprehensive lists of microRNAs, as well as, molecular mechanisms by which microRNAs regulate gene expression during gamete and embryo development are poorly defined. The objectives of this study were to determine microRNAs in bull sperm and predict their functions.Methods: To accomplish our objectives we isolated miRNAs from sperm of high and low fertility bulls, conducted microRNA microarray experiments and validated expression of a panel of microRNAs using real time RT-PCR. Bioinformatic approaches were carried out to identify regulated targets.Results: We demonstrated that an abundance of microRNAs were present in bovine spermatozoa, however, only seven were differentially expressed; hsa-aga-3155, -8197, -6727, -11796, -14189, -6125, -13659. The abundance of miRNAs in the spermatozoa and the differential expression in sperm from high vs. low fertility bulls suggests that the miRNAs possibly play important functions in the regulating mechanisms of bovine spermatozoa.Conclusion: Identification of specific microRNAs expressed in spermatozoa of bulls with different fertility phenotypes will help better understand mammalian gametogenesis and early development. © 2012 Govindaraju et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Dogan S.,Mississippi State University | Vargovic P.,University of Missouri | Vargovic P.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Oliveira R.,Federal University of Ceará | And 8 more authors.
Biology of Reproduction | Year: 2015

During fertilization, spermatozoa make essential contributions to embryo development by providing oocyte activating factors, centrosomal components, and paternal chromosomes. Protamines are essential for proper packaging of sperm DNA; however, in contrast to the studies of oocyte-related female infertility, the influence of sperm chromatin structure on male infertility has not been evaluated extensively. The objective of this study was to determine the sperm chromatin content of bull spermatozoa by evaluating DNA fragmentation, chromatin maturity/protamination, PRM1 protein status, and nuclear shape in spermatozoa from bulls with different fertility. Relationships between protamine 1 (PRM1) and the chromatin integrity were ascertained in spermatozoa from Holstein bulls with varied (high vs. low) but acceptable fertility. Sperm DNA fragmentation and chromatin maturity (protamination) were tested using Halomax assay and toluidine blue staining, respectively. The PRM1 content was assayed using Western blotting and in-gel densitometry, flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry. Fragmentation of DNA was increased and chromatin maturity significantly reduced in spermatozoa from low-fertility bulls compared to those from high-fertility bulls. Field fertility scores of the bulls were negatively correlated with the percentage of spermatozoa displaying reduced protamination and fragmented DNA using toluidine blue and Halomax, respectively. Bull fertility was also positively correlated with PRM1 content by Western blotting and flow cytometry. However, detection of PRM1 content by Western blotting alone was not predictive of bull fertility. In immunocytochemistry, abnormal spermatozoa showed either a lack of PRM1 or scattered localization in the apical/acrosomal region of the nuclei. The nuclear shape was distorted in spermatozoa from low-fertility bulls. In conclusion, we showed that inadequate amount and localization of PRM1 were associated with defects in sperm chromatin structure, coinciding with reduced fertility in bulls. These findings are highly significant because they reveal molecular and morphological phenotypes of mammalian spermatozoa that influence fertility. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.


PubMed | University of Missouri, Federal University of Ceará, Alta Genetics Incorporated, University of Wisconsin - Madison and Mississippi State University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biology of reproduction | Year: 2015

During fertilization, spermatozoa make essential contributions to embryo development by providing oocyte activating factors, centrosomal components, and paternal chromosomes. Protamines are essential for proper packaging of sperm DNA; however, in contrast to the studies of oocyte-related female infertility, the influence of sperm chromatin structure on male infertility has not been evaluated extensively. The objective of this study was to determine the sperm chromatin content of bull spermatozoa by evaluating DNA fragmentation, chromatin maturity/protamination, PRM1 protein status, and nuclear shape in spermatozoa from bulls with different fertility. Relationships between protamine 1 (PRM1) and the chromatin integrity were ascertained in spermatozoa from Holstein bulls with varied (high vs. low) but acceptable fertility. Sperm DNA fragmentation and chromatin maturity (protamination) were tested using Halomax assay and toluidine blue staining, respectively. The PRM1 content was assayed using Western blotting and in-gel densitometry, flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry. Fragmentation of DNA was increased and chromatin maturity significantly reduced in spermatozoa from low-fertility bulls compared to those from high-fertility bulls. Field fertility scores of the bulls were negatively correlated with the percentage of spermatozoa displaying reduced protamination and fragmented DNA using toluidine blue and Halomax, respectively. Bull fertility was also positively correlated with PRM1 content by Western blotting and flow cytometry. However, detection of PRM1 content by Western blotting alone was not predictive of bull fertility. In immunocytochemistry, abnormal spermatozoa showed either a lack of PRM1 or scattered localization in the apical/acrosomal region of the nuclei. The nuclear shape was distorted in spermatozoa from low-fertility bulls. In conclusion, we showed that inadequate amount and localization of PRM1 were associated with defects in sperm chromatin structure, coinciding with reduced fertility in bulls. These findings are highly significant because they reveal molecular and morphological phenotypes of mammalian spermatozoa that influence fertility.


De Oliveira R.V.,Mississippi State University | De Oliveira R.V.,Federal University of Ceará | Dogan S.,Mississippi State University | Belser L.E.,Mississippi State University | And 5 more authors.
Reproduction | Year: 2013

Sub-par fertility in bulls is influenced by alterations in sperm chromatin, and it might not be solved with increased sperm concentration in artificial insemination. Appropriate histone retention during sperm chromatin condensation plays critical roles in male fertility. The objective of this study was to determine failures of sperm chromatin condensation associated with abnormal persistence or accessibility of histones by aniline blue (ANBL) test, expression levels, and cellular localizations of one variant and two core histones (H3.3, H2B, and H4 respectively) in the spermatozoa of low-fertility (LF) vs high-fertility (HF) bulls. The expression levels and cellular localizations of histones in spermatozoa were studied using immunoblotting, immunocytochemistry, and staining methods. The bioinformatics focused on the sequence identity and evolutionary distance of these proteins among three mammalian species: bovine, mouse, and human. We demonstrated that ANBL staining was different within the LF (1.73 (0.55, 0.19)) and HF (0.67 (0.17, 0.06)) groups (P<0.0001), which was also negatively correlated with in vivo bull fertility (r= - 0.90, P<0.0001). Although these histones were consistently detectable and specifically localized in bull sperm cells, they were not different between the two groups. Except H2B variants, H3.3 and H4 showed 100% identity and were evolutionarily conserved in bulls, mice and humans. The H2B variants were more conserved between bulls and humans, than in mice. In conclusion, we showed that H2B, H3.3, and H4 were detectable in bull spermatozoa and that sperm chromatin condensation status, changed by histone retention, is related to bull fertility. © 2013 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.


Uzbas F.,Helmholtz Center Munich | May I.D.,Mississippi State University | Parisi A.M.,Mississippi State University | Thompson S.K.,Mississippi State University | And 3 more authors.
Stem Cell Reviews and Reports | Year: 2015

Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASC) are multipotent with abilities to differentiate into multiple lineages including connective tissue and neural cells. Despite unlimited opportunity and needs for human and veterinary regenerative medicine, applications of adipose-derived stromal/stem cells are at present very limited. Furthermore, the fundamental biological factors regulating stemness in ASC and their stable differentiation into other tissue cells are not fully understood. The objective of this review was to provide an update on the current knowledge of the nature and isolation, molecular and epigenetic determinants of the potency, and applications of adipose-derived stromal/stem cells, as well as challenges and future directions. The first quarter of the review focuses on the nature of ASC, namely their definition, origin, isolation and sorting methods and multilineage differentiation potential, often with a comparison to mesenchymal stem cells of bone marrow. Due to the indisputable role of epigenetic regulation on cell identities, epigenetic modifications (DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling and microRNAs) are described broadly in stem cells but with a focus on ASC. The final sections provide insights into the current and potential applications of ASC in human and veterinary regenerative medicine. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Feugang J.M.,Mississippi State University | Rodriguez-Osorio N.,University of Antioquia | Kaya A.,Alta Genetics Inc. | Wang H.,Mississippi State University | And 4 more authors.
Reproductive BioMedicine Online | Year: 2010

Spermatozoa deliver more than the paternal genome into the oocyte; they also carry remnant messenger RNA from spermatogenesis. The RNA profiles of spermatozoa from high-fertility and a low-fertility Holstein bulls were analysed using Affymetrix bovine genechips. A total of 415 transcripts out of approximately 24,000 were differentially detected in spermatozoa collected from both bulls (fold change ≥2.0; P < 0.01). These transcripts were associated with different cellular functions and biological processes. Spermatozoa from high-fertility bulls contained higher concentrations of transcripts for membrane and extracellular space protein locations, while spermatozoa from the low-fertility bulls were deficient of transcripts for transcriptional and translational factors. Quantitative real-time PCR was used on three low-fertility and four high-fertility bulls to validate the microarray data. Two highly represented transcripts in the microarray analysis (protamine 1 and casein beta 2) were validated, as well as a third transcript (thrombospondin receptor CD36 molecule) that showed a lower concentration in low-fertility bulls. This study presents the global analysis of spermatozoa originating from bulls with opposite fertility. These results provide some specific transcripts in spermatozoa that could be associated with bull fertility. © 2010, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Govindaraju A.,Mississippi State University | Dogan S.,Mississippi State University | Rodriguez-Osorio N.,University of Antioquia | Grant K.,Mississippi State University | And 2 more authors.
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2012

Fertilization of an egg by a spermatozoon sets the stage for mammalian development. Viable sperm are a prerequisite for successful fertilization and beyond. Spermatozoa have a unique cell structure where haploid genomic DNA is located in a tiny cytoplasmic space in the head, mitochondria in the midpiece and then the tail, all enclosed by several layers of membrane. Proteins in sperm play vital roles in motility, capacitation, fertilization, egg activation and embryo development. Molecular defects in these proteins are associated with low fertility or in some cases, infertility. This review will first summarize genesis, molecular anatomy and physiology of spermatozoa, fertilization, embryogenesis and then those proteins playing important roles in various aspects of sperm physiology. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

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