Almaty Branch of Kazakh Scientific Research Institute of Forestry

Almaty, Kazakhstan

Almaty Branch of Kazakh Scientific Research Institute of Forestry

Almaty, Kazakhstan
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Zhang R.,Institute of Desert Meteorology | Zhang R.,Key Laboratory of Tree ring Physical and Chemical Research of China Meteorological Administration | Zhang R.,Key Laboratory of Tree ring Ecology of Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region | Zhang R.,Lanzhou University | And 14 more authors.
International Journal of Climatology | Year: 2017

In this article, we developed a tree-ring-width chronology of Schrenk spruce (Picea schrenkiana Fisch. et Mey) in southern Kazakhstan. Climate-growth response result showed that the precipitation from the previous June to current May was the principal limited factor of radial growth. We also obtained a 246-year reconstruction of June–May precipitation in southern Kazakhstan. The reconstruction explains 39.7% of the variance in precipitation records during the 1902–2013 calibration periods. In addition, the precipitation over the past 246 years in southern Kazakhstan has experienced six wetter periods and seven drier ones, and the extreme drought years were 1837, 1879, 1917 and 1945. From 1985 to 2004, precipitation has experienced longer and more rapid wetting, but the trend of precipitation has decreased in the past few years. The reconstructed series of precipitation is consistent with the historic precipitation/Palmer Drought Severity Index of the western Tianshan Mountains. Here, high precipitation variability occurred during 1770–1800 and 1900-present, while 1800–1900 was relatively calm. Meanwhile, there was large power in the 2- to 7-year short-period and over the 34- to 35- and 40- to 43-year long-periods. We suggest the precipitation variability may be associated with large-scale oscillations in the climate system. The reconstruction sheds new light on precipitation variability and the changes in a region where the climate history over the past several centuries is poorly understood. © 2016 Royal Meteorological Society

Luo G.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | Amuti T.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | Amuti T.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhu L.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Regional Environmental Change | Year: 2014

The analysis of landscape pattern changes is of significant importance for understanding spatial ecological dynamics and maintaining sustainable development, especially in wetland ecosystems, which are experiencing indirect human disturbances in arid Central Asia. This study attempted to examine the temporal and spatial dynamics of landscape patterns and to simulate their trends in the Ili River delta of Kazakhstan through quantitative analysis and a cellular automata (CA)-Markov model. This study also sought to examine the effectiveness of using the CA-Markov model for investigating the dynamics of the wetland landscape pattern. The total wetland area, including the river, lake, marsh, and floodplain areas, and the area of sandy land have remained steady, while that of desert grassland has decreased slightly, and shrublands have increased slightly from approximately 1978 to 2007. However, the wetland and shrubland areas exhibited a trend of increasing by 18.6 and 10.3 %, respectively, from 1990 to 2007, while the desert grassland and sandy land areas presented the opposite trend, decreasing by 30.3 and 24.3 %, respectively. The landscape patterns predicted for the year 2020 using probabilistic transfer matrixes for 1990–2007 (Scenario A) and 1990–1998 (Scenario B), respectively, indicated that the predicted landscape for 2020 tends to improve based on Scenario A, but tends to degrade based on Scenario B. However, the overall Kappa coefficient of 0.754 for the 2020 predicted landscapes based on Scenarios A and B indicates that the differences in the predicted landscapes are not distinct. This research indicates that the applied CA-Markov model is effective for the simulation and prediction of spatial patterns in natural or less disturbed landscapes and is valuable for developing land management strategies and reasonably exploiting the wetland resources of the Ili River delta. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Chen Y.,Zhejiang University | Chen Y.,Zhejiang University of Technology | Luo G.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | Maisupova B.,Almaty Branch of Kazakh Scientific Research Institute of Forestry | And 6 more authors.
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology | Year: 2016

The carbon budget that was derived from forest land use has been extensively explored in most regions/countries of the Northern Hemisphere but is poorly documented in Central Asia. In this study, we proposed a localized bookkeeping model and estimated the sources and sinks of carbon from forest land use and managements between 1961 and 2010 in two arid regions of Central Asia, e.g., Kazakhstan and Xinjiang, China. The results indicate that the forest land use in these two regions acted as a carbon sink, with a total carbon sequestration of 43.27 Tg and 20.74 Tg respectively. Accelerated afforestation led to strong carbon sequestration (47.43 Tg in Xinjiang and 34.29 Tg in Kazakhstan) and forest fire were the main carbon sources (2.99 Tg in Xinjiang and 12.51 in Kazakhstan) in both regions. Although there were large amounts of wood production from logging, the carbon flux from this activity was small due to the joint action of wood oxidization and trees recovery. Compared with logging, deforestation area for cultivation was much smaller, but its carbon emission was considerable. The differences on the forestry regimes such as afforestation incentives, logging and fire prohibitions in these two regions were significant, resulting in different effects on their carbon fluxes. This study elucidates the carbon function of forest land use in Central Asia and further deepens our understanding of the influence of forest land use on the global carbon balance. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Zhang C.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | Lu D.,Zhejiang iversity | Lu D.,Michigan State University | Chen X.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | And 4 more authors.
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2016

More than 80% of the world's temperate deserts are located in Central Asia. Knowledge of the desert biomass distribution and its dynamic related to the climate controls are vital for the development of adaptation strategies to meet the challenge of climate changes in the 21st century. However, due to the lack of field observations and the difficulties in retrieving vegetation fractional coverage (VFC) of sparsely vegetated lands across large areas from satellite imagery, the amount of desert biomass and its spatiotemporal patterns in Central Asia are still unclear. Based on 168 field observations and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, we developed the VFC and biomass maps of the temperate deserts in Central Asia for the early 2000s (2000-2004) and early 2010s (2010-2014) and investigated the relationship between climate drivers and biomass distribution in the first decade of the 21st century. Our results showed the mean VFC (±SE) and biomass density (±SE) of the temperate desert, which covers an area of 3.6×106km2 in Central Asia, were 19±14% and 280±190gm-2 respectively. The total desert biomass amounted to 1.00Gt, about 36% of which was contributed by the temperate semi-shrub and dwarf semi-shrub. Precipitation, aridity, and growing season temperature were the major control factors on the biomass. Following the precipitation gradient, the western Central Asia had higher biomass density than the east, and relatively high biomass density was found on the windward slopes of the mountains. Large areas in the western Central Asia desert lost biomass due to the prolonged drought since the late 1990s. The differences in climate sensitivities among that desert vegetation types were noteworthy, indicating the future climate change may trigger vegetation succession. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Li C.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | Li C.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li C.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang C.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | And 9 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2015

Central Asia has a land area of 5.6 × 106 km2 and contains 80-90% of the world's temperate deserts. Yet it is one of the least characterized areas in the estimation of the global carbon (C) stock/balance. This study assessed the sizes and spatiotemporal patterns of C pools in Central Asia using both inventory (based on 353 biomass and 284 soil samples) and process-based modeling approaches. The results showed that the C stock in Central Asia was 31.34-34.16 Pg in the top 1-m soil with another 10.42-11.43 Pg stored in deep soil (1-3 m) of the temperate deserts. They amounted to 18-24% of the global C stock in deserts and dry shrublands. The C stock was comparable to that of the neighboring regions in Eurasia or major drylands around the world (e.g. Australia). However, 90% of Central Asia C pool was stored in soil, and the fraction was much higher than in other regions. Compared to hot deserts of the world, the temperate deserts in Central Asia had relatively high soil organic carbon density. The C stock in Central Asia is under threat from dramatic climate change. During a decadal drought between 1998 and 2008, which was possibly related to protracted La Niña episodes, the dryland lost approximately 0.46 Pg C from 1979 to 2011. The largest C losses were found in northern Kazakhstan, where annual precipitation declined at a rate of 90 mm decade-1. The regional C dynamics were mainly determined by changes in the vegetation C pool, and the SOC pool was stable due to the balance between reduced plant-derived C influx and inhibited respiration. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Chen F.,Desert Research Institute | Mambetov B.,Almaty Branch of Kazakh Scientific Research Institute of Forestry | Maisupova B.,Almaty Branch of Kazakh Scientific Research Institute of Forestry | Kelgenbayev N.,Almaty Branch of Kazakh Scientific Research Institute of Forestry
Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment | Year: 2016

While dendroclimatic studies have extended the knowledge of drought variations in Tien Shan, these have been almost exclusively based on tree-ring data from Tien Shan in China. We present a drought reconstruction for Almaty based on a tree-ring width chronology developed from sites of the Schrenk spruce in Tien Shan, Kazakhstan. The drought reconstruction, spanning AD 1785–2014, was developed by calibrating tree-ring series with the mean August to January standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI). The drought reconstruction was verified with independent data and accounts for 41.9 % of the actual SPEI variance during the common period. The drought reconstruction compares well with some tree-ring-based drought/precipitation reconstructions from Western Tien Shan and reveals the large-scale drought signals of Western Tien Shan. The wavelet analysis indicates the existence of some decadal (60 and 11 years) and interannual (2.0–4.0 years) periodicities, which may potentially be the fingerprints of large-scale land–atmosphere–ocean circulations. This study provides the first long-term drought reconstruction and drought assessment for Almaty and will aid in future plans to address climate change of Kazakhstan. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

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