Alma, MI, United States
Alma, MI, United States

Alma College is a private, liberal arts college located in Alma, Michigan, United States. The enrollment is approximately 1,400 students, and the college is accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. The college's 13th President, Dr. Jeff Abernathy, assumed leadership in June 2010.Alma College offers five degrees in 41 majors. Academic programs that typically produce the most graduates are business administration, biology, psychology, integrative physiology and health science, and education. Students are encouraged to participate in service learning and study abroad opportunities designed to enhance classroom learning.The College's stated mission is "to prepare graduates who think critically, serve generously, lead purposefully and live responsibly as stewards of the world they bequeath to future generations." Colleges of Distinction, a national college guide for students, identified Alma College as "one of the best places to learn, grow and succeed" in its 2013 edition. Other publications that have recognized Alma College include the 2013 Fiske Guide to Colleges and The Princeton Review's 2013-14 "Best in the Midwest." Wikipedia.

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News Article | April 17, 2017
Site:, a leading resource provider for higher education and career information, has released its list of Michigan’s best colleges and universities for 2017. Of the 48 four-year schools that made the list, University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan Technological University, Albion College, Calvin College and Alma College were the top five institutions. 27 two-year schools were also included, with Lansing Community College, Washtenaw Community College, Delta College, Henry Ford Community College and Kellogg Community College in the top five. A full list of schools is included below. “The job outlook in Michigan continues to be positive as the state’s economy improves, and that’s great news for students seeking a degree,” said Wes Ricketts, senior vice president of LearnHowToBecome.Org. “The schools on our list have established a commitment to student success, as demonstrated by their employment services and the average earnings of their alumni after graduation.” To be included on Michigan’s “Best Colleges” list, schools must be regionally accredited, not-for-profit institutions. Each college is also scored on additional data that includes annual alumni earnings 10 years after entering college, career services offered, availability of financial aid and such additional metrics as student/teacher ratios and graduation rates. Complete details on each college, their individual scores and the data and methodology used to determine the “Best Colleges in Michigan” list, visit: The Best Four-Year Colleges in Michigan for 2017 include: Aquinas College Baker College Center for Graduate Studies Baker College of Auburn Hills Baker College of Clinton Township Baker College of Flint Baker College of Muskegon Baker College of Port Huron Calvin College Central Michigan University Cleary University College for Creative Studies Concordia University-Ann Arbor Cornerstone University Davenport University Eastern Michigan University Ferris State University Finlandia University Grand Valley State University Great Lakes Christian College Hope College Kalamazoo College Kettering University Kuyper College Lake Superior State University Lawrence Technological University Madonna University Marygrove College Michigan State University Michigan Technological University Northern Michigan University Northwood University-Michigan Oakland University Olivet College Rochester College Saginaw Valley State University Siena Heights University Spring Arbor University University of Detroit Mercy University of Michigan-Ann Arbor University of Michigan-Dearborn University of Michigan-Flint Walsh College of Accountancy and Business Administration Wayne State University Western Michigan University Best Two-Year Colleges in Michigan for 2017 include: Alpena Community College Bay College Bay Mills Community College Delta College Glen Oaks Community College Gogebic Community College Grand Rapids Community College Henry Ford Community College Kalamazoo Valley Community College Kellogg Community College Kirtland Community College Lansing Community College Macomb Community College Michigan Career and Technical Institute Mid Michigan Community College Monroe County Community College Montcalm Community College Mott Community College Muskegon Community College North Central Michigan College Oakland Community College Schoolcraft College Southwestern Michigan College St Clair County Community College Washtenaw Community College Wayne County Community College District West Shore Community College ### About Us: was founded in 2013 to provide data and expert driven information about employment opportunities and the education needed to land the perfect career. Our materials cover a wide range of professions, industries and degree programs, and are designed for people who want to choose, change or advance their careers. We also provide helpful resources and guides that address social issues, financial aid and other special interest in higher education. Information from has proudly been featured by more than 700 educational institutions.

Luetkemeier M.J.,Alma College
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2017

The popularity of tattoos has increased tremendously in the last 10-years particularly among athletes and military personnel. The tattooing process involves permanently depositing ink under the skin at a similar depth as eccrine sweat glands (3-5 mm). PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the sweat rate and sweat Na concentration of tattooed vs. non-tattooed skin. METHODS: The participants were 10 healthy males (age = 21 ± 1 yr) all with a unilateral tattoo covering a circular area at least 5.2-cm. Sweat was stimulated by iontophoresis using agar gel disks impregnated with 0.5% pilocarpine nitrate. The non-tattooed skin was located contralateral to the position of the tattooed skin. The disks used to collect sweat were composed of Tygon® tubing wound into a spiral so that the sweat was pulled into the tubing by capillary action. The sweat rate was determined by weighing the disk before and after sweat collection. The sweat Na concentration was determined by flame photometry. RESULTS: The mean sweat rate from tattooed skin was significantly less than non-tattooed skin (0.18 ± 0.15 vs. 0.35 ± 0.25 mg/cm/min.; p=0.001). All 10 participants generated less sweat from tattooed skin than non-tattooed skin and the effect was −0.79. The mean sweat Na concentration from tattooed skin was significantly higher than non-tattooed skin (69.1 ± 28.9 vs. 42.6 ± 15.2 mMol/L; p=0.02). Nine of ten participants had higher sweat Na concentration from tattooed skin than non-tattooed skin and the effect size was 1.01. CONCLUSION: Tattooed skin generated less sweat and a higher Na concentration than non-tattooed skin when stimulated by pilocarpine iontophoresis. © 2017 American College of Sports Medicine

Reed B.C.,Alma College
American Journal of Physics | Year: 2017

Long-lived fissionable isotopes other than uranium-235 and plutonium-239 are examined for possible use in fission weapons. A few other isotopes are potentially weaponizable and in some cases have been tried or their criticality experimentally demonstrated. In most cases, however, promising isotopes are either extremely rare, difficult to produce in quantity, or hazardous to handle. Some isotopes can serve to boost the yield of fission weapons, but 235U and 239Pu are likely to remain the only practical primary fuels for nuclear weapons. In view of this, and the fact that this analysis gives no engineering details on the design of nuclear weapons, this paper will be of no assistance to putative bomb-makers; rather, my purpose is to clarify the physics similarities between 235U and 239Pu that make them suitable candidates for fission weapons. © 2016 American Association of Physics Teachers.

Jensen S.,Alma College
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2011

The Kaluza-Klein monopole has been recognized as a string background with significant non-geometric features: It must appear "localized" to winding strings to match the NS5-brane's localization on the T-dual circle. In this work, we explicitly construct this T-dual system in the doubled geometry formalism, which proves to successfully describe the duality despite a broken isometry on one side of the duality pair. We further suggest an extension of the doubled formalism to the gauged linear sigma models describing this system (both bosonic and supersymmetric) and show that previous calculations of worldsheet instanton effects are best understood in this doubled form. © SISSA 2011.

Reed B.C.,Alma College
Physics Education | Year: 2010

A freely available, easy-to-use Excel spreadsheet for performing linear least-squares fits for (x, y) data with errors in both coordinates is described. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Reed B.C.,Alma College
American Journal of Physics | Year: 2010

An undergraduate-level derivation of the probability that a uranium or plutonium fission bomb will suffer an uncontrolled predetonation due to neutrons liberated in spontaneous fissions in the fissile material is developed. Consistent with what was learned by Los Alamos bomb designers during World War II, it is shown why uncontrolled predetonation was not a problem for a U-235 bomb of the Little Boy "gun" design but necessitated development of implosion engineering for the Pu-239 Trinity and Fat Man bombs where the cores were contaminated with highly spontaneously fissile Pu-240. © 2010 American Association of Physics Teachers.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: S-STEM:SCHLR SCI TECH ENG&MATH | Award Amount: 622.43K | Year: 2015

To increase the number of academically talented and financially disadvantaged Biology, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Chemistry, Mathematics, Computer Science, and Physics graduates at Alma College, this project will provide financial support along with the tools and experiences the scholarship recipients need to achieve academic success. The project will build on lessons learned from an NSF-STEP project (now fully supported by the institution) that was designed to enhance the first-year experience. Evidence-based practices such as peer support generated in Learning Communities, early access to faculty through mentoring, and integration into the institutions rich undergraduate research culture will be central to the projects approach to retaining 20 participants in the STEM majors. The project is grounded in the needs of the local and regional community and should help to broaden the participation of first-generation students in the pursuit and attainment of STEM degrees. Scholarships for academically strong STEM students, who may not otherwise be able to afford college, have an impact on the number of STEM graduates prepared to help national, regional, and local companies. Talented STEM graduates help US industries to compete and innovate in a global economy.

Building on research that shows that students identities as scientist can be cultivated by their participation in disciplinary research, the project will incorporate the following activities: (a) an invitation to take part in pre-college experiences designed through the NSF-STEP project (a series of courses, seminars, and community building activities that culminates with a summer research project), (b) a special first-year seminar designed to introduce scholars to interdisciplinary research topics such as biotechnology and environmental monitoring, (c) mentor matching to professionals in industry, and (d) guaranteed, paid research opportunities. It is expected that the findings from the project evaluation will help to contribute to the knowledge base regarding the correlation of STEM retention to students self-identification as scientists and researchers. Formative and summative evaluation will consist of an analysis of how well the project components align with successful attainment of this goal. Standardized survey instruments that are used college wide (the National Survey of Student Engagement [NSSE] and the Cooperative Institutional Research Program-survey [CIRP]) will be used along with customized assessment and evaluation instruments. In addition, participants who do research, present papers, and enter graduate and professional programs in the sciences will be tracked upon graduation. Dissemination of the results of evaluation will be done through webinars, brown bag lunches, and at national meetings like the Annual CUR Institute on Initiating and Sustaining Undergraduate Research Programs and the National Conference on Students in Transition. Discipline specific presentation venues will include the annual meetings of the American Chemical Society, the Annual Meeting of the Association of College and University Biology Educators, and the American Association of Physics Teachers National Meeting.

Reed B.C.,Alma College
Physica Scripta | Year: 2014

The Manhattan Project was the United States Army's program to develop and deploy nuclear weapons during World War II. In these devices, which are known popularly as 'atomic bombs', energy is released not by a chemical explosion but by the much more violent process of fission of nuclei of heavy elements via a neutron-mediated chain-reaction. Three years after taking on this project in mid-1942, the Army's Manhattan Engineer District produced three nuclear bombs of two different designs. Two of these devices were fueled with the 239 isotope of the synthetic element plutonium, while the third employed the rare 235 isotope of uranium. One of the plutonium devices, code-named Trinity, was detonated in a test in southern New Mexico on 16 July 1945; this was the world's first nuclear explosion. Three weeks later, on 6 August, the uranium bomb, Little Boy, was dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. On 9 August the second plutonium device, Fat Man, was dropped on Nagasaki. Together, the two bombings killed over 100 000 people and were at least partially responsible for the Japanese government's 14 August decision to surrender. This article surveys, at an undergraduate level, the science and history of the Manhattan Project. © 2014 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: POP & COMMUNITY ECOL PROG | Award Amount: 436.45K | Year: 2015

Ecologists have long been puzzled about how so many tree species can coexist within a given forest. The main goal of the project is to link two seemingly unrelated and competing mechanisms that have been proposed for tree species coexistence. These are how tree species respond to light availability and to increasing density or proximity of other individuals of the same species. Tree seedling response to soil fungi may hold the key to tree seedling response to light availability and densities of other individuals of the same species. Seedling mortality to soil pathogens associated with their own species is likely enhanced in low light environments for many species, and much more prevalent in species considered shade intolerant. In addition, these biotic plant-soil feedbacks may play a large role in heightening differences among species in their responses to light. This research may help to better define shade tolerance and explain tree species coexistence; both results are vital for effective conservation and management of temperate forests. For instance, results may have implications for forest restoration or the timber industry with regards to tree species with specific light requirements or regeneration difficulties. Additionally, this project will educate, train and mentor undergraduate students in plant and soil microbial ecology as well as provide public outreach to local K-12 teachers and students.

The primary goal of the project is to investigate biotic plant-soil feedbacks that can affect distance- and density-dependent seedling survival and growth across light gradients and among tree species with varying life-history traits. The researchers will employ a novel field-based transplant experiment using fungal exclusion pots, which will investigate the mechanisms of tree seedling response to: 1) feedbacks between plants and the soil microbial community as a function of light availability, and 2) response to low light as a function of these feedbacks for eight temperate tree species that vary in seedling shade tolerance, local adult abundance and association with arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal fungi. Thus, this research will investigate the degree to which plant-soil feedbacks contribute to species coexistence through not only negative-density dependent processes, but also as a driver of species light gradient partitioning. The project will also investigate which factors (e.g., soil pathogen density and composition, and/or seedling traits) contribute to greater negative effects from disease and plant-soil feedback in low light.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: ANIMAL BEHAVIOR | Award Amount: 152.00K | Year: 2010

Animal communication often involves conspicuous and complex signals that are favored by selection because they are preferred by potential mates, but are also exploited by eavesdropping competitor males and predators within a communication network. The evolution of signals is also influenced by the physical environment in which communication takes place. In this study, researchers will investigate how aspects of male signals maximize reception and response of targeted female receivers, and/or reduce exploitation by eavesdroppers. Lab experiments and field studies will address two questions: 1) How does the physical environment of forest floor leaf litter (light spectrum, vegetation background) affect detection and discrimination of male signals by intended receivers (female wolf spiders) and eavesdroppers (male wolf spiders, predatory toads and jumping spiders)? The research uses digital video/audio playback technology to alter male signals and environmental backgrounds (color, visual complexity), to test how aspects of visual signals (motion, background contrast) and/or use of multimodal signals (visual and vibration signals) affect detection and discrimination. 2) How does the social context (male density, prior experience) influence responses to signals by females and male eavesdroppers? Experiments will modify the social environment (male density, encounter experience, mate options available), information content of signals (apparent male quality), and sensory cues (visual, vibration) to determine their influence on females and male eavesdroppers. Taken together, results will allow a better understanding of the function and evolution of animal communication in complex environments. This project will promote teaching, training and learning through collaboration between a research university and a small liberal arts college (Alma College) and a partnership with the Cincinnati Nature Center in multiple ways: involvement of graduate and undergraduate students from both institutions (including under-represented ethnic groups and women) in a research student exchange program, capstone experience and spring term courses, and public lectures and workshops.

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