ALomax Scientific

Mouans-Sartoux, France

ALomax Scientific

Mouans-Sartoux, France
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Tape C.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Lomax A.,ALomax Scientific | Silwal V.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Agnew J.D.,Earthquake Engineering Section | Brettschneider B.,University of Alaska Fairbanks
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America | Year: 2017

On 27 August 1904, seismic stations from around the globe recorded an M>7 earthquake originating from central Alaska. Very little was known about this earthquake. One felt report from Rampart, Alaska, had been attributed to the notes of Harry Fielding Reid, yet its original source was unknown. Here, we present five felt reports for the 1904 earthquake that show evidence of felt shaking across most of central Alaska. Using the 1904 arrival-time data, we estimate an epicentral location near Lake Minchumina at the northeastern extent of the Iditarod-Nixon fault. Our preferred fault for the 1904 earthquake is the right-lateral Iditarod-Nixon fault, which, though relatively seismically quiet, generated an M 6.2 earthquake in 1935. Paleoseismic investigations are needed to search for evidence of fault activity, including the 1904 earthquake rupture, in the tectonically complex region of the 1904 earthquake. © 2017, Seismological Society of America. All rights reserved.

de Landro G.,University of Naples Federico II | Amoroso O.,University of Naples Federico II | Alfredo Stabile T.,CNR Institute of Methodologies for Environmental analysis | Matrullo E.,INERIS | And 2 more authors.
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2015

A non-linear, global-search, probabilistic, double-difference earthquake location technique is illustrated. The main advantages of this method are the determination of comprehensive and complete solutions through the probability density function (PDF), the use of differential arrival times as data and the possibility to use a 3-D velocity model both for absolute and doubledifference locations, all of which help to obtain accurate differential locations in structurally complex geological media. The joint use of this methodology and an accurate differential time data set allowed us to carry out a high-resolution, earthquake location analysis, which helps to characterize the active fault geometries in the studied region. We investigated the recent microseismicity occurring at the Campanian-Lucanian Apennines in the crustal volume embedding the fault system that generated the 1980 MS 6.9 earthquake in Irpinia. In order to obtain highly accurate seismicity locations, we applied the method to the P and S arrival time data set from 1312 events (ML < 3.1) that occurred from August 2005 to April 2011 and used the 3-D P- and S-wave velocity models optimized for the area under study. Both manually refined and cross-correlation refined absolute arrival times have been used. The refined seismicity locations show that the events occur in a volume delimited by the faults activated during the 1980 MS 6.9 Irpinia earthquake on subparallel, predominantly normal faults. We find an abrupt interruption of the seismicity across an SW-NE oriented structural discontinuity corresponding to a contact zone between different rheology rock formations (carbonate platform and basin residuals). This 'barrier' appears to be located in the area bounded by the fault segments activated during the first (0 s) and the second (18 s) rupture episodes of the 1980s Irpinia earthquake. We hypothesize that this geometrical barrier could have played a key role during the 1980 Irpinia event, and possibly controlled the delayed times of activation of the two rupture segments. © The Authors 2015.

Stabile T.A.,University of Naples Federico II | Stabile T.A.,CNR Institute of Methodologies for Environmental analysis | Iannaccone G.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Zollo A.,University of Naples Federico II | And 4 more authors.
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2013

The accurate determination of locations and magnitudes of seismic events in a monitored region is important for many scientific, industrial and military studies and applications; for these purposes a wide variety of seismic networks are deployed throughout the world. It is crucial to know the performance of these networks not only in detecting and locating seismic events of different sizes throughout a specified source region, but also by evaluating their location errors asa function of the magnitude and source location. In this framework, we have developed a method for evaluating network performance in surface and borehole seismic monitoring. For a specified network geometry, station characteristics and a target monitoring volume, the method determines the lowest magnitude of events that the seismic network is able to detect (Mw detect), and locate (Mw loc) and estimates the expected location and origin time errors for a specified magnitude. Many of the features related to the seismic signal recorded at a single station are considered in this methodology, including characteristics of the seismic source, the instrument response, the ambient noise level, wave propagation in a layered, anelastic medium and uncertainties on waveform measures and the velocity model. We applied this method to two different network typologies: a local earthquake monitoring network, Irpinia Seismic Network (ISNet), installed along the Campania-Lucania Apennine chain in Southern Italy, and a hypothetic borehole network for monitoring microfractures induced during the hydrocarbon extraction process in an oil field. The method we present may be used to aid in enhancing existing networks and/or understanding their capabilities, such as for the ISNet case study, or to optimally design the network geometry in specific target regions, as for the borehole network example. © The Authors 2012.

Wagner M.,ETH Zurich | Husen S.,ETH Zurich | Lomax A.,ALomax Scientific | Kissling E.,ETH Zurich | Giardini D.,ETH Zurich
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2013

We present a new approach to relocate earthquakes in the greater western Alpine region using main crustal phases (Pg, Pn, PmP) that takes advantage of recent developments inP-wave velocity models and modelling of the Moho topography in the region, as well as theability to track reflected and refracted phases in three-dimensional (3-D) heterogeneous media. Our approach includes a new 3-D P-wave velocity model for Switzerland and surrounding regions that combines a first-order Moho discontinuity based on local earthquake tomography (LET) and controlled-source seismology (CSS) information and 3-D seismic velocity information based on LET. Traveltimes for the main crustal phases (Pg, Pn, PmP) are computed using a fast marching method. We use a non-linear, probabilistic approach to relocateearthquakes that has been extended to include the use of secondary phases. We validateourapproach using synthetic data, which was computed for a real earthquake and differentcombinations of available phases (Pg, Pn, PmP). We also applied our approach to relocate four selected earthquakes, two shallow and two deep crustal events in the northern Alpineforeland, for which independent information (ground truth information) on their focal depths exist. Our results demonstrate that the precision and accuracy of focal depth estimates can be greatly improved if secondary phases are used. This gain is a combined effect of animproved range of take-off angles and the use of differential traveltimes betweenfirst and secondary arriving phases. Our results also show that reliable information on the Moho depth is crucial to obtain accurate focal depths, if Pn or PmP phases are used intherelocation process. Finally, our approach demonstrates that proper identification of the main crustal phases in combination with an appropriate model parametrization in the forward solver will significantly improve earthquake locations. © The Authors 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society.

Contrucci I.,INERIS | Klein E.,INERIS | Bigarre P.,INERIS | Lizeur A.,INERIS | And 2 more authors.
Pure and Applied Geophysics | Year: 2010

In France, decades of coal and iron-ore mining have left extensive underground cavities beneath or in the vicinity of urban areas. This poses an environmental challenge for society. To ensure post-mining risk management and public safety, wherever remediation is not possible, numerous real-time microseismic monitoring systems are being installed. The objective is to detect remote rock mass fracturing processes, precursory events and acceleration phases for appropriate and timely action. Although no consistent collapse has occurred in any of the monitored areas yet, single 3-D probes record many microseismic events of very low amplitude which create difficulties in the quantitative data analysis. The development of specific quantitative processing has therefore become a major issue in our research work. For that purpose, a field experiment was carried out on six of the instrumented sites. It consisted of sequences of small blasts in mine pillars which were accurately controlled in terms of the location, orientation and energy of the explosive source. The data analysis was used to calibrate parameters (velocity model, 3-D sensor orientation, etc.) for reliable 3-D localization and to develop an empirical law to estimate the source energy from the sensor energy. This work now enables us to analyze real microseismic events with a considerably better level of accuracy and to obtain enough information and confidence to discuss these data in terms of site stability. © Birkhäuser Verlag 2009.

Maleki V.,University of Tehran | Shomali Z.H.,University of Tehran | Shomali Z.H.,Uppsala University | Hatami M.R.,University of Tehran | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Seismology | Year: 2013

In this study, we calculate accurate absolute locations for nearly 3,000 shallow earthquakes (≤20 km depth) that occurred from 1996 to 2010 in the Central Alborz region of northern Iran using a non-linear probabilistic relocation algorithm on a local scale. We aim to produce a consistent dataset with a realistic assessment of location errors using probabilistic hypocenter probability density functions. Our results indicate significant improvement in hypocenter locations and far less scattering than in the routine earthquake catalog. According to our results, 816 earthquakes have horizontal uncertainties in the 0. 5-3. 0 km range, and 981 earthquakes are relocated with focal-depth errors less than 3. 0 km, even with a suboptimal network geometry. Earthquake relocated are tightly clustered in the eastern Tehran region and are mainly associated with active faults in the study area (the Mosha and Garmsar faults). Strong historical earthquakes have occurred along the Mosha and Garmsar faults, and the relocated earthquakes along these faults show clear north-dipping structures and align along east-west lineations, consistent with the predominant trend of faults within the study region. After event relocation, all seismicity lies in the upper 20 km of the crust, and no deep seismicity (>20 km depth) has been observed. In many circumstances, the seismicity at depth does not correlate with surface faulting, suggesting that the faulting at depth does not directly offset overlying sediments. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Klein E.,INERIS | Lomax A.,ALomax Scientific | Lizeur A.,INERIS | Klingelhoefer F.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | And 2 more authors.
73rd European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers Conference and Exhibition 2011: Unconventional Resources and the Role of Technology. Incorporating SPE EUROPEC 2011 | Year: 2011

Passive microseismics is a well developed technique that has gained importance in petroleum exploration operations as well as in geohazard assessment. When applied in complex geological environments, it requires advanced processing capabilities to ensure useful accuracy in the source location and characterization. Here we investigate a fast marching method to determine the travel-time field, rays and ray take-off angles in complex 3D media, for application with a direct-search event location method. We then illustrate and discuss the potential of the chosen methodology in the mining context. This methodology allows improvements in acoustic monitoring of large-scale underground mines by taking into account the intrinsic characteristics of propagation of the acoustic waves. Ongoing work on a dataset collected during the monitoring of a large-scale salt cavern collapse is also discussed. We expect that the use of an evolving 3D model will help to reduce the location errors and improve the dataset analysis, improving risk management for time-varying collapse events.

Bernardi F.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Lomax A.,ALomax Scientific | Michelini A.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Lauciani V.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | And 2 more authors.
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences | Year: 2015

In this paper we present and discuss the performance of the procedure for earthquake location and characterization implemented in the Italian Candidate Tsunami Service Provider at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) in Rome. Following the ICG/NEAMTWS guidelines, the first tsunami warning messages are based only on seismic information, i.e., epicenter location, hypocenter depth, and magnitude, which are automatically computed by the software Early-est. Early-est is a package for rapid location and seismic/tsunamigenic characterization of earthquakes. The Early-est software package operates using offline-event or continuous-real-time seismic waveform data to perform trace processing and picking, and, at a regular report interval, phase association, event detection, hypocenter location, and event characterization. Early-est also provides mb, Mwp, and Mwpd magnitude estimations. mb magnitudes are preferred for events with Mwp ≲ 5.8, while Mwpd estimations are valid for events with Mwp ≳ 7.2. In this paper we present the earthquake parameters computed by Early-est between the beginning of March 2012 and the end of December 2014 on a global scale for events with magnitude M ≥ 5.5, and we also present the detection timeline. We compare the earthquake parameters automatically computed by Early-est with the same parameters listed in reference catalogs. Such reference catalogs are manually revised/verified by scientists. The goal of this work is to test the accuracy and reliability of the fully automatic locations provided by Early-est. In our analysis, the epicenter location, hypocenter depth and magnitude parameters do not differ significantly from the values in the reference catalogs. Both mb and Mwp magnitudes show differences to the reference catalogs. We thus derived correction functions in order to minimize the differences and correct biases between our values and the ones from the reference catalogs. Correction of the Mwp distance dependency is particularly relevant, since this magnitude refers to the larger and probably tsunamigenic earthquakes. Mwp values at stations with epicentral distance Δ≲ 30° are significantly overestimated with respect to the CMT-global solutions, whereas Mwp values at stations with epicentral distance Δ ≳ 90° are slightly underestimated. After applying such distance correction the Mwp provided by Early-est differs from CMT-global catalog values of about δ Mwp 0.0 ∓ 0.2. Early-est continuously acquires time-series data and updates the earthquake source parameters. Our analysis shows that the epicenter coordinates and the magnitude values converge within less than 10 min (5 min in the Mediterranean region) toward the stable values. Our analysis shows that we can compute Mwp magnitudes that do not display short epicentral distance dependency overestimation, and we can provide robust and reliable earthquake source parameters to compile tsunami warning messages within less than 15 min after the event origin time.

Lomax A.,ALomax Scientific | Michelini A.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2011

SUMMARY: After an earthquake, rapid, real-time assessment of hazards such as ground shaking and tsunami potential is important for early warning and emergency response. Tsunami potential depends on seafloor displacement, which is related to the length, L, width, W, mean slip, D, and depth, z, of earthquake rupture. Currently, the primary discriminant for tsunami potential is the centroid-moment tensor magnitude, MCMTw, representing the seismic potency LWD, and estimated through an indirect, inversion procedure. The obtained MCMTw and the implied LWD value vary with the depth of faulting, assumed earth model and other factors, and is only available 30 min or more after an earthquake. The use of more direct procedures for hazard assessment, when available, could avoid these problems and aid in effective early warning. Here we present a direct procedure for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential using two, simple measures on P-wave seismograms-the dominant period on the velocity records, Td, and the likelihood that the high-frequency, apparent rupture-duration, T0, exceeds 50-55 s. T0 can be related to the critical parameters L and z, while Td may be related to W, D or z. For a set of recent, large earthquakes, we show that the period-duration product TdT0 gives more information on tsunami impact and size than MCMTw and other currently used discriminants. All discriminants have difficulty in assessing the tsunami potential for oceanic strike-slip and backarc or upper plate, intraplate earthquake types. Our analysis and results suggest that tsunami potential is not directly related to the potency LWD from the 'seismic' faulting model, as is assumed with the use of the MCMTw discriminant. Instead, knowledge of rupture length, L, and depth, z, alone can constrain well the tsunami potential of an earthquake, with explicit determination of fault width, W, and slip, D, being of secondary importance. With available real-time seismogram data, rapid calculation of the direct, period-duration discriminant can be completed within 6-10 min after an earthquake occurs and thus can aid in effective and reliable tsunami early warning. © 2011 The Authors Geophysical Journal International © 2011 RAS.

Lomax A.,ALomax Scientific | Michelini A.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology
Pure and Applied Geophysics | Year: 2013

Tsunamis are most destructive at near to regional distances, arriving within 20-30 min after a causative earthquake; effective early warning at these distances requires notification within 15 min or less. The size and impact of a tsunami also depend on sea floor displacement, which is related to the length, L, width, W, mean slip, D, and depth, z, of the earthquake rupture. Currently, the primary seismic discriminant for tsunami potential is the centroid-moment tensor magnitude, M w CMT, representing the product LWD and estimated via an indirect inversion procedure. However, the obtained M w CMT and the implied LWD value vary with rupture depth, earth model, and other factors, and are only available 20-30 min or more after an earthquake. The use of more direct discriminants for tsunami potential could avoid these problems and aid in effective early warning, especially for near to regional distances. Previously, we presented a direct procedure for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential using two, simple measurements on P-wave seismograms-the predominant period on velocity records, T d, and the likelihood, T 50 Ex, that the high-frequency, apparent rupture-duration, T 0, exceeds 50-55 s. We have shown that T d and T 0 are related to the critical rupture parameters L, W, D, and z, and that either of the period-duration products T d T 0 or T d T 50 Ex gives more information on tsunami impact and size than M w CMT, M wp, and other currently used discriminants. These results imply that tsunami potential is not directly related to the product LWD from the "seismic" faulting model, as is assumed with the use of the M w CMT discriminant. Instead, information on rupture length, L, and depth, z, as provided by T d T 0 or T d T 50 Ex, can constrain well the tsunami potential of an earthquake. We introduce here special treatment of the signal around the S arrival at close stations, a modified, real-time, M wpd(RT) magnitude, and other procedures to enable early estimation of event parameters and tsunami discriminants. We show that with real-time data currently available in most regions of tsunami hazard, event locations, m b and M wp magnitudes, and the direct, period-duration discriminant, T dT50 Ex can be determined within 5 min after an earthquake occurs, and T 0, T d T 0, and M wpd(RT) within approximately 10 min. This processing is implemented and running continuously in real-time within the Early-est earthquake monitor at INGV-Rome ( We also show that the difference m b - log10(T d T 0) forms a rapid discriminant for slow, tsunami earthquakes. The rapid availability of these measurements can aid in faster and more reliable tsunami early warning for near to regional distances. © 2012 Springer Basel AG.

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