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Richardson-Harman N.,Alpha StatConsult LLC | Mauck C.,CONRAD | McGowan I.,University of Pittsburgh | Anton P.,University of California at Los Angeles
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses | Year: 2012

A retrospective correlational analysis of UC781 (0.1, 0.25%) gel pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) was undertaken using data generated in the RMP-01/MTN-006 Phase 1 rectal safety study of the UC781 microbicide gel, where strong UC781-related inhibition of ex vivo biopsy infectibility (PD) was seen. Precision analysis, linear and logistical correlational methods were applied to model the dose-response relationship. Four analyses of explant virus growth were compared to determine tissue concentrations of UC781 needed to maintain ex vivo virus growth below a range of cut-points. SOFT, a cross-sectional index from a growth curve, and cumulative p24 endpoints were the most precise measurement of ex vivo HIV infection and significantly (p<0.01) correlated with rectal tissue UC781 concentrations. Cut-points reflecting infectibility, ranging from 200 to 1300 p24pg/ml, provided EC50,90,95 tissue levels of UC781. A cut-point of 200 p24pg/ml provided an EC50 of 2148 UC781ng/g tissue; a cut-point of 1100 p24 predicted a lower EC50 of 101 UC781ng/g. A 30- to 170-fold EC 90:EC50 ratio was found. Higher p24 cut-points provided more predictive models. Tissue UC781 levels and ex vivo infectibility data were correlated to model dose-response drug efficacy in this small Phase 1 trial. Logistic regression analyses showed EC50,90,95 values were inversely related to p24 cut-point levels, providing clinically relevant insights into tissue drug concentration necessary for ex vivo suppression of HIV tissue infectibility. This first PK-PD assessment of topical microbicides demonstrates feasibility in Phase 1 trials, enabling comparisons of microbicide efficacy (i.e., EC50,90,95) between formulations, compartments, and application methods. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Mcgowan I.,University of Pittsburgh | Mcgowan I.,Magee Womens Research Institute | Cranston R.D.,University of Pittsburgh | Duffill K.,Magee Womens Research Institute | And 19 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Objectives: The CHARM-01 study characterized the safety, acceptability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of three tenofovir (TFV) gels for rectal application. The vaginal formulation (VF) gel was previously used in the CAPRISA 004 and VOICE vaginal microbicide Phase 2B trials and the RMP-02/MTN-006 Phase 1 rectal safety study. The reduced glycerin VF (RGVF) gel was used in the MTN-007 Phase 1 rectal microbicide trial and is currently being evaluated in the MTN-017 Phase 2 rectal microbicide trial. A third rectal specific formulation (RF) gel was also evaluated in the CHARM-01 study. Methods: Participants received 4 mL of the three TFV gels in a blinded, crossover design: seven daily doses of RGVF, seven daily doses of RF, and six daily doses of placebo followed by one dose of VF, in a randomized sequence. Safety, acceptability, compartmental PK, and explant PD were monitored throughout the trial. Results: All three gels were found to be safe and acceptable. RF and RGVF PK were not significantly different. Median mucosal mononuclear cell (MMC) TFV-DP trended toward higher values for RF compared to RGVF (1136 and 320 fmol/106 cells respectively). Use of each gel in vivo was associated with significant inhibition of ex vivo colorectal tissue HIV infection. There was also a significant negative correlation between the tissue levels of TFV, tissue TFV-DP, MMC TFV-DP, rectal fluid TFV, and explant HIV-1 infection. Conclusions: All three formulations were found to be safe and acceptable. However, the safety profile of the VF gel was only based on exposure to one dose whereas participants received seven doses of the RGVF and RF gels. There was a trend towards higher tissue MMC levels of TFV-DP associated with use of the RF gel. Use of all gels was associated with significant inhibition of ex vivo tissue HIV infection. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01575405. © 2015, Public Library of Science. All rights reserved. Source

Hendrix C.,Johns Hopkins University | Bumpus N.,Johns Hopkins University | Elliott J.,University of California at Los Angeles | Tanner K.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

This Phase 1, randomized, two-site (United States), double-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled 18 sexually abstinent men and women. All received a single 300-mg dose of oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and were then randomized 2:1 to receive single and then seven daily rectal exposures of vaginally-formulated tenofovir (TFV) 1% gel or a hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) placebo gel. Blood, colonic biopsies and rectal and vaginal mucosal fluids were collected after the single oral TDF, the single topical TFV gel dose, and after 7 days of topical TFV gel dosing for extracellular analysis of TFV and intracellular analysis of the active metabolite tenofovir diphosphate (TFVdp) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and isolated mucosal mononuclear cells (MMC), including CD4+ and CD4- cell subsets. With a single rectal dose, TFV plasma concentrations were 24-33 fold lower and half-life was 5 h shorter compared to a single oral dose (p = 0.02). TFVdp concentrations were also undetectable in PBMCs with rectal dosing. Rectal tissue exposure to both TFV and TFVdp was 2 to 4-log10 higher after a single rectal dose compared to a single oral dose, and after 7 daily doses, TFVdp accumulated 4.5 fold in tissue. TFVdp in rectal tissue homogenate was predictive (residual standard error, RSE = 0.47) of tissue MMC intracellular TFVdp concentration, with the CD4+ cells having a 2-fold higher TFVdp concentration than CD4- cells. TFV concentrations from rectal sponges was a modest surrogate indicator for both rectal tissue TFV and TFVdp (RSE = 0.67, 0.66, respectively) and plasma TFV (RSE = 0.38). TFV penetrates into the vaginal cavity after oral and rectal dosing, with rectal dosing leading to higher vaginal TFV concentrations (p<0.01). © 2014 Yang et al. Source

Richardson-Harman N.,Alpha StatConsult LLC | Hendrix C.W.,Johns Hopkins University | Bumpus N.N.,Johns Hopkins University | Mauck C.,CONRAD | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Design: Phase 1, randomized, two-site (US), double-blind, placebo-controlled study of sexually-abstinent males and females.Methods: Eighteen participants received a single 300 mg exposure of oral TDF and were then randomized 2:1 to receive a single then seven-daily rectal exposures of TFV 1% gel (40 mg TFV per 4 ml gel application) or hydroxyethyl-cellulose (HEC) placebo gel. Blood and rectal biopsies were collected for pharmacokinetic TDF and TFVdp analyses and ex vivo HIV-1 challenge.Results: There was a significant fit for the TFVdp dose-response model for rectal tissue (p = 0.0004), CD4+ MMC (p<0.0001), CD42 MMC (p<0.0001), and TotalMMC (p<0.0001) compartments with r2 ranging 0.36-0.64. Higher concentrations of TFVdp corresponded with lower p24, consistent with drug-mediated virus suppression. The single oral treatment failed to provide adequate compartment drug exposure to reach the EC50 of rectal tissue TFVdp predicted to be necessary to suppress HIV in rectal tissue. The EC50 for CD4+ MMC was within the single topical treatment range, providing evidence that a 1% topical, vaginally-formulated TFV gel provided in-vivo doses predicted to provide for 50% efficacy in the ex vivo assay. The 7-daily topical TFV gel treatment provided TFVdp concentrations that reached EC90 biopsy efficacy for CD4- MMC, CD4+ MMC and TotalMMC compartments.Conclusion: The TFVdp MMC compartment (CD4+, CD4- and Total) provided the best surrogate for biopsy infectibility and the 7-daily topical TFV gel treatment provided the strongest PK profile for HIV suppression.Objectives: This study was designed to assess the dose-response relationship between tissue, blood, vaginal and rectal compartment concentrations of tenofovir (TFV) and tenofovir diphosphate (TFVdp) and ex vivo rectal HIV suppression following oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and rectal administration of TFV 1% vaginally-formulated gel. Copyright: © 2014 Richardson-Harman et al. Source

Buchman G.W.,Chesapeake Perl | Cohen M.E.,University of Pennsylvania | Xiao Y.,University of Pennsylvania | Richardson-Harman N.,Alpha StatConsult LLC | And 6 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2010

Concerns about infections caused by orthopoxviruses, such as variola and monkeypox viruses, drive ongoing efforts to develop novel smallpox vaccines that are both effective and safe to use in diverse populations. A subunit smallpox vaccine comprising vaccinia virus membrane proteins A33, B5, L1, A27 and aluminum hydroxide (alum) ± CpG was administered to non-human primates, which were subsequently challenged with a lethal intravenous dose of monkeypox virus. Alum adjuvanted vaccines provided only partial protection but the addition of CpG provided full protection that was associated with a more homogeneous antibody response and stronger IgG1 responses. These results indicate that it is feasible to develop a highly effective subunit vaccine against orthopoxvirus infections as a safer alternative to live vaccinia virus vaccination. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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