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Lexington, KY, United States

Milewski M.,University of Kentucky | Brogden N.K.,University of Iowa | Ghosh P.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Banks S.L.,AllTranz | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Pharmaceutics

Although microneedle-assisted transdermal drug delivery has been the subject of multiple scientific investigations, very few attempts have been made to quantitatively relate in vitro and in vivo permeation. The case of naltrexone hydrochloride is not an exception. In the present study, a pharmacokinetic profile obtained following a "poke and patch" microneedle application method in the Yucatan minipig is reported. The profile demonstrates a rapid achievement of maximum naltrexone hydrochloride plasma concentration followed by a relatively abrupt concentration decline. No steady state was achieved in vivo. In an attempt to correlate the present in vivo findings with formerly published in vitro steady-state permeation data, a diffusioncompartmental mathematical model was developed. The model incorporates two parallel permeation pathways, barrier-thicknessdependent diffusional resistance, microchannel closure kinetics, and a pharmacokinetic module. The regression analysis of the pharmacokinetic data demonstrated good agreement with an independently calculated microchannel closure rate and in vitro permeation data. Interestingly, full-thickness rather than split-thickness skin employed in in vitro diffusion experiments provided the best correlation with the in vivo data. Data analysis carried out with the model presented herein provides new mechanistic insight and permits predictions with respect to pharmacokinetics coupled with altered microchannel closure rates. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Liput D.J.,University of Kentucky | Tsakalozou E.,University of Kentucky | Hammell D.C.,AllTranz | Nixon K.,University of Kentucky | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis

Reported concentrations for endocannabinoids and related lipids in biological tissues can vary greatly; therefore, methods used to quantify these compounds need to be validated. This report describes a method to quantify anandamide (AEA), oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) from rodent brain tissue. Analytes were extracted using acetonitrile without further sample clean up, resolved on a C18 reverse-phase column using a gradient mobile phase and detected using electrospray ionization in positive selected ion monitoring mode on a single quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method produced high recovery rates for AEA, OEA and PEA, ranging from 98.1% to 106.2%, 98.5% to 102.2% and 85.4% to 89.5%, respectively. The method resulted in adequate sensitivity with a lower limit of quantification for AEA, OEA and PEA of 1.4 ng/mL, 0.6 ng/mL and 0.5 ng/mL, respectively. The method was reproducible as intraday and interday accuracies and precisions were under 15%. This method was suitable for quantifying AEA, OEA and PEA from rat brain following pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase. © 2014 Xi'an Jiaotong University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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