AlPlanta IPR

Neustadt an der Weinstraße, Germany

AlPlanta IPR

Neustadt an der Weinstraße, Germany

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Etropolska A.,AlPlanta IPR | Etropolska A.,University of Forestry | Jarausch W.,AlPlanta IPR | Jarausch B.,AlPlanta IPR | Trenchev G.,University of Forestry
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2015

Apple proliferation (AP), caused by ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’, European stone fruit yellows (ESFY), caused by ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum’ and Pear decline (PD) caused by ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri’ are one of the most important fruit tree diseases in Europe, but their distribution in Bulgaria is not well known. During 2010 - 2013, the presence and the spread of the fruit tree phytoplasmas and their vectors were investigated in one of the major fruit tree growing regions in Bulgaria. All psyllid species described as vectors of fruit tree phytoplasmas were present in the investigated areas. Phytoplasma infection in plant and psyllid samples was analyzed by universal and specific PCR. A total of 86 plant samples and 1569 insect samples obtained from 11 different sites were tested. As result, all three phytoplasmas were detected in their hosts and vectors in five different geographical regions of Bulgaria. This is the first report of ‘Ca. P. mali’ and ‘Ca. P. pyri’ in Sofia region as well as of ‘Ca. P. prunorum’ in Sofia and Kjustendil regions. This is also the first report of a ‘Ca. P. pyri’ detection in Cacopsylla bidens which might be a further vector of PD. © 2015, National Centre for Agrarian Sciences. All rights reserved.


Jarausch W.,AlPlanta IPR | Bisognin C.,Research And Innovation Center Fondazione chinery | Schneider B.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Grando S.,Research And Innovation Center Fondazione chinery | And 2 more authors.
Bulletin of Insectology | Year: 2011

To develop apple proliferation (AP) resistant rootstocks, a breeding program was initiated in 2001 employing apomictic Malus sieboldii and M. sieboldii-derived hybrids as donors of the resistance trait and mainly standard apple rootstock Malus x domestica cv. M9 as donor of agronomic values. Examination of the experimentally inoculated progeny of seven crossings made in 2001 and 2002 over a period of seven to eight years showed that inheritance of resistance differs considerably among the parental lines by yielding between 10 to 55% of resistant offspring. Resistant rootstocks were characterized by poor host properties for the AP phytoplasma. This is evidenced by lower phytoplasma titers in resistant genotypes than in standard stock M9 and by preventing detectable phytoplasma development in the top grafted susceptible cv. Golden Delicious. At the end of the observation period, 80% of the root samples collected from resistant rootstocks tested PCR-negative. Size and productivity of trees grown on resistant rootstocks varied over a wide range. A preliminary pomological evaluation was done on the cv. Golden Delicious which has been grafted as infected scion on the progeny genotypes to test. Comparisons with trees grown on M9 rootstocks indicated that there are genotypes among the offspring examined that fulfill the requirements of commercial apple growing.


Etropolska A.,AlPlanta IPR | Etropolska A.,University of Forestry | Jarausch B.,AlPlanta IPR | Trenchev G.,University of Forestry | Jarausch W.,AlPlanta IPR
Bulletin of Insectology | Year: 2011

The spread and the frequency of individuals from the psyllid genus Cacopsylla has been investigated in spring 2011 in four fruit tree orchards in three different regions of Bulgaria. Insects were captured and identified morphologically for species determination. Phytoplasma infection in psyllid samples was analysed by universal and specific PCR. All psyllid species described as vectors of fruit tree phytoplasmas were present in the investigated areas. Four individuals of Cacopsylla pruni from two different regions were carrying 'Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum', the agent of European stone fruit yellows (ESFY). This is the first ESFY detection in these regions in Bulgaria.


Etropolska A.,AlPlanta IPR | Etropolska A.,University of Forestry | Jarausch B.,AlPlanta IPR | Herdemertens M.,AlPlanta IPR | Jarausch W.,AlPlanta IPR
Bulletin of Insectology | Year: 2011

Pear decline (PD) is an economically highly important disease in many pear growing regions. It is associated with a phytoplasma of the 16Sr group X: 'Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri'. Despite its importance, reliable detection primers for direct identification of the pathogen by PCR are missing. Available PD-specific primers in the 16S-23S rDNA sequence detected only 80% of PDinfected field-collected samples from Southwest Germany. In order to select new primers sequence data of the 16S-23S rDNA region were obtained for two strains of 'Ca. P. pyri'. PD-specific primers were selected in silico and their specificity was tested with reference strains of the 16Sr group X. They proved to be highly specific for 'Ca. P. pyri'. The reliability of the primers for PD detection was evaluated with field samples of pear. The detection rate could be improved up to 90% with respect to phytoplasma detection in the same samples with highly sensitive universal ribosomal primers.


Etropolska A.,AlPlanta IPR | Etropolska A.,University of Forestry | Jarausch W.,AlPlanta IPR | Jarausch B.,AlPlanta IPR | Trenchev G.,University of Forestry
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2016

European fruit tree phytoplasmas diseases apple proliferation, pear decline and European stone fruit yellows are among the most important and rapidly spreading diseases in Bulgaria. Their causal agents ‘Ca. Phytoplasma mali’, ‘Ca. Phytoplasma pyri’ and ‘Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum’ and their known and putative vectors have been identified in Bulgaria recently. This is the first report about the molecular characterisation of the phytoplasma vector species Cacopsylla pruni Scopoli and Cacopsylla melanoneura (Foerster) in Bulgaria. The results confirmed the presence of Cacopsylla pruni type B in all Bulgarian samples and demonstrated a genetic variability among C. melanoneura specimen. For the first time, genetic variants WI and WOI were described outside Italy, but a relative high number of C. melanoneura could not be characterised by this molecular typing approach. Molecular identification of Cacopsylla affinis, a potential vector of different fruit tree phytoplasmas, proofed to be reliable. © 2016, National Centre for Agrarian Sciences. All rights reserved.

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