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Braulio M.A.L.,Federal University of Sao Carlos | Rigaud M.,University of Montreal | Buhr A.,Almatis Inc. | Parr C.,Kerneos Inc. | Pandolfelli V.C.,Federal University of Sao Carlos
Ceramics International | Year: 2011

Due to their high corrosion resistance to basic slags, either pre-formed or in situ spinel (MgAl2O4) containing refractory castables are nowadays widely used as steel ladle linings. Nevertheless, whereas the pre-formed spinel castables present high volumetric stability and a well-known processing technology, the in situ spinel castables still require further understanding due to the challenges related to magnesia hydration and their expansive behaviour at high temperatures. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to review the knowledge already available for high-alumina spinel-containing castables (preformed and in situ) in order to provide a support for novel technological developments in the area. The main variables considered are the spinel content and grain size, the effect of calcium aluminate cement and hydratable alumina on the general castables' properties, the influence of different alumina and magnesia sources and the silica fume content. Nowadays research subjects, including the use of mineralising compounds, the addition of nano-scaled particles and the evaluation of the effect of expansion under constraint will also be addressed, pointing out alternatives for the design of high-performance alumina-magnesia refractory castables. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. Source


Long B.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Andreas B.,Almatis Inc. | Xu G.,University of Science and Technology Beijing
Ceramics International | Year: 2016

The influence of iron oxide in the phase relationships of Al2O3-MgO-CaO and Al2O3-MgO purging plug refractory material has been studied by the thermodynamic analysis tool FactSage. Results showed that the system without CaO to be advantageous on the onset temperature of liquid phase, and on the liquid content at defined chemical composition and temperature. Therefore, CaO negatively influences the iron-rich slag resistance of the purging plug material. Analysis of used purging plugs proved the thermodynamic results. They showed that spinel solid solution and calcium hexaluminate as stable phases were formed in the reaction with iron oxide slag.Corundum-spinel castables with and without calcium aluminate cement were investigated in the laboratory to compare the relevant technical properties. In the cement bonded castable, the curing and drying strength are increased by increasing the cement content. However high cement addition requires higher water demand, which results in higher open porosity and a lower hot modulus of rupture (HMoR). In the CaO-free, no-cement castable with hydratable alumina binder, the water demand is slightly higher when compared to the ultra-low cement castable. However, the curing and drying strength are still slightly higher for the no-cement castable. As there is no significant difference in HMoR with various hydratable alumina binder additions, low dosage of such binder in the range of two to four percent is normally recommended to avoid excessive water addition. Cement bonded castables (with CaO) show some advantages to the no-cement castable (non-CaO) regarding HMoR, however the no-cement castable could have advantages regarding the iron-rich slag resistance and thermal shock resistance. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. Source


Trademark
Almatis Inc. | Date: 2006-07-25

ALUMINA BASED CHEMICALS, NAMELY TABULAR ALUMINA, CALCINED ALUMINA, REACTIVE ALUMINA, CALCIUM ALUMINATE CEMENT, ALUMINA-RICH SPINEL, MAGNESIA-RICH SPINEL, WHITE HYDRATE, FINE PRECIPITATED HYDRATE AND GROUND HYDRATE, ALL FOR USE IN STEEL AND CEMENT PRODUCTION INDUSTRIES, NON-FERROUS METAL PRODUCTION INDUSTRIES, CARPET MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES, AND PLASTICS, PAPER, CERAMICS AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES.


Trademark
Almatis Inc. | Date: 2008-04-29

ALUMINA BASED CHEMICALS, NAMELY, TABULAR ALUMINA, CALCINED ALUMINA, REACTIVE ALUMINA, CALCIUM ALUMINATE CEMENT AND BINDERS, ALUMINA-RICH SPINEL, MAGNESIA-RICH SPINEL, WHITE HYDRATE, FINE PRECIPITATED HYDRATE, GROUND HYDRATE, AND DISPERSING ALUMINAS, ALL FOR USE IN STEEL AND CEMENT PRODUCTION INDUSTRIES, NON-FERROUS METAL PRODUCTION INDUSTRIES, CARPET MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES, AND PLASTICS, PAPER, CERAMICS AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES.


Trademark
Almatis Inc. | Date: 2007-11-13

ALUMINA BASED CHEMICALS, NAMELY, TABULAR ALUMINA, CALCINED ALUMINA, REACTIVE ALUMINA, CALCIUM ALUMINATE CEMENT AND BINDERS, ALUMINA-RICH SPINEL, MAGNESIA-RICH SPINEL, WHITE HYDRATE, FINE PRECIPITATED HYDRATE, GROUND HYDRATE, AND DISPERSING ALUMINAS, ALL FOR USE IN STEEL AND CEMENT PRODUCTION INDUSTRIES, NON-FERROUS METAL PRODUCTION INDUSTRIES, CARPET MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES, AND PLASTICS, PAPER, CERAMICS AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES.

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