West Linn, OR, United States
West Linn, OR, United States
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Stelinski L.L.,University of Florida | Czokajlo D.,Alpha Scents, Inc.
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata | Year: 2010

The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is a worldwide pest of citrus crops and is responsible for proliferation of citrus bacterial canker, Xanthomonas axonopodis (Hasse) pv. citri (Gamma Proteobacteria: Xanthomonadaceae). We developed and evaluated an attracticide formulation, termed MalEx, for control of P. citrella. MalEx is a viscous paste with UV-protective properties that is dispensed as 50-μl droplets using custom-made calibrated pumps. A formulation containing 0.016%P. citrella pheromone [3:1 blend of (Z,Z,E)-7,11,13-hexadecatrienal and (Z,Z)-7,11-hexadecadienal] and 6% permethrin was found to suppress male response to pheromone in the field better than formulations containing 10× less pheromone. Although formulations without permethrin showed some suppression of male activity because of mating disruption, addition of 6% permethrin to the formulation was required for optimal efficacy. When MalEx, containing 0.016% pheromone and 6% permethrin, was applied at 3 000 point sources ha-1, the application height did not influence efficacy of male P. citrella suppression within mature 4-m tall citrus trees. Decreasing the rate of MalEx from 3 000 to 1 500 droplets ha-1 reduced efficacy as measured by both male P. citrella activity and larval infestation. Although 4 500 droplets ha-1 did not result in statistically better efficacy than 3 000 droplets ha-1, there was a noticeable trend for higher efficacy as droplet density increased. Continuous treatment of 0.5-ha blocks of citrus with MalEx over the course of 112 days reduced larval infestation of new flush, as compared with those in untreated control plots, by 3.6-7.2× depending on droplet application density. In laboratory behavioral bioassays, the attractiveness of MalEx droplets to male P. citrella was drastically reduced after 21 days of field aging. However, our laboratory investigation confirmed that 100% of males contacting MalEx droplets, aged up to 35 days in the field, were killed within 24 h. Direct observation of male P. citrella behavior in the field confirmed that attracted males made contact with droplets. Control of P. citrella with MalEx should reduce the number of required broad spectrum sprays for leafminer management in both field and citrus nursery settings. © 2009 The Netherlands Entomological Society.


Sukovata L.,Forest Research Institute | Czokajlo D.,Alpha Scents, Inc. | Kolk A.,Forest Research Institute | Slusarski S.,Forest Research Institute | Jablonski T.,Forest Research Institute
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2011

This study estimates the efficacy of an attract-and-kill (A&K) technique to control the horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae), an invasive insect pest of the horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae). The A&K formulation was dispensed as 50 μl droplets of paste-like matrix, containing C. ohridella sex pheromone, (8E,10Z)-tetradeca-8,10-dienal (85% + pure; 0. 16% w/w) and a fast acting contact toxicant, pyrocides (94% pure; 6% w/w), applied directly to the bark of the trees. It was tested in 2003 at rates of 30 and 45 droplets/tree at the Ostrobramska site and at rates of 30, 60 and 90 droplets/tree at the Woloska site in Warsaw, Poland, for the first insect generation. A set of untreated plots (0 droplets/tree) was established at each site as well. The treatment efficacy was estimated using two indices: (1) moth catches in pheromone traps and (2) the number of mines per leaf. Trap catches were significantly higher in the untreated plots than in the treated plots regardless of the application rate in all sites. However, there were no significant differences in leaf damage amongst all plots on each site. At the "Lazienki Krolewskie" park the attractiveness of two types of pheromone sources were compared: traps were baited with rubber septum lures or with A&K droplets. The catches of C. ohridella in traps baited with lures were lower than captures in A&K droplet-baited traps, but the difference was not significant. Possible reasons for the low efficacy of the A&K method in management of C. ohridella and reducing leaf damage are discussed. © 2010 The Author(s).


Cowell B.,Missouri State University | Reut M.,Missouri State University | Reut M.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences | Johnson D.T.,University of Arkansas | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2012

Green June beetle, Cotinis nitida (L.), is an important pest of grapes, peaches, blackberries, blueberries, apples, and pears. Currently, there is no inexpensive, commercially available lure or trap that could serve monitoring green June beetle adults. The objective of this study was to develop and optimize an inexpensive bottle trap baited with isopropanol to attract and capture green June beetle adults. Bottle traps baited with 8 mm diameter cotton wicked dispensers emitted from 9 to 43 ml isopropanol in 48 h and maintained that alcohol at a fairly constant concentration compared with the prototypical bottle trap with large surface evaporation of isopropanol poured into the bottom of the trap. Over 5 d, the isopropanol in the wicked dispensers remained at the same stable concentration of 45-44.5%, whereas isopropanol concentration in the bottom of prototypical traps dropped from 45% to ≈11% after 24 h and to 0.2% by 48 h. Bottle traps with isopropanol dispensers and cotton wicks of 4, 6, or 8 mm in diameter caught significantly more green June beetles than did prototypical bottle traps with no dispensers. Isopropanol concentrations of 45.5, 66, and 91% attracted more green June beetle adults than the lower concentrations. Significantly more green June beetle adults were attracted to traps with dispensers set at 1.3 m height than those at lower heights, and traps topped with a blue, orange, or white band captured more green June beetle adults than those with bands of other colors. The optimized bottle trap is made from recycled transparent polyethylene terephthalate beverage bottle (710-ml; 24 oz.) with a blue, orange, or white band, baited with an 8 mm cotton wick dispenser of 45.5% isopropanol and hung at a height of 1.3 m. Cost and uses for this trap are discussed. © 2012 Entomological Society of America.


Grant
Agency: Department of Agriculture | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2014

The goal of this proposal is to develop host-plant attractants that Potato Psyllid (PP) utilize to find and colonize host plants. PP exhibits a marked preference for potato volatiles and trough feeding process changes composition of the volatile blend. Semiochemicals (host-plant volatiles) are commonly used to manipulate insect behaviors in IPM programs such as monitoring insect pest populations for timing of insecticide applications and control strategies such as attract-and-kill (Killing Stations). This research will be focused on the formulation of several previously tested plant volatiles that attract both sexes of PP. In preliminary tests in 2013 no-mess Yellow Sticky Traps (Alpha Scents) baited with kairomone-based lures attracted two times more insects than unbaited traps. The specific deliverables of this project include a potent long-range chemical attractant and an accurate and efficient trapping device for PP. We will use field behavioral assays to identify the best blends and release rates of plant volatiles. Reliable detection of psyllid presence prior to population outbreaks will allow for better timing of pesticide applications and may decrease unnecessary prophylactic treatments. We will also develop an effective Killing Station system that could supplement or reduce the need for multiple seasonal sprays of broadcast insecticides for PP. The input of broad-spectrum insecticides for pest management in potato and tomato fields has increased dramatically since the discovery of Zebra Chips - a disease that poses a serious biotic threat to these crops. Identification and improvement of plant-attractants and development of effective monitoring and attract- & amp;-kill devices for PP should improve management while concurrently reducing the need for broad-spectrum pesticide sprays.


Grant
Agency: Department of Agriculture | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2014

Project Title:Monitoring and attract and kill systems to control ambrosia beetles vectoring the laurel wilt disease in avocado and other Lauraceae.Technical AbstractProduction of avocado in Florida is valued at $30 million a year, accounting for twelve percent of the national production. This industry consists of 7,500 acres and about 940 producers/handlers and thousands of employees. The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus vectors the fungal pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt (LW), a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae, including the most commercially important crop in this family, avocado, Persea americana. Another eight ambrosia beetle species from genus: Xuleborus, Xyleborinus and Xylosandrus species have been identified as potential vectors of the disease. Effective IPM tactics should be aimed at the control and management of all vectors of the disease.RAB and other ambrosia beetles are currently controlled with insecticidal sprays of diseased avocado trees or their removal. Effective semiochemical-based management tactics are not available for these ambrosia beetles. Survey and detection methods depend on non-efficient, expensive and not easily accessible trap-and-lure system (especially that of insect traps). If successful, efficient LW-vector insect trapping systems will accelerate detection of incipient infestations and facilitate sensitive pest monitoring during and after eradication programs. Semiochemical-based monitoring systems are standard tools for the measurement of progress and success of eradication efforts targeting other exotic pests of national importance.Anticipated Results/Potential Commercial Applications of ResearchThe long-term goals of this research project are the development of an effective monitoring system (trap and lure) and Killing Station for ambrosia beetles vectoring the laurel wilt disease. To accomplish this, we will test the efficacy of known kairomonal host volatiles, determine which trap designs are most effective for monitoring the pest and conduct preliminary tests of prototype Killing Stations.


Grant
Agency: Department of Agriculture | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 89.69K | Year: 2010

Green June beetle (GJB), Cotinis nitida, is an important pest of grapes, peaches, apples and all brambles. The beetles feed on the ripe fruit and inoculate it with fungi which cause fruit decay. As much as 80% of the fruit can be destroyed. Mass GJB outbreaks occur when the fruit is ready for harvest, thus the growers cannot use insecticide sprays (Pre-harvest and re-entry intervals extend beyond the time of the harvest). Available control measures are exclusion nets, planting sacrificial trap crop plots selectively sprayed to eliminate GJB in the area, and timely harvesting and removal of rotting fruit (which attracts this insect). Such control measures require planning ahead and forecasting dynamics of local GJB populations. Models forecasting the time and the dynamics of GJB outbreaks has not been developed and economic and effective population monitoring tools for GJB do not exist. Lures are at the stage of development, traps are very expensive (up to $26 a piece). One of the applicants has developed an inexpensive prototype of a GJB monitoring trap, and successfully used it in a study on GJB sexual dimorphism. All components of this trap prototype (including the lure) are inexpensive and available in local markets. We propose development of 1) effective controlled-release formulation for GJB attractants, 2) monitoring trap easy to manufacture by grower that can be coupled with a degree-day model predicting GJB flight, and 3) a novel, inexpensive, environmentally-friendly, easily deployed killing station.


Grant
Agency: Department of Agriculture | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 84.04K | Year: 2010

The citrus leafminer (CLM), Phyllocnistis citrella, Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is an exotic pest of citrus originally found in Florida in 1993 followed by Texas in 1994. Feeding damage by CLM predisposes trees to citrus canker. Loss of citrus crop caused by canker is estimated at 10% of a total $1.3 billion on-tree value for all citrus in the U.S. Until recently, only pesticidal sprays were used to control CLM. The situation changed, however, when a new pheromone for CLM was identified. This pheromone can be used in semiochemical-based CLM management techniques such as Attract&Kill or Mating Disruption. The pheromone, which is not commercially available, is difficult and extremely expensive to synthesize. Current estimated manufacturing cost of CLM based on published procedures is $200,000 per kg. At this cost of the pheromone, its use in semiochemical-based management techniques is too costly. In this project, we intend to develop a simplified, less expensive, and scaled up synthetic pathway for the citrus leafminer pheromone.


Grant
Agency: Department of Agriculture | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 400.00K | Year: 2010

The citrus leafminer (CLM) is an important pest of citrus originally found in Florida in 1993 and in Texas in 1994; currently, CLM has spread through most citrus growing regions of the US. Larval-stage feeding results in serious damage to leaves and predisposes trees to citrus canker. Female CLM release their pheromone to attract males for mating. Alpha Scents Phase I research has proved the technical feasibility for the pheromone-based Attract and Kill (A&K), MalEx CLM targeting citrus leafminer. Phase I research characterized application timing, placement, formulation longevity, and behavioral efficacy against this species. In Phase II, we propose commercial scale trials in collaboration with citrus growers in Florida, Texas, and California. A&K technology selectively removes male moths of the target species from the ecosystem with negligible impact on other organisms by combining the selectivity of pheromones (0.024 g/ha) with the toxicity of insecticide (21 g/ha) in a hydrophobic bait that precludes run-off or drift, thus preventing ecosystem contamination and damage.


Grant
Agency: Department of Agriculture | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 80.00K | Year: 2009

The citrus leafminer (CLM), Phyllocnistis citrella, Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is an important pest of citrus originally found in Florida in 1993 and in Texas in 1994. Feeding by the larval stage results in serious damage to leaves and predisposes trees to citrus canker. Female CLM release their pheromone to attract males for mating. Attract and Kill (A&K) is the practice of deploying synthetic copies of moth pheromones in combination with insecticide into the crop in form of tiny droplets. Each droplet is a decoy female. Male moths approach and touch the droplet with intent to mate and subsequently die from intoxication by the insecticide, permethrin. The mating is prevented and subsequently there is no crop damage. A&K has been practiced and refined for almost 3 decades and is widely used throughout the world for moth, beetle, flies and other pest control in a variety of agricultural crops and forestry, and public and animal health sector. This proposal intends to develop MalEx, an effective semiochemical-based Attract and Kill formulation for control of citrus leafminer.


Grant
Agency: Department of Agriculture | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2016

The goal of this proposal is to increase the population of the Square-necked Grain Beetle (SNGB), Cathartus quadricollis, in coffee plantations by developing breeding stations that use pheromones and food source odors to increase the population of this predator of Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei, (CBB). SNGB is a major predator of the CBB which causes significant damage to coffee in all coffee growing regions of the world, including Hawaii.Semiochemicals, including pheromones, are commonly used to manipulate insect behaviors in IPM programs such as monitoring insect pest populations for timing of insecticide applications and control strategies such as attract-and-kill and mating disruption. The use of predators to control pests has been widely used for decades in reducing pest damage. Prior research done by the colloborators on this project has shown that SNGB are attracted to Quadrilure and that they are prey on CBB. It is possbible that SNGB may be a useful tool in controlling Coffee Berry Borer. The focus of the research will be to determine if we can augment the population of SNGB and if they will remain in the plantation in sufficnet numbers so that they can be effective in helping to control CBB. If succesful and we are able to augment the population of SNGB within coffee plantations by attracting them to a station with a combination of pheromone and food source order and they remain in the plantation, this could help reduce damage attributable to CBB and reliance on pesticide or fungal control products.

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