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Alonso-Martinez M.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Meeus G.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Kamp I.,University of Groningen | Fang M.,University of Arizona | And 3 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2017

Context. At early stages of stellar evolution young stars show powerful jets and/or outflows that interact with protoplanetary discs and their surroundings. Despite the scarce knowledge about the interaction of jets and/or outflows with discs, spectroscopic studies based on Herschel and ISO data suggests that gas shocked by jets and/or outflows can be traced by far-IR (FIR) emission in certain sources. Aims. We want to provide a consistent catalogue of selected atomic ([OI] and [CII]) and molecular (CO, H2O, and OH) line fluxes observed in the FIR, separate and characterize the contribution from the jet and the disc to the observed line emission, and place the observations in an evolutionary picture. Methods. The atomic and molecular FIR (60-190 μm) line emission of protoplanetary discs around 76 T Tauri stars located in Taurus are analysed. The observations were carried out within the Herschel key programme Gas in Protoplanetary Systems (GASPS). The spectra were obtained with the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS). The sample is first divided in outflow and non-outflow sources according to literature tabulations. With the aid of archival stellar/disc and jet/outflow tracers and model predictions (PDRs and shocks), correlations are explored to constrain the physical mechanisms behind the observed line emission. Results. Outflow sources exhibit brighter atomic and molecular emission lines and higher detection rates than non-outflow sources. The line detection fractions decrease with SED evolutionary status (from Class I to Class III). We find correlations between [OI] 63.18 μm and [OI] 6300 Å, o-H2O 78.74 μm, CO 144.78 μm, OH 79.12+79.18 μm, and the continuum flux at 24 μm. The atomic line ratios can be explain either by fast (Vshock > 50 km s-1) dissociative J-shocks at low densities (n ~ 103 cm-3) occurring along the jet and/or PDR emission (G0 > 102, n ~ 103-106 cm-3). To account for the [CII] absolute fluxes, PDR emission or UV irradiation of shocks is needed. In comparison, the molecular emission is more compact and the line ratios are better explained with slow (Vshock < 40 km s-1) C-type shocks with high pre-shock densities (104-106 cm-3), with the exception of OH lines, that are better described by J-type shocks. Disc models alone fail to reproduce the observed molecular line fluxes, but a contribution to the line fluxes from UV-illuminated discs and/or outflow cavities is expected. Far-IR lines dominate disc cooling at early stages and weaken as the star+disc system evolves from Class I to Class III, with an increasing relative disc contribution to the line fluxes. Conclusions. Models which take into account jets, discs, and their mutual interaction are needed to disentangle the different components and study their evolution. The much higher detection rate of emission lines in outflow sources and the compatibility of line ratios with shock model predictions supports the idea of a dominant contribution from the jet/outflow to the line emission, in particular at earlier stages of the stellar evolution as the brightness of FIR lines depends in large part on the specific evolutionary stage. © 2017 ESO.


Greaves J.S.,University of St. Andrews | Sibthorpe B.,Astronomy Technology Center | Sibthorpe B.,SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research | Acke B.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 27 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2014

Far-infrared Herschel images of the ε Eridani system, seen at a fifth of the Sun's present age, resolve two belts of debris emission. Fits to the 160 μm PACS image yield radial spans for these belts of 12-16 and 54-68 AU. The south end of the outer belt is ≈10% brighter than the north end in the PACS+SPIRE images at 160, 250, and 350 μm, indicating a pericenter glow attributable to a planet "c." From this asymmetry and an upper bound on the offset of the belt center, this second planet should be mildly eccentric (ec ≈ 0.03-0.3). Compared to the asteroid and Kuiper Belts of the young Sun, the ε Eri belts are intermediate in brightness and more similar to each other, with up to 20 km sized collisional fragments in the inner belt totaling ≈5% of an Earth mass. This reservoir may feed the hot dust close to the star and could send many impactors through the Habitable Zone, especially if it is being perturbed by the suspected planet ε Eri b, at semi-major axis ≈3 AU. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Dent W.R.F.,ALMA SCO | Thi W.F.,NOVA Kapteyn Astronomical Institute | Thi W.F.,CNRS Grenoble Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology Laboratory | Kamp I.,NOVA Kapteyn Astronomical Institute | And 50 more authors.
Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific | Year: 2013

We describe a large-scale far-infrared line and continuum survey of protoplanetary disk through to young debris disk systems carried out using the ACS instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory. This Open Time Key program, known as GASPS (Gas Survey of Protoplanetary Systems), targeted ~250 young stars in narrow wavelength regions covering the [OI] fine structure line at 63 μm the brightest far-infrared line in such objects. A subset of the brightest targets were also surveyed in [OI]145 μm, [CII] at 157 μm, as well as several transitions of H2O and high-excitation CO lines at selected wavelengths between 78 and 180 μm. Additionally, GASPS included continuum photometry at 70, 100 and 160 μm, around the peak of the dust emission. The targets were SED Class II- III T Tauri stars and debris disks from seven nearby young associations, along with a comparable sample of isolated Herbig AeBe stars. The aim was to study the global gas and dust content in a wide sample of circumstellar disks, combining the results with models in a systematic way. In this overview paper we review the scientific aims, target selection and observing strategy of the program. We summarise some of the initial results, showing line identifications, listing the detections, and giving a first statistical study of line detectability. The [OI] line at 63 μm was the brightest line seen in almost all objects, by a factor of ~10. Overall [OI]63 μm detection rates were 49%, with 100% of HAeBe stars and 43% of T Tauri stars detected. A comparison with published disk dust masses (derived mainly from sub-mm continuum, assuming standard values of the mm mass opacity) shows a dust mass threshold for [OI] 63 μm detection of ~105 Mȯ. Normalising to a distance of 140 pc, 84% of objects with dust masses ≥105 Mȯ can be detected in this line in the present survey; 32% of those of mass 106-105 Mȯ, and only a very small number of unusual objects with lower masses can be detected. This is consistent with models with a moderate UV excess and disk flaring. For a given disk mass, [OI] detectability is lower forM stars compared with earlier spectral types. Both the continuum and line emission was, in most systems, spatially and spectrally unresolved and centred on the star, suggesting that emission in most cases was from the disk. Approximately 10 objects showed resolved emission, most likely from outflows. In the GASPS sample, [OI] detection rates in T Tauri associations in the 0.3-4 Myr age range were ~50%. For each association in the 5-20 Myr age range, ~2 stars remain detectable in [OI]63 μm, and no systems were detected in associations with age >20 Myr. Comparing with the total number of young stars in each association, and assuming a ISM-like gas/dust ratio, this indicates that ~18% of stars retain a gas-rich disk of total mass ~1 MJupiter for 1-4 Myr, 1-7% keep such disks for 5-10 Myr, but none are detected beyond 10-20 Myr. The brightest [OI] objects from GASPS were also observed in [OI]145 μm, [CII]157 μm and CO J 1/4 18 17, with detection rates of 20-40%. Detection of the [CII] line was not correlated with disk mass, suggesting it arises more commonly from a compact remnant envelope. © 2013. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific. All rights reserved.


Cataldi G.,Albanova University Center | Cataldi G.,University of Stockholm | Brandeker A.,Albanova University Center | Brandeker A.,University of Stockholm | And 7 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2015

Context. The 440 Myr old main-sequence A-star Fomalhaut is surrounded by an eccentric debris belt with sharp edges. This sort of a morphology is usually attributed to planetary perturbations, but the orbit of the only planetary candidate detected so far, Fomalhaut b, is too eccentric to efficiently shape the belt. Alternative models that could account for the morphology without invoking a planet are stellar encounters and gas-dust interactions. Aims. We aim to test the possibility of gas-dust interactions as the origin of the observed morphology by putting upper limits on the total gas content of the Fomalhaut belt. Methods. We derive upper limits on the C II 158 μm and O I 63 μm emission by using non-detections from the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) onboard the Herschel Space Observatory. Line fluxes are converted into total gas mass using the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) code radex. We consider two different cases for the elemental abundances of the gas: solar abundances and abundances similar to those observed for the gas in the β Pictoris debris disc. Results. The gas mass is shown to be below the millimetre dust mass by a factor of at least ∼3 (for solar abundances) respectively ∼300 (for β Pic-like abundances). Conclusions. The lack of gas co-spatial with the dust implies that gas-dust interactions cannot efficiently shape the Fomalhaut debris belt. The morphology is therefore more likely due to a yet unseen planet (Fomalhaut c) or stellar encounters. © ESO 2015.


Keane J.T.,University of Arizona | Pascucci I.,University of Arizona | Espaillat C.,Boston University | Woitke P.,University of St. Andrews | And 5 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2014

Transitional disks are protoplanetary disks characterized by reduced near- and mid-infrared emission, with respect to full disks. This characteristic spectral energy distribution indicates the presence of an optically thin inner cavity within the dust disk believed to mark the disappearance of the primordial massive disk. We present new Herschel Space Observatory PACS spectra of [O I] 63.18 μm for 21 transitional disks. Our survey complements the larger Herschel GASPS program ("Gas in Protoplanetary Systems") by quadrupling the number of transitional disks observed with PACS in this wavelength. [O I] 63.18 μm traces material in the outer regions of the disk, beyond the inner cavity of most transitional disks. We find that transitional disks have [O I] 63.18 μm line luminosities ∼2 times fainter than their full disk counterparts. We self-consistently determine various stellar properties (e.g., bolometric luminosity, FUV excess, etc.) and disk properties (e.g., disk dust mass, etc.) that could influence the [O I] 63.18 μm line luminosity, and we find no correlations that can explain the lower [O I] 63.18 μm line luminosities in transitional disks. Using a grid of thermo-chemical protoplanetary disk models, we conclude that either transitional disks are less flared than full disks or they possess lower gas-to-dust ratios due to a depletion of gas mass. This result suggests that transitional disks are more evolved than their full disk counterparts, possibly even at large radii. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..


Meeus G.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Montesinos B.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | Mendigutia I.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Kamp I.,NOVA Kapteyn Astronomical Institute | And 16 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

We observed a sample of 20 representative Herbig Ae/Be stars and 5 A-type debris discs with PACS onboard Herschel, as part of the GAS in Protoplanetary Systems (GASPS) project. The observations were done in spectroscopic mode, and cover the far-infrared lines of [O I], [C II], CO, CH +, H 2O, and OH. We have a [O I] 63 μm detection rate of 100% for the Herbig Ae/Be and 0% for the debris discs. The [O I] 145 μm line is only detected in 25% and CO J = 18-17 in 45% (and fewer cases for higher J transitions) of the Herbig Ae/Be stars, while for [C II] 157 μm, we often find spatially variable background contamination. We show the first detection of water in a Herbig Ae disc, HD 163296, which has a settled disc. Hydroxyl is detected as well in this disc. First seen in HD 100546, CH + emission is now detected for the second time in a Herbig Ae star, HD 97048. We report fluxes for each line and use the observations as line diagnostics of the gas properties. Furthermore, we look for correlations between the strength of the emission lines and either the stellar or disc parameters, such as stellar luminosity, ultraviolet and X-ray flux, accretion rate, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) band strength, and flaring. We find that the stellar ultraviolet flux is the dominant excitation mechanism of [O I] 63 μm, with the highest line fluxes being found in objects with a large amount of flaring and among the largest PAH strengths. Neither the amount of accretion nor the X-ray luminosity has an influence on the line strength. We find correlations between the line flux of [O I] 63 μm and [O I] 145 μm, CO J = 18-17 and [O I] 6300Ã.., and between the continuum flux at 63 μm and at 1.3 mm, while we find weak correlations between the line flux of [O I] 63 μm and the PAH luminosity, the line flux of CO J = 3-2, the continuum flux at 63 μm, the stellar effective temperature, and the Brγ luminosity. Finally, we use a combination of the[O I] 63 μm and 12CO J = 2-1 line fluxes to obtain order of magnitude estimates of the disc gas masses, in agreement with the values that we find from detailed modelling of two Herbig Ae/Be stars, HD 163296 and HD 169142. © 2012 ESO.


Kamp I.,NOVA Kapteyn Astronomical Institute | Thi W.-F.,Joseph Fourier University | Meeus G.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Woitke P.,University of St. Andrews | And 6 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2013

Context. This paper discusses the sensitivity of water lines to chemical processes and radiative transfer for the protoplanetary disk around TW Hya. The study focuses on the Herschel spectral range in the context of new line detections with the PACS instrument from the Gas in Protoplanetary Systems project (GASPS). Aims. The paper presents an overview of the chemistry in the main water reservoirs in the disk around TW Hya. It discusses the limitations in the interpretation of observed water line fluxes. Methods. We use a previously published thermo-chemical Protoplanetary Disk Model (ProDiMo) of the disk around TW Hya and study a range of chemical modeling uncertainties: metallicity, C/O ratio, and reaction pathways and rates leading to the formation of water. We provide results for the simplified assumption of Tgas = T dust to quantify uncertainties arising for the complex heating/cooling processes of the gas and elaborate on limitations due to water line radiative transfer. Results. We report new line detections of p-H 2O (322-211) at 89.99 μm and CO J = 18-17 at 144.78 μm for the disk around TW Hya. Disk modeling shows that the far-IR fine structure lines ([O i], [C ii]) and molecular submm lines are very robust to uncertainties in the chemistry, while the water line fluxes can change by factors of a few. The water lines are optically thick, sub-thermally excited and can couple to the background continuum radiation field. The low-excitation water lines are also sensitive to uncertainties in the collision rates, e.g. with neutral hydrogen. The gas temperature plays an important role for the [O i] fine structure line fluxes, the water line fluxes originating from the inner disk as well as the high excitation CO, CH+ and OH lines. Conclusions. Due to their sensitivity on chemical input data and radiative transfer, water lines have to be used cautiously for understanding details of the disk structure. Water lines covering a wide range of excitation energies provide access to the various gas phase water reservoirs (inside and outside the snow line) in protoplanetary disks and thus provide important information on where gas-phase water is potentially located. Experimental and/or theoretical collision rates for H2O with atomic hydrogen are needed to diminish uncertainties from water line radiative transfer. © 2013 ESO.


Howard C.D.,NASA | Howard C.D.,Google | Sandell G.,NASA | Vacca W.D.,NASA | And 21 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

The Herschel Space Observatory was used to observe ∼120 pre-main-sequence stars in Taurus as part of the GASPS Open Time Key project. Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer was used to measure the continuum as well as several gas tracers such as [O I] 63 μm, [O I] 145 μm, [C II] 158 μm, OH, H2O, and CO. The strongest line seen is [O I] at 63 μm. We find a clear correlation between the strength of the [O I] 63 μm line and the 63 μm continuum for disk sources. In outflow sources, the line emission can be up to 20 times stronger than in disk sources, suggesting that the line emission is dominated by the outflow. The tight correlation seen for disk sources suggests that the emission arises from the inner disk (<50 AU) and lower surface layers of the disk where the gas and dust are coupled. The [O I] 63 μm is fainter in transitional stars than in normal Class II disks. Simple spectral energy distribution models indicate that the dust responsible for the continuum emission is colder in these disks, leading to weaker line emission. [C II] 158 μm emission is only detected in strong outflow sources. The observed line ratios of [O I] 63 μm to [O I] 145 μm are in the regime where we are insensitive to the gas-to-dust ratio, neither can we discriminate between shock or photodissociation region emission. We detect no Class III object in [O I] 63 μm and only three in continuum, at least one of which is a candidate debris disk. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Gottschalk M.,National Research Council Canada | Gottschalk M.,University of British Columbia | Kothes R.,National Research Council Canada | Matthews H.E.,National Research Council Canada | And 2 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

Context. Cygnus X is one of the most complex areas in the sky, rich in massive stars; Cyg OB2 (2600 stars, 120 O stars) and other OB associations lie within its boundaries. This complicates interpretation, but also creates the opportunity to investigate accretion into molecular clouds and many subsequent stages of star formation, all within one small field of view. Understanding large complexes like Cygnus X is the key to understanding the dominant role that massive star complexes play in galaxies across the Universe. Aims. The main goal of this study is to establish feasibility of a high-resolution CO survey of the entire Cygnus X region by observing part of it as a pathfinder, and to evaluate the survey as a tool for investigating the star-formation process. We can investigate the mass accretion history of outflows, study interaction between star-forming regions and their cold environment, and examine triggered star formation around massive stars. Methods. A 2° × 4° area of the Cygnus X region has been mapped in the 12CO(3-2) line at an angular resolution of 15′′ and a velocity resolution of ∼0.4 km s -1 using HARP-B and ACSIS on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. The star formation process is heavily connected to the life-cycle of the molecular material in the interstellar medium. The high critical density of the 12CO(3-2) transition reveals clouds in key stages of molecule formation, and shows processes that turn a molecular cloud into a star. Results. We observed ∼15% of Cygnus X, and demonstrated that a full survey would be feasible and rewarding. We detected three distinct layers of 12CO(3-2) emission, related to the Cygnus Rift (500-800 pc), to W75N (1-1.8 kpc), and to DR 21 (1.5-2.5 kpc). Within the Cygnus Rift, H I self-absorption features are tightly correlated with faint diffuse CO emission, while HISA features in the DR 21 layer are mostly unrelated to any CO emission. 47 molecular outflows were detected in the pathfinder, 27 of them previously unknown. Sequentially triggered star formation is a widespread phenomenon. © 2012 ESO.


Osorio M.,Institute Astrofisica Of Andalucia Csic | Anglada G.,Institute Astrofisica Of Andalucia Csic | Carrasco-Gonzalez C.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Torrelles J.M.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Sciences | And 10 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2014

We present Very Large Array observations at 7 mm that trace the thermal emission of large dust grains in the HD 169142 protoplanetary disk. Our images show a ring of enhanced emission of radius ∼25-30 AU, whose inner region is devoid of detectable 7 mm emission. We interpret this ring as tracing the rim of an inner cavity or gap, possibly created by a planet or a substellar companion. The ring appears asymmetric, with the western part significantly brighter than the eastern one. This azimuthal asymmetry is reminiscent of the lopsided structures that are expected to be produced as a consequence of trapping of large dust grains. Our observations also reveal an outer annular gap at radii from ∼40 to ∼70 AU. Unlike other sources, the radii of the inner cavity, the ring, and the outer gap observed in the 7 mm images, which trace preferentially the distribution of large (millimeter/centimeter sized) dust grains, coincide with those obtained from a previous near-infrared polarimetric image, which traces scattered light from small (micron-sized) dust grains. We model the broadband spectral energy distribution and the 7 mm images to constrain the disk physical structure. From this modeling we infer the presence of a small (radius ∼0.6 AU) residual disk inside the central cavity, indicating that the HD 169142 disk is a pre-transitional disk. The distribution of dust in three annuli with gaps in between them suggests that the disk in HD 169142 is being disrupted by at least two planets or substellar objects. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

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