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Sharip Z.,National Water Research Institute | Yanagawa R.,Iwate University | Terasawa T.,Alpha Hydraulic Engineering Consultants Co.
Environmental Modeling and Assessment | Year: 2016

In this study, we coupled a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model with an ecosystem model and applied it to the shallow complex floodplain wetland of Chini Lake in Malaysia. Our objective was to provide a better understanding of the lake’s ecosystem dynamics under different forcing mechanisms. Simulations and validation were performed over a dry month period. Wind speed ranged between 0 and 7.7 m s−1, whilst air temperature ranged between 22.0 and 35.6 °C. Advective transport driven by wind stress was the dominant physical force that shaped the water quality variations during the dry season. Convective circulation intermittently influenced the circulation during calm conditions. Nutrient concentration and stratification of dissolved oxygen (DO) varied between the lakes. Wind events saw patterns of the surface DO concentrations move spatially in the direction of the wind. The ecosystem model simulation suggested that the water quality in Chini Lake was influenced by macrophyte production, although the dissolved and particulate organic carbon accounted for the major fraction of organic matter content in the lake. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

Nishi T.,Alpha Hydraulic Engineering Consultants Co. | Lemckert C.,Griffith University | Hayashi K.,Alpha Hydraulic Engineering Consultants Co. | Yamada F.,Kumamoto University
Proceedings of the Coastal Engineering Conference | Year: 2010

The in-situ Lagrangian-Acoustic Drogue (LAD) presented by Schacht and Lemckert (2007) for monitoring the temporal and spatial distributions of both the current and the suspended sediment concentration within the estuary environments has been modified to operate in the shallow water intertidal regions. The new drogue, called the LAD for Inter-Tidal environments (LAD-IT), is equipped with a Global Positioning System (GPS), a small Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) and nephelometer. The small ADCP, which did not have a bottom tracking facility, was used to maximize the range of depths the LAD-IT could operate over. The accuracy of a vertical current profile measured using the LAD-IT was examined through the laboratory experiments conducted at an outdoor stream pool in Kumamoto, Japan, with uni-directional flow conditions, and through the field experiments conducted within an intertidal zone of Ariake Sound in Kumamot, Japan, with multi-directional flow conditions. Under uni- directional flow conditions the current profile was measured within 7% accuracy by summing the surface current velocity calculated using GPS tracking and the relative current profile measured using ADCP. Under multi-directional flow conditions, such as those of tide and wind-induced wave fields, the current profile agreed within 5% accuracy. This was partly because both Eulerian and Lagrangian mass transport velocities under these conditions were on the order of 1cm/s, and thus the error value was very small. The temporal and spatial distributions of both the current velocity and the suspended sediment concentration were also measured using the LAD-IT on the Brisbane River, Australia under uni-directional flow conditions. The field observation results support the conventional concept of the suspended sediment as a vertical balance between downward suspended sediment settling and upward turbulent diffusion fluxes. The results indicate the LAD-IT is adequate for estimating the sediment settling velocity in the field. Source

Hayashi K.,Chiyoda Corporation | Hashimoto K.,Alpha Hydraulic Engineering Consultants Co. | Yagisawa K.,Alpha Hydraulic Engineering Consultants Co. | Kobayashi N.,University of Delaware
Proceedings of the Coastal Engineering Conference | Year: 2010

Notsukezaki Sand Spit is the longest sand spit in Japan and the wave and morphological characteristics vary along the spit. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the morphological changes of the sand spit for long-term and mid-term field observations and aerial photos. The natural and morphological characteristics are investigated based on the field observations and aerial photos for a long-term period (decades). The regional sediment budget is estimated using the shoreline changes and the result of wave hindcast simulation for five years. Finally, the cross-shore beach processes are examined using the numerical model, CSHORE. Source

Kameyama S.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Shimazaki H.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Nohara S.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Sato T.,Alpha Hydraulic Engineering Consultants Co. | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Environmental Sciences | Year: 2013

The downstream impact of dams is a complex problem in watershed management. In the upper Mekong River watershed and its main channel, dam construction projects were started in the 1950s to meet increasing demands for energy and food production. Dams called the Mekong Cascade were completed on the Mekong River in China, the Manwan Dam in 1996 and the Dachaoshan Dam in 2003. We evaluated the impact of the Manwan Dam and its related watershed development on seasonal water discharge and suspended sediment transportation using hydrological simulations of target years 1991 (before dam construction) and 2002 (after dam completion). Our study area was the main channel of the Mekong River in northern Thailand extending about 100 km downstream from the intersection of Myanmar, Thailand and Laos. We used the MIKE SHE and MIKE11 (Enterprise) models to calculate seasonal changes of water discharge and sediment transport at five points 15-35-km apart in this interval. Sediment load was calculated from a regression equation between sediment load and water discharge, using suspended sediment concentrations in monthly river water samples taken between November 2007 and November 2008. Finally we estimated annual sediment load along the study reach using from both of simulated annual hydrograph and the regression equation. Our simulations showed that after construction of the dam, there was a moderate decrease in peak discharge volume and during the rainy season in August and September and a corresponding increase in the subsequent months. Accordingly, sediment transportation budgets were increased in months after the rainy season. The suspended sediment transportation in Chiang Sean was increased from 21.13 to 27.90 (M ton/year) in our model condition. © 2013 Science Publication. Source

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