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Meeus G.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Montesinos B.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | Mendigutia I.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Kamp I.,NOVA Kapteyn Astronomical Institute | And 16 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics

We observed a sample of 20 representative Herbig Ae/Be stars and 5 A-type debris discs with PACS onboard Herschel, as part of the GAS in Protoplanetary Systems (GASPS) project. The observations were done in spectroscopic mode, and cover the far-infrared lines of [O I], [C II], CO, CH +, H 2O, and OH. We have a [O I] 63 μm detection rate of 100% for the Herbig Ae/Be and 0% for the debris discs. The [O I] 145 μm line is only detected in 25% and CO J = 18-17 in 45% (and fewer cases for higher J transitions) of the Herbig Ae/Be stars, while for [C II] 157 μm, we often find spatially variable background contamination. We show the first detection of water in a Herbig Ae disc, HD 163296, which has a settled disc. Hydroxyl is detected as well in this disc. First seen in HD 100546, CH + emission is now detected for the second time in a Herbig Ae star, HD 97048. We report fluxes for each line and use the observations as line diagnostics of the gas properties. Furthermore, we look for correlations between the strength of the emission lines and either the stellar or disc parameters, such as stellar luminosity, ultraviolet and X-ray flux, accretion rate, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) band strength, and flaring. We find that the stellar ultraviolet flux is the dominant excitation mechanism of [O I] 63 μm, with the highest line fluxes being found in objects with a large amount of flaring and among the largest PAH strengths. Neither the amount of accretion nor the X-ray luminosity has an influence on the line strength. We find correlations between the line flux of [O I] 63 μm and [O I] 145 μm, CO J = 18-17 and [O I] 6300Ã.., and between the continuum flux at 63 μm and at 1.3 mm, while we find weak correlations between the line flux of [O I] 63 μm and the PAH luminosity, the line flux of CO J = 3-2, the continuum flux at 63 μm, the stellar effective temperature, and the Brγ luminosity. Finally, we use a combination of the[O I] 63 μm and 12CO J = 2-1 line fluxes to obtain order of magnitude estimates of the disc gas masses, in agreement with the values that we find from detailed modelling of two Herbig Ae/Be stars, HD 163296 and HD 169142. © 2012 ESO. Source

Keane J.T.,University of Arizona | Pascucci I.,University of Arizona | Espaillat C.,Boston University | Woitke P.,University of St. Andrews | And 5 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal

Transitional disks are protoplanetary disks characterized by reduced near- and mid-infrared emission, with respect to full disks. This characteristic spectral energy distribution indicates the presence of an optically thin inner cavity within the dust disk believed to mark the disappearance of the primordial massive disk. We present new Herschel Space Observatory PACS spectra of [O I] 63.18 μm for 21 transitional disks. Our survey complements the larger Herschel GASPS program ("Gas in Protoplanetary Systems") by quadrupling the number of transitional disks observed with PACS in this wavelength. [O I] 63.18 μm traces material in the outer regions of the disk, beyond the inner cavity of most transitional disks. We find that transitional disks have [O I] 63.18 μm line luminosities ∼2 times fainter than their full disk counterparts. We self-consistently determine various stellar properties (e.g., bolometric luminosity, FUV excess, etc.) and disk properties (e.g., disk dust mass, etc.) that could influence the [O I] 63.18 μm line luminosity, and we find no correlations that can explain the lower [O I] 63.18 μm line luminosities in transitional disks. Using a grid of thermo-chemical protoplanetary disk models, we conclude that either transitional disks are less flared than full disks or they possess lower gas-to-dust ratios due to a depletion of gas mass. This result suggests that transitional disks are more evolved than their full disk counterparts, possibly even at large radii. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.. Source

Greaves J.S.,University of St. Andrews | Sibthorpe B.,Astronomy Technology Center | Sibthorpe B.,SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research | Acke B.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 27 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal Letters

Far-infrared Herschel images of the ε Eridani system, seen at a fifth of the Sun's present age, resolve two belts of debris emission. Fits to the 160 μm PACS image yield radial spans for these belts of 12-16 and 54-68 AU. The south end of the outer belt is ≈10% brighter than the north end in the PACS+SPIRE images at 160, 250, and 350 μm, indicating a pericenter glow attributable to a planet "c." From this asymmetry and an upper bound on the offset of the belt center, this second planet should be mildly eccentric (ec ≈ 0.03-0.3). Compared to the asteroid and Kuiper Belts of the young Sun, the ε Eri belts are intermediate in brightness and more similar to each other, with up to 20 km sized collisional fragments in the inner belt totaling ≈5% of an Earth mass. This reservoir may feed the hot dust close to the star and could send many impactors through the Habitable Zone, especially if it is being perturbed by the suspected planet ε Eri b, at semi-major axis ≈3 AU. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Kamp I.,NOVA Kapteyn Astronomical Institute | Thi W.-F.,Joseph Fourier University | Meeus G.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Woitke P.,University of St. Andrews | And 6 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics

Context. This paper discusses the sensitivity of water lines to chemical processes and radiative transfer for the protoplanetary disk around TW Hya. The study focuses on the Herschel spectral range in the context of new line detections with the PACS instrument from the Gas in Protoplanetary Systems project (GASPS). Aims. The paper presents an overview of the chemistry in the main water reservoirs in the disk around TW Hya. It discusses the limitations in the interpretation of observed water line fluxes. Methods. We use a previously published thermo-chemical Protoplanetary Disk Model (ProDiMo) of the disk around TW Hya and study a range of chemical modeling uncertainties: metallicity, C/O ratio, and reaction pathways and rates leading to the formation of water. We provide results for the simplified assumption of Tgas = T dust to quantify uncertainties arising for the complex heating/cooling processes of the gas and elaborate on limitations due to water line radiative transfer. Results. We report new line detections of p-H 2O (322-211) at 89.99 μm and CO J = 18-17 at 144.78 μm for the disk around TW Hya. Disk modeling shows that the far-IR fine structure lines ([O i], [C ii]) and molecular submm lines are very robust to uncertainties in the chemistry, while the water line fluxes can change by factors of a few. The water lines are optically thick, sub-thermally excited and can couple to the background continuum radiation field. The low-excitation water lines are also sensitive to uncertainties in the collision rates, e.g. with neutral hydrogen. The gas temperature plays an important role for the [O i] fine structure line fluxes, the water line fluxes originating from the inner disk as well as the high excitation CO, CH+ and OH lines. Conclusions. Due to their sensitivity on chemical input data and radiative transfer, water lines have to be used cautiously for understanding details of the disk structure. Water lines covering a wide range of excitation energies provide access to the various gas phase water reservoirs (inside and outside the snow line) in protoplanetary disks and thus provide important information on where gas-phase water is potentially located. Experimental and/or theoretical collision rates for H2O with atomic hydrogen are needed to diminish uncertainties from water line radiative transfer. © 2013 ESO. Source

Gottschalk M.,National Research Council Canada | Gottschalk M.,University of British Columbia | Kothes R.,National Research Council Canada | Matthews H.E.,National Research Council Canada | And 2 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics

Context. Cygnus X is one of the most complex areas in the sky, rich in massive stars; Cyg OB2 (2600 stars, 120 O stars) and other OB associations lie within its boundaries. This complicates interpretation, but also creates the opportunity to investigate accretion into molecular clouds and many subsequent stages of star formation, all within one small field of view. Understanding large complexes like Cygnus X is the key to understanding the dominant role that massive star complexes play in galaxies across the Universe. Aims. The main goal of this study is to establish feasibility of a high-resolution CO survey of the entire Cygnus X region by observing part of it as a pathfinder, and to evaluate the survey as a tool for investigating the star-formation process. We can investigate the mass accretion history of outflows, study interaction between star-forming regions and their cold environment, and examine triggered star formation around massive stars. Methods. A 2° × 4° area of the Cygnus X region has been mapped in the 12CO(3-2) line at an angular resolution of 15′′ and a velocity resolution of ∼0.4 km s -1 using HARP-B and ACSIS on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. The star formation process is heavily connected to the life-cycle of the molecular material in the interstellar medium. The high critical density of the 12CO(3-2) transition reveals clouds in key stages of molecule formation, and shows processes that turn a molecular cloud into a star. Results. We observed ∼15% of Cygnus X, and demonstrated that a full survey would be feasible and rewarding. We detected three distinct layers of 12CO(3-2) emission, related to the Cygnus Rift (500-800 pc), to W75N (1-1.8 kpc), and to DR 21 (1.5-2.5 kpc). Within the Cygnus Rift, H I self-absorption features are tightly correlated with faint diffuse CO emission, while HISA features in the DR 21 layer are mostly unrelated to any CO emission. 47 molecular outflows were detected in the pathfinder, 27 of them previously unknown. Sequentially triggered star formation is a widespread phenomenon. © 2012 ESO. Source

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