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Chandra Sekhar K.,Alluri Sita Rama Raju Academy of Medical science | Bala Krishna C.,Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical science | Kishore Kumar K.J.,Kakatiya Medical College | Kumbhar S.,ESIC Medical College | Devidas,Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical science
Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development | Year: 2015

Introduction: Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) has been identified as a major public health problem in India and developing countries. It occurs particularly in weaklings and less than five years of children and growing children particularly. During 2000-07, more than 25% of the world's children under the age of 5 years were underweight. Objectives: 1. To know the prevalence of protein energy malnutrition in rural and urban areas of Kadapa district. 2. To check the nutritional status improvement following anganwadi center food supplementation. Materials & Method: This present community based cohort study was carried out in Rural Health Centre, chennuru and Urban Health Centre area, Akkayapalli area during the year April 2009 to March 2010. Sample size in this study was 503 in rural and urban areas using cluster sampling method and house to house survey conducted. Importance of the study was explained to all the patients and informed consent was taken and diagnostic criteria for protein energy malnutrition was based on mid arm circum ference. Results were analyzed with Microsoft Excel 2007 version and necessary statistical tests were applied. Results: Out of 503 children in urban and rural areas, Prevalence of PEM in the urban population was 24.2% and prevalence of PEM in rural area was 47.3%. PEM was more in rural female children and statistically significant association was found between female sex and PEM (P<0.05). In the urban study population, before supplementation of food, the prevalence of PEM in urban area was 24.2% with following supplementation of food for 6 months the PEM was 16.3%. In the rural area, before supplementation of food, the prevalence of PEM in rural area was 47.3%, with following supplementation of food the PEM was 40.3%. Conclusions: The prevalence of Protein energy malnutrition was found to be higher in both urban and rural areas. Nutritional supplementation has impact in the reduction of PEM and this association was statistically significant. So that simple life style modifications and nutritional advice to the mothers can be initiated as early as possible and periodical growth monitoring by anganwadi workers and active participation by mothers also required. © 2015, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All Rights Reserved.


Balaraju R.,Guntur Medical College | Kumar K.J.K.,Kakatiya Medical College | Sekhar K.C.,Alluri Sita Rama Raju Academy of Medical science | Talwalker M.V.,Alluri Sita Rama Raju Academy of Medical science | Deotale P.G.,Alluri Sita Rama Raju Academy of Medical science
Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development | Year: 2016

Background: Hypertension disease exhibits the iceberg phenomenon of the disease. Review of epidemiological studies suggests that the prevalence of hypertension has increased in both urban and rural subjects and presently is 25% in urban adults and 10-15% among rural adults Objectives: 1. To study the prevalence of hypertension in urban population of Eluru. 2. To find the risk factors association with hypertension among the urban population. Materials & Method: The present community based cross sectional study was conducted at urban area of Eluru, Andhra Pradesh, during the period from June 2013 to June 2014. A total of 533 individuals were selected randomly from the urban field practice area of Alluri Sita Ramaraju Academy of Medical Sciences. Results were analyzed and necessary statistical tests were applied. Results: Out of 533 study population, 52.1% were males and 47.9% were females. In the present study overall prevalence of hypertension was found to be 24.9%. There was statistically significant association was found between smoking individuals, less physical activity and more stress were significantly associated with hypertension respectively (P<0.01, P< 0.001 P< 0.002) Conclusions: Based on the above study results, prevalence of hypertension was more in smokers, no physical activity individuals and extra salt taking persons. We can advocates the study population, that is adoption of some life style modifications like decreased stress, avoidance of smoking, extra salt intake as far as possible. © 2016, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved.


Balaraju R.,Kakatiya Medical College | Kumar K.J.K.,Kakatiya Medical College | Sekhar K.C.,Alluri Sita Rama Raju Academy of Medical science
Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development | Year: 2016

Background: Hypertension is a major public health problem in India. World-wide, prevalence estimates for hypertension is about 1 billion individuals. It causes about 7.1 million deaths per year and 4.5 % of the disease burden which translates to 64 million disability adjusted life years (DALYs). Objectives: 1. To find the demographic variable associated to hypertension among the urban population. 2. To study the anthropometric measurements associations to hypertension among the urban population. Materials & Method: The present community based cross sectional study was conducted at urban area of Eluru, Andhra Pradesh, during the period from June 2013 to June 2014. A total of 533 individuals were selected randomly from the urban field practice area of Alluri Sita Ramaraju Academy of Medical Sciences. Results were analyzed and necessary statistical tests were applied. Results: Out of 533 study population, 52.1% were males and 47.9% were females. In the present study overall prevalence of hypertension was found to be 24.9%. There was statistically significant association was found between high body mass index and more waist hip ratio in females were significantly associated with hypertension respectively (P<0.01, P< 0.001) Conclusions: Based on the above study results, prevalence of hypertension was more in above 30 yrs of age group. We can advocate the study population that is adoption of some life style modifications like ideal body weight, normal BMI as far as possible. © 2016, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved.


Shridevi K.,Alluri Sita Rama Raju Academy of Medical science | Nageshwara Rao R.,Siddhartha Medical College | Madhavi P.,Siddhartha Medical College | Chandra Sekhar K.,Alluri Sita Rama Raju Academy of Medical science | Deotale P.G.,Alluri Sita Rama Raju Academy of Medical science
Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development | Year: 2015

Back ground-In India adolescents occupy a major part (22.8%) of total population1. Almost half of the adolescent girls were not getting even 70% of their daily requirements of energy and quarters of them were not getting 70% of the required proteins.2 Objectives-To find out the magnitude of malnutrition and anemia among the adolescent girls of social welfare hostels in and around Vijayawada city. Materials and Methods-A cross sectional observational study was done among adolescent girl students aged between 10-19 yrs residing in social welfare girls hostels in and around Vijayawada city. Only girls hostel are included in the study.Two Hostels were selected by simple random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements of the students of class 7th, 8th and 9th were taken and recorded. Results-The mean weight and height of adolescent girls found to be 40.82kgs ±0.67 and 1.527m±0.0548 respectively which is below the NCHS standards.The prevalence of under nutrition as per BMI is 37.02%.The mean haemoglobin percentage was found to be 6.87±1.94 gm%. Prevalence of anemia by hemoglobin percentage is 98.44%. Conclusions: The mean weight and height of adolescent girls is below the NCHS standards. Regular sessions of Health education regarding importance of taking balanced diet and Iron & Folic acid and deworming tablets should be provided to all adolescent girls. © 2015, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved.


Kasi Viswanath H.M.,Alluri Sita Rama Raju Academy of Medical science | Mahesh Kumar Chinta V.,Alluri Sita Rama Raju Academy of Medical science | Udayshankar P.M.,Sree Balaji Medical College
Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development | Year: 2015

Background: India is following a trend of other developed & developing country that are steadily becoming more obese. Unhealthy, processed food has become much more accessible following India's continued integration in global food markets. Childhood obesity is associated with a higher chance of premature death and disability in adulthood. Conditions such as type 2 Diabetes mellitus, Hypertension & Hypercholestremia, which were noted primarily in adults, are becoming more among children with the increase in prevalence of obesity Objectives: To find out the factors contributing to overweight & obesity. Materials & method: The study was a cross sectional, school based study among 10-18 years of children in an urban area of Kancheepuram district, South Chennai. The study subjects are children of both sexes 10-18 from government schools. From the 3 government schools population of 4916 children out of which 1229 school children are selected through "population proportionate probability" sampling technique (PPS 25%). Results: The prevalence of overweight in boys is 15.6% and it is 6.9% among girls. The prevalence of obesity among boys is 3.7% and it is very low as 0.3% in girls. The difference in proportions of overweight and obesity between boys and girls are statistically highly significant (P<0.001). Conclusion: The study revealed that Physical Activity Level (PAL) and gender has a tremendous effect on overweight or obesity. Based on the finding of this study it is recommended that Sedentary lifestyle should be discouraged, increase physical activity like playing outdoor games, walking, cycling should be encouraged in children, development of Play grounds should be done both in Schools and in community, Health education should be given to parents, teachers & children regarding dietary habit & sedentary life style. © 2015, Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development.


Sekhar K.C.,Alluri Sita Rama Raju Academy of Medical science | Deotale P.G.,Alluri Sita Rama Raju Academy of Medical science | Reddy S.S.,Alluri Sita Rama Raju Academy of Medical science
Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development | Year: 2015

Introduction: Obesity can occur in any age, and generally increases with age. The aetiology of obesity is complex, and is one of multiple-causation. The first adverse effects of Obesity to emerge in population in transition are hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, glucose intolerance, coronary heart disease and the long term complications of Diabetes. Hence, it is necessary to detect the obesity at the early age and effectively correct the obesity during childhood and adolescence by advocating some life style changes. Objectives: 1. To determine the prevalence of Obesity in high school children. 2. To study the some risk factors of Obesity. Materials & Method: The present community based cross sectional study was conducted at urban area of Eluru during the period from July 2010 to October 2010 with the help of Community Medicine staff. A total of 258 high school children were selected from two different schools randomly and prior permission taken from concerned authorities. Importance of the study was explained to the school management and teachers. Pretested study questionnaire was filled and the height, weight, Body mass index and waist hip ratio were recorded in both sexes. Diagnosis of Obesity was based on Body mass index >25, BMI 18.5 to 25 taken as normal as per the WHO technical report guidelines. Results were critically analyzed and necessary statistical tests like proportions and chi square tests were applied. Results: Out of 258 students, 157 were boys and 101 girls. Prevalence of Obesity in the study population was 9.3%. Out of 24/258 (9.3%) obese individuals 16 girls and 10 boys. About 84% boys were taking junk food and 90% girls were consuming junk food. About 71.7% were spending 1hour time on watching TV, 23.3% were spending > or = 2 hours time on watching TV and remaining 5% were not watching the TV in their houses. Obesity was significantly associated with female sex, junk food consumption, practice of exercise and watching TV (P<0.01). Conclusions: The prevalence of Obesity was found to be higher as compared to other studies. We recommend that there is a need for checking simple body mass index and waist/hip ratio were useful to assess obesity in high school going children. So that simple life style modifications and nutritional advice to the students can be initiated as early as possible and also periodical school surveys must be taken up for early identification of obesity. Wide IEC programmes about healthy dietary practices for children must be advised. © 2015, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All Rights Reserved.


Rout M.R.,Alluri Sita Rama Raju Academy of Medical Science | Mohanty D.,Alluri Sita Rama Raju Academy of Medical Science | Vijaylaxmi Y.,Alluri Sita Rama Raju Academy of Medical Science | Kamalesh B.,Alluri Sita Rama Raju Academy of Medical Science | Chakradhar M.,Alluri Sita Rama Raju Academy of Medical Science
Indian Journal of Otology | Year: 2012

Introduction: Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a long-standing infection of middle ear cleft having a permanent perforation in the tympanic membrane with or without discharge. This is usually classified into two main groups: tubotympanic and atticoantral disease. The atticoantral type is called unsafe type because of the associated complications due to granulations and cholesteatoma which may be life-threatening. Tubotympanic type with central perforation is usually not associated with major complications such as cholesteatoma formation. Materials and Methods: This study has been conducted in the Department of ENT, Alluri Sita Rama Raju Academy of Medical Science, Eluru, A.P., India. Study group includes 210 patients having CSOM with central perforations in the tympanic membranes who underwent different types of procedures in our department. Preoperatively, all the patients were evaluated with otoscopy, microscopy, pure-tone audiometry, and some patients with computed tomography scan. All the patients had been evaluated peroperatively for confirmation of preoperative findings under microscope. Results: Surprisingly, seven patients with central perforations were having cholesteatoma, confirmed by biopsy. Conclusion: This study suggests that no perforation in CSOM is safe. Any patient coming for medical advice having CSOM with any type of perforation should be evaluated properly to exclude the underlying pathology like cholesteatoma which may be dangerous later on if not identified.


Padma K.,Alluri Sita Rama Raju Academy of Medical science | Vijay Kumar U.,Alluri Sita Rama Raju Academy of Medical science | Deotale P.G.,Alluri Sita Rama Raju Academy of Medical science
Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development | Year: 2015

Background: Poor knowledge of hygiene and practices in food service establishments can contribute to outbreaks of food borne illnesses. Objective: Objective of the present study was to explore the sanitary condition of food establishments and to assess hygienic practices among food handlers in one of the rural teaching hospital at coastal district of Andhra Pradesh. Material & method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 230 food handlers of both sexes in rural teaching hospital at coastal district of Andhra Pradesh in May 2013 and data were collected using semi structured questionnaire. Results: The median age of the food handlers was 42.86 years of the 230 food handlers who responded. None of the participants (100%) had taken basic food safety training. Most of all, knowledge gap in food hygiene and handling practice was observed. There is an immediate need for education and increasing awareness among food handlers regarding safe food handling practices. Conclusion: This study revealed good sanitary conditions and poor food hygiene practices of handlers. Educational programs targeted at improving the attitude of food handlers and regular inspections have been recommended. © 2015, Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development. All rights reserved.


Padma K.,Alluri Sita Rama Raju Academy of Medical science | Kashi Ram G.,Pratima Institute of Medical science | Sita Rama Rao B.,Pratima Institute of Medical science | Chandra Sekha K.,Alluri Sita Rama Raju Academy of Medical science | Deotale P.G.,Alluri Sita Rama Raju Academy of Medical science
Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development | Year: 2015

Background: Mental and physical health make up two fundamental ingredients of life that are intimately blended together and mutually interdependent. Mental disorders of depression are always neglected due to non-specificity in diagnosis, vague clinical presentations, long-term and varied treatment, and various myths and beliefs leading to social stigma. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of depression among the general population and to study the socio demographic and psychological factors in relation to depression. Results: Prevalence of depression was 12.74% in the study population. In the study population, the age group 41-60 years were more depressed 5.7%. Female respondents were at higher risk of depression as compared to male. Out of these 54 (4%) depressed respondents were having family history of depression. Family history of depression was associated with an outcome of depression (P<0.001). 7.4% depressed people were having financial difficulties. Conclusions: Based on the above results, this study showed the high prevalence of depression among adults to be 12.8% in Karimnagar district. This reflects strengthening of family relations, social factors like gender difference, economic status and financial problems and other factors to be rectified with existing resources. Ultimately awareness, importance of depression problem and its early identification to be educated to the adult population by medical and paramedical workers. © 2015, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All Rights Reserved.

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