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Stelinski L.L.,University of Florida | Czokajlo D.,Alpha Scents, Inc.
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata | Year: 2010

The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is a worldwide pest of citrus crops and is responsible for proliferation of citrus bacterial canker, Xanthomonas axonopodis (Hasse) pv. citri (Gamma Proteobacteria: Xanthomonadaceae). We developed and evaluated an attracticide formulation, termed MalEx, for control of P. citrella. MalEx is a viscous paste with UV-protective properties that is dispensed as 50-μl droplets using custom-made calibrated pumps. A formulation containing 0.016%P. citrella pheromone [3:1 blend of (Z,Z,E)-7,11,13-hexadecatrienal and (Z,Z)-7,11-hexadecadienal] and 6% permethrin was found to suppress male response to pheromone in the field better than formulations containing 10× less pheromone. Although formulations without permethrin showed some suppression of male activity because of mating disruption, addition of 6% permethrin to the formulation was required for optimal efficacy. When MalEx, containing 0.016% pheromone and 6% permethrin, was applied at 3 000 point sources ha-1, the application height did not influence efficacy of male P. citrella suppression within mature 4-m tall citrus trees. Decreasing the rate of MalEx from 3 000 to 1 500 droplets ha-1 reduced efficacy as measured by both male P. citrella activity and larval infestation. Although 4 500 droplets ha-1 did not result in statistically better efficacy than 3 000 droplets ha-1, there was a noticeable trend for higher efficacy as droplet density increased. Continuous treatment of 0.5-ha blocks of citrus with MalEx over the course of 112 days reduced larval infestation of new flush, as compared with those in untreated control plots, by 3.6-7.2× depending on droplet application density. In laboratory behavioral bioassays, the attractiveness of MalEx droplets to male P. citrella was drastically reduced after 21 days of field aging. However, our laboratory investigation confirmed that 100% of males contacting MalEx droplets, aged up to 35 days in the field, were killed within 24 h. Direct observation of male P. citrella behavior in the field confirmed that attracted males made contact with droplets. Control of P. citrella with MalEx should reduce the number of required broad spectrum sprays for leafminer management in both field and citrus nursery settings. © 2009 The Netherlands Entomological Society. Source

Sukovata L.,Forest Research Institute | Czokajlo D.,Alpha Scents, Inc. | Kolk A.,Forest Research Institute | Slusarski S.,Forest Research Institute | Jablonski T.,Forest Research Institute
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2011

This study estimates the efficacy of an attract-and-kill (A&K) technique to control the horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae), an invasive insect pest of the horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae). The A&K formulation was dispensed as 50 μl droplets of paste-like matrix, containing C. ohridella sex pheromone, (8E,10Z)-tetradeca-8,10-dienal (85% + pure; 0. 16% w/w) and a fast acting contact toxicant, pyrocides (94% pure; 6% w/w), applied directly to the bark of the trees. It was tested in 2003 at rates of 30 and 45 droplets/tree at the Ostrobramska site and at rates of 30, 60 and 90 droplets/tree at the Woloska site in Warsaw, Poland, for the first insect generation. A set of untreated plots (0 droplets/tree) was established at each site as well. The treatment efficacy was estimated using two indices: (1) moth catches in pheromone traps and (2) the number of mines per leaf. Trap catches were significantly higher in the untreated plots than in the treated plots regardless of the application rate in all sites. However, there were no significant differences in leaf damage amongst all plots on each site. At the "Lazienki Krolewskie" park the attractiveness of two types of pheromone sources were compared: traps were baited with rubber septum lures or with A&K droplets. The catches of C. ohridella in traps baited with lures were lower than captures in A&K droplet-baited traps, but the difference was not significant. Possible reasons for the low efficacy of the A&K method in management of C. ohridella and reducing leaf damage are discussed. © 2010 The Author(s). Source

Agency: Department of Agriculture | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2014

The goal of this proposal is to develop host-plant attractants that Potato Psyllid (PP) utilize to find and colonize host plants. PP exhibits a marked preference for potato volatiles and trough feeding process changes composition of the volatile blend. Semiochemicals (host-plant volatiles) are commonly used to manipulate insect behaviors in IPM programs such as monitoring insect pest populations for timing of insecticide applications and control strategies such as attract-and-kill (Killing Stations). This research will be focused on the formulation of several previously tested plant volatiles that attract both sexes of PP. In preliminary tests in 2013 no-mess Yellow Sticky Traps (Alpha Scents) baited with kairomone-based lures attracted two times more insects than unbaited traps. The specific deliverables of this project include a potent long-range chemical attractant and an accurate and efficient trapping device for PP. We will use field behavioral assays to identify the best blends and release rates of plant volatiles. Reliable detection of psyllid presence prior to population outbreaks will allow for better timing of pesticide applications and may decrease unnecessary prophylactic treatments. We will also develop an effective Killing Station system that could supplement or reduce the need for multiple seasonal sprays of broadcast insecticides for PP. The input of broad-spectrum insecticides for pest management in potato and tomato fields has increased dramatically since the discovery of Zebra Chips - a disease that poses a serious biotic threat to these crops. Identification and improvement of plant-attractants and development of effective monitoring and attract- & amp;-kill devices for PP should improve management while concurrently reducing the need for broad-spectrum pesticide sprays.

Agency: Department of Agriculture | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2014

Project Title:Monitoring and attract and kill systems to control ambrosia beetles vectoring the laurel wilt disease in avocado and other Lauraceae.Technical AbstractProduction of avocado in Florida is valued at $30 million a year, accounting for twelve percent of the national production. This industry consists of 7,500 acres and about 940 producers/handlers and thousands of employees. The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus vectors the fungal pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt (LW), a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae, including the most commercially important crop in this family, avocado, Persea americana. Another eight ambrosia beetle species from genus: Xuleborus, Xyleborinus and Xylosandrus species have been identified as potential vectors of the disease. Effective IPM tactics should be aimed at the control and management of all vectors of the disease.RAB and other ambrosia beetles are currently controlled with insecticidal sprays of diseased avocado trees or their removal. Effective semiochemical-based management tactics are not available for these ambrosia beetles. Survey and detection methods depend on non-efficient, expensive and not easily accessible trap-and-lure system (especially that of insect traps). If successful, efficient LW-vector insect trapping systems will accelerate detection of incipient infestations and facilitate sensitive pest monitoring during and after eradication programs. Semiochemical-based monitoring systems are standard tools for the measurement of progress and success of eradication efforts targeting other exotic pests of national importance.Anticipated Results/Potential Commercial Applications of ResearchThe long-term goals of this research project are the development of an effective monitoring system (trap and lure) and Killing Station for ambrosia beetles vectoring the laurel wilt disease. To accomplish this, we will test the efficacy of known kairomonal host volatiles, determine which trap designs are most effective for monitoring the pest and conduct preliminary tests of prototype Killing Stations.

Agency: Department of Agriculture | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 84.04K | Year: 2010

The citrus leafminer (CLM), Phyllocnistis citrella, Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is an exotic pest of citrus originally found in Florida in 1993 followed by Texas in 1994. Feeding damage by CLM predisposes trees to citrus canker. Loss of citrus crop caused by canker is estimated at 10% of a total $1.3 billion on-tree value for all citrus in the U.S. Until recently, only pesticidal sprays were used to control CLM. The situation changed, however, when a new pheromone for CLM was identified. This pheromone can be used in semiochemical-based CLM management techniques such as Attract&Kill or Mating Disruption. The pheromone, which is not commercially available, is difficult and extremely expensive to synthesize. Current estimated manufacturing cost of CLM based on published procedures is $200,000 per kg. At this cost of the pheromone, its use in semiochemical-based management techniques is too costly. In this project, we intend to develop a simplified, less expensive, and scaled up synthetic pathway for the citrus leafminer pheromone.

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