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News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.newscientist.com

THE coldest place in the universe marks the grave of two stars. So says a team that trained the ALMA telescope on the spot, known as the Boomerang Nebula. Point a telescope almost anywhere in the cosmos and you’ll see that it is at 2.7 kelvin – cold enough to freeze hydrogen on Earth. But one spot is even colder – the Boomerang Nebula, 5000 light years away in the constellation Centaurus. Here the temperature is 0.1 kelvin, or just above absolute zero. A mystery for years, astronomers can now see that this cosmic winter was caused by a stellar duo’s violent death. When small stars perish, they expand and create glowing shells of ionised gas, called planetary nebulae. But when astronomers observed the Boomerang Nebula in 1995, they saw something quite odd. It’s the only known object in the universe to absorb light from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) – the afterglow of the big bang that keeps the universe 2.7 degrees above absolute zero. That means the nebula must be even colder. “We can chart the whole evolution of the Boomerang Nebula, which I think is unprecedented” Expanding gases will cool, but no one knew how Boomerang’s central star could eject enough gas to cool it to the temperature we see now in so short a time. “Obviously, something special had happened at this source,” says Wouter Vlemmings at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. So Vlemmings and Raghvendra Sahai at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory turned ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, towards the chilly nebula. Now we have the first detailed map of the Boomerang. On large scales, at least 3.3 times as much mass as the sun contains is being swept away from the central star at 170 kilometres per second within a spherical shell of gas. Could a single star produce such an outburst? Sahai didn’t think so. ALMA’s high resolution let the team probe the frigid heart of the system as well. It turns out that within the shell of gas two smaller bubbles are expanding outward from the central star. The team suggests that the single star was actually two, with one much larger than the other. When the massive star died and started to swell, it swallowed the smaller one. The companion continued to orbit the primary star’s core within the shell of gas. Eventually, it spiralled into the core roughly 1000 years ago in a violent merger that disgorged the two smaller lobes of gas (arxiv.org/abs/1703.06929). “We can chart the whole evolution of this object from the beginning to the end, which I think is unprecedented,” Sahai says. That evolution explains why the Boomerang is atypical. “In most of these situations, the outflowing gas comes out in a trickle,” says Mark Morris at the University of California, Los Angeles. But thanks to the binary interaction, Boomerang’s gas came out in a gush instead. Ultimately, the Boomerang Nebula will warm up too. It’s just that astronomers are watching it when it’s still quite cold. “It could be a reasonably common event, but because of the short timescale and the number of sources, it might just be that in the immediate neighbourhood of the sun we only expect to see one or two of these,” Vlemmings says. “We were probably somewhat lucky to find this source at the right time.” This article appeared in print under the headline “Double death explains universe’s coldest spot”


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: phys.org

At about three times the current distance of Pluto from the Sun, DeeDee is the second most distant known trans-Neptunian object (TNO) with a confirmed orbit, surpassed only by the dwarf planet Eris. Astronomers estimate that there are tens-of-thousands of these icy bodies in the outer solar system beyond the orbit of Neptune. The new ALMA data reveal, for the first time, that DeeDee is roughly 635 kilometers across, or about two-thirds the diameter of the dwarf planet Ceres, the largest member of our asteroid belt. At this size, DeeDee should have enough mass to be spherical, the criteria necessary for astronomers to consider it a dwarf planet, though it has yet to receive that official designation. "Far beyond Pluto is a region surprisingly rich with planetary bodies. Some are quite small but others have sizes to rival Pluto, and could possibly be much larger," said David Gerdes, a scientist with the University of Michigan and lead author on a paper appearing in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "Because these objects are so distant and dim, it's incredibly difficult to even detect them, let alone study them in any detail. ALMA, however, has unique capabilities that enabled us to learn exciting details about these distant worlds." Currently, DeeDee is about 92 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun. An astronomical unit is the average distance from the Earth to the Sun, or about 150 million kilometers. At this tremendous distance, it takes DeeDee more than 1,100 years to complete one orbit. Light from DeeDee takes nearly 13 hours to reach Earth. Gerdes and his team announced the discovery of DeeDee in the fall of 2016. They found it using the 4-meter Blanco telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile as part of ongoing observations for the Dark Energy Survey, an optical survey of about 12 percent of the sky that seeks to understand the as-yet mysterious force that is accelerating the expansion of the universe. The Dark Energy Survey produces vast troves of astronomical images, which give astronomers the opportunity to also search for distant solar system objects. The initial search, which includes nearly 15,000 images, identified more than 1.1 billion candidate objects. The vast majority of these turned out to be background stars and even more distant galaxies. A small fraction, however, were observed to move slowly across the sky over successive observations, the telltale sign of a TNO. One such object was identified on 12 separate images. The astronomers informally dubbed it DeeDee, which is short for Distant Dwarf. The optical data from the Blanco telescope enabled the astronomers to measure DeeDee's distance and orbital properties, but they were unable to determine its size or other physical characteristics. It was possible that DeeDee was a relatively small member of our solar system, yet reflective enough to be detected from Earth. Or, it could be uncommonly large and dark, reflecting only a tiny portion of the feeble sunlight that reaches it; both scenarios would produce identical optical data. Since ALMA observes the cold, dark universe, it is able to detect the heat - in the form of millimeter-wavelength light - emitted naturally by cold objects in space. The heat signature from a distant solar system object would be directly proportional to its size. "We calculated that this object would be incredibly cold, only about 30 degrees Kelvin, just a little above absolute zero," said Gerdes. While the reflected visible light from DeeDee is only about as bright as a candle seen halfway the distance to the moon, ALMA was able to quickly home in on the planetary body's heat signature and measure its brightness in millimeter-wavelength light. This allowed astronomers to determine that it reflects only about 13 percent of the sunlight that hits it. That is about the same reflectivity of the dry dirt found on a baseball infield. By comparing these ALMA observations to the earlier optical data, the astronomers had the information necessary to calculate the object's size. "ALMA picked it up fairly easily," said Gerdes. "We were then able to resolve the ambiguity we had with the optical data alone." Objects like DeeDee are cosmic leftovers from the formation of the solar system. Their orbits and physical properties reveal important details about the formation of planets, including Earth. This discovery is also exciting because it shows that it is possible to detect very distant, slowly moving objects in our own solar system. The researchers note that these same techniques could be used to detect the hypothesized "Planet Nine" that may reside far beyond DeeDee and Eris. "There are still new worlds to discover in our own cosmic backyard," concludes Gerdes. "The solar system is a rich and complicated place."


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

IMAGE:  Artist concept of the planetary body 2014 UZ224, more informally known as DeeDee. ALMA was able to observe the faint millimeter-wavelength "glow " emitted by the object, confirming it is roughly... view more Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), astronomers have revealed extraordinary details about a recently discovered far-flung member of our solar system, the planetary body 2014 UZ224, more informally known as DeeDee. At about three times the current distance of Pluto from the Sun, DeeDee is the second most distant known trans-Neptunian object (TNO) with a confirmed orbit, surpassed only by the dwarf planet Eris. Astronomers estimate that there are tens-of-thousands of these icy bodies in the outer solar system beyond the orbit of Neptune. The new ALMA data reveal, for the first time, that DeeDee is roughly 635 kilometers across, or about two-thirds the diameter of the dwarf planet Ceres, the largest member of our asteroid belt. At this size, DeeDee should have enough mass to be spherical, the criteria necessary for astronomers to consider it a dwarf planet, though it has yet to receive that official designation. "Far beyond Pluto is a region surprisingly rich with planetary bodies. Some are quite small but others have sizes to rival Pluto, and could possibly be much larger," said David Gerdes, a scientist with the University of Michigan and lead author on a paper appearing in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "Because these objects are so distant and dim, it's incredibly difficult to even detect them, let alone study them in any detail. ALMA, however, has unique capabilities that enabled us to learn exciting details about these distant worlds." Currently, DeeDee is about 92 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun. An astronomical unit is the average distance from the Earth to the Sun, or about 150 million kilometers. At this tremendous distance, it takes DeeDee more than 1,100 years to complete one orbit. Light from DeeDee takes nearly 13 hours to reach Earth. Gerdes and his team announced the discovery of DeeDee in the fall of 2016. They found it using the 4-meter Blanco telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile as part of ongoing observations for the Dark Energy Survey, an optical survey of about 12 percent of the sky that seeks to understand the as-yet mysterious force that is accelerating the expansion of the universe. The Dark Energy Survey produces vast troves of astronomical images, which give astronomers the opportunity to also search for distant solar system objects. The initial search, which includes nearly 15,000 images, identified more than 1.1 billion candidate objects. The vast majority of these turned out to be background stars and even more distant galaxies. A small fraction, however, were observed to move slowly across the sky over successive observations, the telltale sign of a TNO. One such object was identified on 12 separate images. The astronomers informally dubbed it DeeDee, which is short for Distant Dwarf. The optical data from the Blanco telescope enabled the astronomers to measure DeeDee's distance and orbital properties, but they were unable to determine its size or other physical characteristics. It was possible that DeeDee was a relatively small member of our solar system, yet reflective enough to be detected from Earth. Or, it could be uncommonly large and dark, reflecting only a tiny portion of the feeble sunlight that reaches it; both scenarios would produce identical optical data. Since ALMA observes the cold, dark universe, it is able to detect the heat - in the form of millimeter-wavelength light - emitted naturally by cold objects in space. The heat signature from a distant solar system object would be directly proportional to its size. "We calculated that this object would be incredibly cold, only about 30 degrees Kelvin, just a little above absolute zero," said Gerdes. While the reflected visible light from DeeDee is only about as bright as a candle seen halfway the distance to the moon, ALMA was able to quickly home in on the planetary body's heat signature and measure its brightness in millimeter-wavelength light. This allowed astronomers to determine that it reflects only about 13 percent of the sunlight that hits it. That is about the same reflectivity of the dry dirt found on a baseball infield. By comparing these ALMA observations to the earlier optical data, the astronomers had the information necessary to calculate the object's size. "ALMA picked it up fairly easily," said Gerdes. "We were then able to resolve the ambiguity we had with the optical data alone." Objects like DeeDee are cosmic leftovers from the formation of the solar system. Their orbits and physical properties reveal important details about the formation of planets, including Earth. This discovery is also exciting because it shows that it is possible to detect very distant, slowly moving objects in our own solar system. The researchers note that these same techniques could be used to detect the hypothesized "Planet Nine" that may reside far beyond DeeDee and Eris. "There are still new worlds to discover in our own cosmic backyard," concludes Gerdes. "The solar system is a rich and complicated place." The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of ESO, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded by ESO on behalf of its Member States, by NSF in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and the National Science Council of Taiwan (NSC) and by NINS in cooperation with the Academia Sinica (AS) in Taiwan and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI). ALMA construction and operations are led by ESO on behalf of its Member States; by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), on behalf of North America; and by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) on behalf of East Asia. The Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) provides the unified leadership and management of the construction, commissioning and operation of ALMA.


News Article | May 1, 2017
Site: phys.org

An image of the colliding galaxies known as The Antennae, taken in the optical and near-infrared. Astronomers using the ALMA submillimeter array have found evidence for shocked gas near the nucleus of the northern (upper) galaxy, and argue that it is due to material infalling onto the nuclear region. Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA Collisions between galaxies, especially ones rich in molecular gas, can trigger bursts of star formation that heat the dust and result in their shining brightly in the infrared. Astronomers think that there is also significant gas inflowing to the central regions of galaxies that can stimulate starburst activity. Inflowing gas, as it collides with the gas in the inner regions, should produce powerful shocks that should make the gas itself glow. Some evidence for gas inflows on galactic scales has been discovered, but there have been few observational confirmations of the effects of the inflowing material in the inner region of the galactic nucleus. CfA astronomers Junko Ueda, David Wilner, and Giovanni Fazio used the ALMA submillimeter array to study the gas in the central regions of the Antennae galaxies, the nearest mid-stage merging system (about seventy-two million light-years away). The star formation rate of the system is estimated to be about ten solar-masses per year, much of it in the off-nuclear region (the so-called "overlap region") of the two galaxies; the two nuclear regions themselves appear to have lower star formation rates. The astronomers examined the star formation in one of the two nuclear regions, whose gas abundance is as much as one hundred times more than in the Milky Way's center. They measured the emission from five organic molecules, CN, HCN, HCO+, CH3OH (methanol), and HNCO (isocyanic acid), looking for evidence of shock activity. And they found it. The methanol and isocyanic acid in particular were detected, for the first time in this object, and show clear evidence ion their intensities, ratios, and velocities for being excited by shocks. The evidence from the geometry of the emission suggests that the shocks are produced by infall, rather than from the collision. However, there is also the possibility that the induced burst of star formation produced local shocks that contributed to the shock activity. Although further work is needed, the results so far indicate that infalling material is likely responsible. More information: Junko Ueda et al. ALMA observations of the dense and shocked gas in the nuclear region of NGC 4038 (Antennae galaxies), Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan (2017). DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psw110


All references in this document (including "Q1 2017", "WhiteWave acquisition" and "2017 guidance" sections above) to like-for-like changes, "like-for-like New Danone" changes recurring operating income, recurring operating margin, recurring net income and recurring EPS correspond to financial indicators not defined in IFRS that are used by Danone. Their definitions, as well as their reconciliation with financial statements, are listed on pages 7 & 8. "Q1 has been an important time for all teams at Danone. As anticipated, sales are showing a slow start to the year. In a continued volatile environment, we have made progress on our key priorities across our categories. In particular, to address headwinds and sub-optimal execution in the Fresh Dairy category in Europe, which sequentially impacted our performance, we continue to adapt our plans. In addition, in a matter of only a few weeks, we simplified our global organization, and localized further our decision-making. This new organization allowed us to decouple the company's growth & efficiency agenda, with the Protein program launched to support both our short term results and our growth journey. At the same time we are entering into a new chapter with the acquisition of WhiteWave. With leading positions in some of the fastest-growing, health-focused global categories, this combination will drive our Alimentation Revolution, our business performance, and will accelerate our 2020 profitable growth journey. I am particularly impressed with the performance of Alpro in Europe, which paves the way to a successful roll- out across many more countries in the future. In the US, last week's closing ended a prolonged process which caused growing managerial and business disruptions in a low growth context for the food sector. The combined experience and capabilities of the DanoneWave management team and the extensive work done by the integration team since July will fully deliver our synergy plan from day 1, address the current business challenges, and capture the business opportunities ahead starting from H2. I am therefore fully confident that we will drive strong value creation from the WhiteWave acquisition, and deliver the attractive financial benefits we outlined last July. Reflecting this in the short term, we are now upgrading our Danone FY 2017 guidance to double-digit recurring EPS growth at constant exchange rate. 2017 is a year of construction that will strengthen Danone as an even more resilient company, best prepared to seize tomorrow's opportunities, with the right portfolio of products and brands to serve our consumers meaningfully in a balanced array of geographies. And with fully committed teams". Consolidated sales stood at €5,464 million, up 0.7% like-for-like, reflecting a -2.6% decline in volume and a +3.3% rise in value. Reported sales were up +3.0%, including changes in exchange rates (+2.8%) and in the scope of consolidation (-0.5%). The exchange-rate effect reflects the positive impact of changes in the Russian ruble, Brazilian real and the US dollar. Changes in the scope of consolidation result primarily from the deconsolidation of Dumex China since May 31, 2016. The Fresh Dairy Products division reported sales down -2.3% like-for-like, including a -5.3% decline in volume and a +3.0% rise in value. In Europe, sales continued to be impacted by difficult market conditions and Activia's performance. As announced in February, Danone is implementing all necessary initiatives to reverse this trend. Local execution plans are being reworked (packaging, communication campaigns and activation) and will be rolled out gradually, country by country in the course of the second quarter. They will be complemented by new product launches in Activia's range. In parallel, local brands such as Les deux vaches in France, Danio in Poland and in Italy as well as Oikos in Italy have continued to be successfully developed. Within the CIS and North America region[1], Danone generated stable growth. The ALMA[2] region reported a slightly negative performance, as consumption trends in Brazil worsened. Initiatives are being rolled out to boost the brand portfolio and protect the profitability equation. These include a Portfolio Revenue Growth Management (PRGM) program aimed at optimizing the product mix, establishing the best price-promotion-format positioning for each brand. At the same time, communication plans are being adjusted and innovation projects reinforced. The Waters division reported sales up +1.7% like-for-like, including a -1.3% decrease in volume and a +3.0% rise in value. Danone is continuously gaining market share with leading positions both in aquadrinks and plain water, supported by strong category fundamentals and brand activation plans. The division's overall performance reflected a slightly lower start to the year in Europe compared to previous quarters due to a high basis of comparison and Mizone's adaptation in China. In China, where non-alcoholic beverages remained in transition, Danone continued to focus on protecting Mizone's market share and fueling growth initiatives at the right pace and through disciplined investments. Early Life Nutrition sales rose +4.1% like-for-like, including a 0.1% rise in volume and a +4.0% increase in value. This solid performance reflected major gains in developing a direct distribution model in China, where "direct" sales rose by a very strong double-digit growth supported by its growing presence in specialized stores and direct e-commerce through successful initiatives, such as the recent launch of Aptamil Platinium on the ultra-premium segment. In parallel, the transition of the "indirect" channel for China, induced by a fast-changing regulatory environment, continued and should last until the new regulations are fully enforced, creating volatility in the performance from one quarter to the other. Danone also pursues its investments in Tailored Nutrition, a major growth driver in the short and medium term. This segment, which already represents around 10% of division revenue, rose strongly in the first quarter. Medical Nutrition sales rose by a steep 8.8% like-for-like, with volume and price mix contributing +4.8% and +4.0% respectively. These figures reflect the division's very strong performance in Europe and continued growth in emerging markets, mainly driven by China. China, Turkey and Benelux were main contributors to growth, observed across all categories, with a strong contribution from the Neocate and Nutrison brands. WHITEWAVE INTEGRATION: IMMEDIATE IMPLEMENTATION OF NEW ORGANIZATION Danone and WhiteWave combine their activities for North America to operate as a Strategic Business Unit, named "DanoneWave". As previously disclosed, the combination will include Danone Dairy's and WhiteWave's current North American businesses under the leadership of Lorna Davis, who has been appointed Chief Executive Officer of the combined entity. This new organization is scaled to accelerate Danone's growth journey towards 2020 and is specifically designed to immediately generate the synergies announced last July, set the operational business back in motion after the impact of a lengthy process of closing, while preserving WhiteWave's entrepreneurial spirit and its innovation capacity. As part of this new organization, Danone is pleased to announce that Blaine McPeak, WhiteWave's former Chief Operating Officer (COO), is appointed COO of DanoneWave effective as of the closing date. Blaine McPeak is responsible for the business operations, building, commercializing and implementing the strategic growth plans of the new entity. In parallel, the dedicated Integration team, in place since last July, will ensure the rapid and smooth integration of businesses, starting to deliver the synergy plan immediately. To reflect Danone's recent evolution, including WhiteWave's integration, the Company will use a new divisional and regional breakdown to report its operations, starting Q2 2017: As of Q2 2017, the performance will be reported based on two different regions: Following the closing of the WhiteWave acquisition, Danone reconfirms that the transaction will accelerate Danone's growth journey towards 2020, resulting in strong value creation. As a result, the key value creation metrics are confirmed and include: For 2017, Danone upgrades from "solid" to "strong" the expected recurring EPS accretion from the WhiteWave acquisition. Danone has decided to upgrade its 2017 guidance to a double-digit recurring EPS growth at constant exchange rate (compared to the 3.10€ recurring EPS reported in 2016). This new guidance is based on: MAJOR FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS AND DEVELOPMENTS OVER THE PERIOD In 2017, Danone assumes that economic conditions will remain particularly volatile and uncertain overall, with persistently fragile or even deflationary consumer trends in Europe, and specific contextual difficulties in a few major markets, including the CIS, China and Brazil. In addition, Danone anticipates a year-on-year mid-single digit rise in the cost of its strategic raw materials. In this context, the Company will continue to strengthen the resilience of its model through a range of initiatives aimed at offsetting inflation and limiting its exposure to volatility in some raw materials while ensuring the competitiveness of its products.                                                                                                                                                    More specifically, Danone anticipates a steep rise in milk prices over the year, with variations from one geographical area to the next: Regarding other raw materials, including plastic, sugar and fruits, Danone also anticipates inflationary conditions overall. In this context, Danone will continue to give priority this year to improving margins and strengthen its growth model. The Company will rely on successful execution of its growth plans, optimization of its business model reinforced by the "Protein" program, and disciplined resource allocations that promote strategic growth opportunities over short-term tactical allocations. The presentation to analysts and investors, held by Cécile Cabanis, EVP, CFO, Strategy and Information Systems will be broadcast live today from 6.00 p.m. (Paris time) at www.danone.com.  Related slides are also available on the website, in the Investors section. FINANCIAL INDICATORS NOT DEFINED IN IFRS Due to rounding, the sum of values presented may differ from totals as reported. Such differences are not material. See Methodology note on page 8. Additional indicator of like-for-like changes:  "like-for-like New Danone" changes Since completion of the acquisition, WhiteWave and Danone's activities have been combined and are generating synergies. Separate reporting of WhiteWave and Danone in their pre-acquisition forms thus no longer reflects their real performance. This being the case, Danone has decided to monitor and then report its performance by integrating the contribution of WhiteWave as a whole to its organic growth from the time of the acquisition by using an additional indicator - "like-for-like New Danone" changes. This indicator is a variation on the "like-for-like" changes indicator used by Danone which integrates WhiteWave's performance starting at the date of acquisition: This additional indicator will be used temporarily, starting with the second quarter of 2017 and running through the end of 2018. Financial indicators not defined in IFRS, used by Danone and presented in this press release These indicators are calculated as follows: Like-for-like changes in sales, recurring operating income and recurring operating margin reflect Danone's organic performance and essentially exclude the impact of: Since inflation in Argentina-already structurally high-accelerated further in 2014, in particular following the sharp, steep devaluation of the peso in January, using an identical exchange rate to compare 2014 figures with those for the prior year did not accurately reflect Danone's organic performance in that country accurately. As a result, the Company fine-tuned the definition of like-for-like changes to include in its exchange-rate impact the differences caused by the exceptional volatility in structurally hyperinflationary countries. Danone is applying this methodology, which is applicable only to Argentina, starting with the release of 2014 full-year results. More specifically, this methodology leads to (a) limiting the inflation of price and cost of goods sold per kilo to their average level for the past three years and (b) capping Recurring operating margin at its prior-year level; this methodology has been applied to each division operating in Argentina. With respect to 2014, adjustment for the full year had been recorded in the fourth quarter of 2014. "Like-for-like New Danone" changes (or "Like-for-like including WhiteWave starting April 2017" changes) in sales, recurring operating income and recurring operating margin reflect the organic performance of Danone and WhiteWave combined. This indicator corresponds to like-for-like changes for Danone and WhiteWave combined, considering the activity of WhiteWave as a whole by integrating its companies during the fiscal years prior and following their acquisition in April 2017: Financial data related to periods prior to the closing date and used to calculate "like-for-like New Danone" changes are extracted from the historical income statements of, respectively, Danone (prepared in euros under IFRS) and WhiteWave (prepared in US dollars under US-GAAP). However, to ensure that these can be compared with the income statement of Danone and WhiteWave combined, they are adjusted as follows: Recurring operating income is defined as Danone's operating income excluding Other operating income and expenses. Other operating income and expenses is defined under Recommendation 2013-03 of the French CNC (format of consolidated financial statements for companies reporting under international reporting standards), and comprises significant items that, because of their exceptional nature, cannot be viewed as inherent to its recurring activities. These mainly include capital gains and losses on disposals of fully consolidated companies, impairment charges on goodwill, significant costs related to strategic restructuring and major external growth transactions, and costs related to major crisis and major litigations. Furthermore, in connection with of IFRS 3 (Revised) and IAS 27 (Revised) relating to business combinations, the Company also classifies in Other operating income and expenses (i) acquisition costs related to business combinations, (ii) revaluation profit or loss accounted for following a loss of control, (iii) changes in earn-outs relating to business combinations and subsequent to acquisition date, and (iv) certain income and expenses related to the purchase price allocation of WhiteWave. Recurring operating margin is defined as Recurring operating income over Sales ratio. Non-recurring results from associates include significant items that, because of their exceptional nature, cannot be viewed as inherent to the recurring activity of those companies and distort the reading of their performance. They include primarily (i) capital gains and losses on disposal and impairment of Investments in associates, and (ii) when material, non-recurring items as defined by Danone included in the net income from associates. Recurring net income (or Recurring net income - Group Share) corresponds to the Group share in the consolidated recurring net income. The recurring net income measures Danone's recurring performance and excludes significant items that, because of their exceptional nature, cannot be viewed as inherent to its recurring performance. Such non-recurring income and expenses mainly include other income and expenses, non-recurring results from associates, capital gains and losses on disposals and impairments of Other non-fully-consolidated entities and tax income and expenses related to non-recurring income and expenses. Such income and expenses excluded from Net income are defined as Non-recurring net income and expenses. Recurring EPS (or Recurring net income - Group Share, per share after dilution) is defined as Recurring net income over Diluted number of shares ratio. Unless otherwise indicated, amounts are expressed in millions of euros and rounded to the nearest million. In general, figures presented in this press release are rounded to the nearest full unit. As a result, the sum of rounded amounts may show non-material differences with the total as reported. Note that ratios and differences are calculated based on underlying amounts and not on the basis of rounded amounts. This press release contains certain forward-looking statements concerning Danone. In some cases, you can identify these forward-looking statements by forward-looking words, such as "estimate," "expect," "anticipate," "project," "plan," "intend," "believe," "forecast," "foresee," "likely," "may," "should," "goal," "target," "might," "will," "could," "predict," "continue," "convinced," and "confident," the negative or plural of these words and other comparable terminology. Forward looking statements in this document include, but are not limited to, statements regarding Danone's operation of its business including that of WhiteWave following completion of the merger, the expected benefits of the transaction, and the future operation, direction and success of Danone's business including that of WhiteWave. Although Danone believes its expectations are based on reasonable assumptions, these forward-looking statements are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, which could cause actual results to differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements. For a detailed description of these risks and uncertainties, please refer to the "Risk Factor" section of Danone's Registration Document (the current version of which is available on www.danone.com). Subject to regulatory requirements, Danone does not undertake to publicly update or revise any of these forward-looking statements. This document does not constitute an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy Danone shares.


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.newscientist.com

The early universe was filthy. That much can be garnered from a new detection of cosmic dust in a galaxy whose light reaches us from when the universe was only 600 million years old. In the past 10 years, astronomers have learned that dust is forged during the aftermath of the supernova deaths of massive, short-lived stars. But many mysteries surround dust’s origin. Astronomers, for example, don’t know how dust can withstand the violent shock waves from supernovae and precisely how long it takes to form. With that in mind, Nicolas Laporte at University College London and his colleagues turned ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, towards the early universe. They studied a star-forming galaxy called A2744_YD4, whose light dates back to just 200 million years after the birth of the earliest stars. With a little help from a foreground galaxy cluster called Abell 2744, which acted as a gravitational lens and thus magnified the distant galaxy by a factor of two, Laporte’s team discovered the dust. To boot, there’s so much of it that it could fill the sun 6 million times over. So much dust so early on provides a strict limit on the time it takes to form, which should help astronomers better understand some of the mysteries surrounding the origins of dust. It also hints that the early universe might have looked familiar, with protoplanetary discs or even Earth-like planets circling those early stars, says Darach Watson at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark. That’s because dust is a crucial building block in all molecules – from the molecular hydrogen within stars to the complex molecules inside planets and even you. “You need dust to do anything actually interesting in the universe at all,” says Watson. The findings also suggest that tracing cosmic dust could be a useful probe for studying these early galaxies. Astronomers usually study the universe’s first galaxies by counting their numbers, measuring their luminosities and studying their colours, says co-author Richard Ellis at University College London. That’s much less information than we can get from observations of nearby galaxies, of which we can take crystal-clear pictures and detect spectral lines – spikes or drops in light that appear at specific wavelengths based on the chemical elements they contain. But the detection of early dust is a game changer. It stands as a proxy for the presence of heavier elements, which similarly form from supernova explosions. Ultimately, it may show how quickly those first galaxies evolved. Next, astronomers want to peer back to a time in cosmic history when the emission from dust disappears. That will point towards the first galaxies, which were so pristine that they contained only the hydrogen and helium left over from the big bang. “That’s what we’re looking for,” says Watson. “We’re trying to push back far enough where we see the formation of the first galaxies.”


News Article | April 25, 2017
Site: phys.org

High-redshift quasars and galaxies (at redshift higher than 5.0) are useful probes of the early universe in many respects. They offer essential clues on the evolution of the intergalactic medium, quasar evolution, early supermassive black hole growth, as well as evolution of galaxies through cosmic times. Generally speaking, they enable scientists to study the universe when it looked much different than it does today. Recently, Matsuoka's team has presented the results from the Subaru High-z Exploration of Low-Luminosity Quasars (SHELLQs) project, which uses multi-band photometry data provided by the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Subaru Strategic Program (SSP) survey. HSC is a wide-field camera installed on the Subaru 8.2 m telescope located at the summit of Maunakea, Hawaii and operated by NAOJ. The researchers selected nearly 50 photometric candidates from the HSC-SSP source catalog and then observed them with spectrographs on the Subaru Telescope and the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), located on the island on the Canary Island of La Palma, Spain. The observations resulted in the identification of 24 new quasars and eight new luminous galaxies at redshift between 5.7 and 6.8. "We took optical spectra of 48 candidates with GTC/OSIRIS and Subaru/FOCAS, and newly discovered 24 quasars and 8 luminous galaxies at 5.7 According to the study, the newly detected quasars have lower luminosity than most of the previously known high-redshift quasi-stellar objects, in contrast to the new galaxies, which have extremely high luminosity when compared to other galaxies found at similar redshift. The quasar with the highest redshift (6.8) described in the paper received designation J1429 − 0104, while the one with the lowest redshift (5.92) was named J0903 + 0211. Among the new galaxies, J1628 + 4312 was found at the highest redshift (6.03) and J2237 − 0006 at the lowest (5.77). J2237 − 0006 is also the most luminous newly found galaxy. Meanwhile, the researchers revealed that the SHELLQs project continues, and more new quasars are being discovered, which will be reported in forthcoming papers. "Further survey observations and follow-up studies of the identified objects, including the construction of the quasar luminosity function at z ∼ 6, are ongoing," they wrote in the paper. The authors also noted that they plan to conduct follow-up observations of the newly discovered quasars and galaxies at various wavelengths from sub-millimeter/radio to X-ray. Several of these objects have already been observed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile, near-infrared spectrographs on the Gemini telescope, located in Hawaii and the Very Large Telescope (VLT), also in Chile. More information: Subaru High-z Exploration of Low-Luminosity Quasars (SHELLQs). II. Discovery of 32 Quasars and Luminous Galaxies at 5.7 arxiv.org/abs/1704.05854 Abstract We present spectroscopic identification of 32 new quasars and luminous galaxies discovered at 5.7 10^(43) erg/s) and narrow (


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: phys.org

Many young stars, as well as more middle-aged stars like our sun, have "debris disks"—like the Oort Cloud in our own solar system—that are believed to be remnants of the system's formation. Recently, radio observations have detected gas within a number of such discs, but it was not clear why the gas was there. There are two major hypotheses: either the gas is primordial gas from the original gas cloud that formed the star, or it originates from collisions between objects in the disk. In search of a solution to this problem, a team from the RIKEN Star and Planet Formation Laboratory decided to look at emissions of carbon, which are important as they can provide clues to the origin of the gas. Normally, carbon will exist mostly in a molecular form, as carbon monoxide. Ultraviolet light from the central star will "dissociate" the atoms, creating free atomic carbon, but normally a chemical reaction—mediated by hydrogen—recombines the carbon into CO. However, if there is no hydrogen, then the reaction does not take place and the carbon remains in its atomic state. Aya Higuchi, the first author of the paper, published in Astrophysical Journal Letters, was able to use the ten-meter Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) in Chile to examine the atomic carbon line from two young star systems—49 Ceti and Beta Pictoris—that are known to have debris disks. They then compared this from data on CO taken by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an array of telescopes in the same facility. "We were surprised," she says, "to find atomic carbon in the disk, the first time this observation has been made at sub-millimeter wavelength. But more so, we were surprised at how much there was. It was about as common as the carbon monoxide." The implication, at least for these two star systems, is that there is very little hydrogen to drive the carbon back into CO. Because hydrogen makes up most of the gas in protoplanetary clouds, this hints that the gas is not primordial, but rather is generated from some process taking place in the debris disk. Gas has been found in other debris disks, but is not found in all. Higuchi says, "If we can perform similar measurements on other young stars, it will help to clarify the origin of the gas in debris disk. Our data here suggests that the gas is secondary." Looking to the future, she continues, "This work will also help to understand how a protoplanetary disk evolves into a debris disks by distinguishing the origin of the gas in the disks." Explore further: ALMA finds unexpected trove of gas around larger stars


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Many young stars, as well as more middle-aged stars like our sun, have "debris disks"--like the Oort Cloud in our own solar system--that are believed to be remnants of the system's formation. Recently, radio observations have detected gas within a number of such discs, but it was not clear why the gas was there. There are two major hypotheses: either the gas is primordial gas from the original gas cloud that formed the star, or it originates from collisions between objects in the disk. In search of a solution to this problem, a team from the RIKEN Star and Planet Formation Laboratory decided to look at emissions of carbon, which are important as they can provide clues to the origin of the gas. Normally, carbon will exist mostly in a molecular form, as carbon monoxide. Ultraviolet light from the central star will "dissociate" the atoms, creating free atomic carbon, but normally a chemical reaction--mediated by hydrogen--recombines the carbon into CO. However, if there is no hydrogen, then the reaction does not take place and the carbon remains in its atomic state. Aya Higuchi, the first author of the paper, published in Astrophysical Journal Letters, was able to use the ten-meter Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) in Chile to examine the atomic carbon line from two young star systems--49 Ceti and Beta Pictoris--that are known to have debris disks. They then compared this from data on CO taken by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an array of telescopes in the same facility. "We were surprised," she says, "to find atomic carbon in the disk, the first time this observation has been made at sub-millimeter wavelength. But more so, we were surprised at how much there was. It was about as common as the carbon monoxide." The implication, at least for these two star systems, is that there is very little hydrogen to drive the carbon back into CO. Because hydrogen makes up most of the gas in protoplanetary clouds, this hints that the gas is not primordial, but rather is generated from some process taking place in the debris disk. Gas has been found in other debris disks, but is not found in all. Higuchi says, "If we can perform similar measurements on other young stars, it will help to clarify the origin of the gas in debris disk. Our data here suggests that the gas is secondary." Looking to the future, she continues, "This work will also help to understand how a protoplanetary disk evolves into a debris disks by distinguishing the origin of the gas in the disks." The work was done in collaboration with scientists from Ibaraki University and Nagoya University.


News Article | April 25, 2017
Site: phys.org

A new study looked at 52 submillimeter galaxies to help us understand the early ages of our universe. Image: University of Nottingham/Omar Almaini In order to make sense of our universe, astronomers have to work hard, and they have to push observing technology to the limit. Some of that hard work revolves around what are called sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs.) SMGs are galaxies that can only be observed in the submillimeter range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The sub-millimeter range is the waveband between the far-infrared and microwave wavebands. (It's also called terahertz radiation.) We've only had the capability to observe in the sub-millimeter range for a couple decades. We've also increased the angular resolution of telescopes, which helps us discern separate objects. SMGs themselves are dim in other wavelengths, because they're obscured by dust. The optical light is blocked by the dust, and absorbed and re-emitted in the sub-millimeter range. In the sub-millimeter, SMGs are highly luminous; trillions of times more luminous than the sun, in fact. This is because they are extremely active star-forming regions. SMGs are forming stars at a rate hundreds of times greater than the Milky Way. They are also generally older, more distant galaxies, so they're red-shifted. Studying them helps us understand galaxy and star formation in the early universe. A new study, led by James Simpson of the University of Edinburgh and Durham University, has examined 52 of these galaxies. In the past, it was difficult to know the exact location of SMGs. In this study, the team relied on the power of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter array (ALMA) to get a much more precise measurement of their location. These 52 galaxies were first identified by the Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA-2) in the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey. There are four major results of the study: This study was a pilot study that the team hopes to extend to many other SMGs in the future. Explore further: Imaging lensed, distant galaxies with the large millimeter telescope

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