Breckinridge Center, KY, United States
Breckinridge Center, KY, United States

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Clausen M.R.,University of Aarhus | Connolly C.,Alltech Biotechnology Center | Skibsted L.H.,Copenhagen University | Stagsted J.,University of Aarhus
International Dairy Journal | Year: 2010

The effect of supplementing dairy cows with organic selenium (25 mg day-1) on oxidative stability of milk when exposed to Cu(II) ions or to fluorescent light was evaluated using solid-phase micro-extraction gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection. Neither formation of volatile lipid (hexanal) and protein (dimethyl disulfide) oxidation products nor radical scavenging activity was affected by selenium supplementation. We found that other factors must be determinant for the oxidative stability of milk, and that these factors vary considerably between individual cows. Milk from two cows that were either sensitive or resistant to oxidation was compared in an attempt to identify the molecular basis for these differences. It was found that oxidation of milk could not solely be explained on the basis of fatty acid composition, or content of low molecular weight antioxidants, such as uric acid, ascorbic acid, and tocopherol. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Warren H.E.,Alltech Biotechnology Center | Codner L.,Bicton College
EAAP Scientific Series | Year: 2012

Ammonia in animal waste can irritate the skin, eyes, throat and lungs of confined animals, if exposed to high levels. Thus, reducing ammonia levels in waste would be beneficial. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a yucca product (De-Odorase ®, Alltech Inc.) on lowering ammonia levels in equine faeces. Eight horses of varying breed, age and sex (4 mares, 4 geldings; 4-18 yrs) were used in a two-period, cross-over experimental design. Animals were randomly allocated to one of two dietary treatments with or without the inclusion of yucca at 3 g/h/d. The basal diet consisted of 0.5-1 kg of dried alfalfa plus 0.5 kg of concentrate according to animal requirements. Animals were housed over night in individual stables (12'×12') and bedded on shredded paper. During the day, all horses were out to pasture unless they were used for work in the college. All horses had similar workloads (1-2 h of schooling and/or hacking daily). Access to water was ad libitum at all times. Ammonia levels in stables were measured between 05:30 and 07:00 daily for 7 d. Five readings were taken per stable using a Gasman single gas detector (Crowcon Ltd.) 1 m above floor level: back left corner, back right corner, front left corner, front right corner and centre. Overall, levels of ammonia were low in all stables. Nevertheless, supplementation with yucca resulted in a significant reduction (P=0.001) in ammonia levels from 0.22 to 0.16 ppm. Addition of 3 g/h/d of yucca to the ration of stabled horses fed standard, UK diets has the potential to reduce ammonia levels, even when initial ammonia levels are low. This paper highlights one of the numerous problems that can arise in the management of performance horses. Further studies concerning the mode of action of yucca in the reduction of ammonia levels are needed.

Jegede A.V.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture | Oduguwa O.O.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture | Bamgbose A.M.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture | Fanimo A.O.,Abeokuta Federal University of Agriculture | Nollet L.,Alltech Biotechnology Center
British Poultry Science | Year: 2011

1. A 56-d experiment was conducted to study the comparative influence of organic and inorganic dietary copper (Cu) sources on growth, blood characteristics and copper accumulation in organs of broilers. 2. A total of 480 Arbor-Acre unsexed broilers were fed on diets containing copper sulphate (CuSO4) or copper proteinate (Cu Pro) at concentrations of 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg of Cu supplementation. The birds were given a broiler starter diet from 1-28 d and a broiler finisher diet from 29-56 d which contained 30·8 mg/kg and 41·1 mg/kg basal copper concentration respectively. Growth performance, blood characteristics and Cu accumulation in organs of the broilers were measured. 3. At 28 d, Cu Pro-fed birds had improved feed conversion ratio compared with CuSO4. At 56 d, birds fed on Cu Pro diets had significantly greater body weight than CuSO4-fed birds. Birds fed on CuSO4 supplemented diets had significantly better feed conversion efficiency. Feed consumptions for the two Cu sources were not significantly different. At no stage did the concentration of added Cu affect the productive traits measured. 4. Cu Pro supplementation increased haemoglobin concentration but reduced plasma triglyceride and plasma cholesterol. Plasma cholesterol decreased as Cu concentration increased. 5. There was a greater accumulation of Cu in the blood, heart, lung, liver and bone of broilers fed on Cu Pro than in those receiving CuSO4. The liver Cu concentration increased as dietary Cu concentration increased. 6. Cu Pro was more effective in promoting growth and reducing blood cholesterol, and was more bio-available in the organs of broilers. © 2011 British Poultry Science Ltd.

Gowalock D.W.,Ohio State University | Mahan D.C.,Ohio State University | Samuel R.S.,Alltech Biotechnology Center
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2016

An experiment was conducted to determine 1) the length of time necessary for grower pigs to adjust to a new diet and 2) the consistency in excretion of urine and feces in 4 consecutive 5-d collection periods. The total tract excretion and digestibility values for Ca, P, and the essential microminerals were evaluated. The experiment was conducted in 6 replicates as a randomized complete block design. Pigs were fed a pretest diet from 20 to 40 kg BW that met the requirements. At 40 kg, 12 barrows were allotted to stainless-steel metabolism crates, where they continued being fed the pretest diet for a 7-d period for adjustment purposes. Treatment diets were then fed for the following 20-d period in four 5-d intervals. Treatment diets were a corn–soybean meal mixture and contained either 1) reduced Ca and P levels and no added microminerals (LOW) or 2) a diet with elevated Ca and P levels and supplemental microminerals that exceeded the pig’s requirements (HIGH). The study collected urine and feces. Markers were added to the ration at the start of each period to distinguish between test intervals. Feces and urine were collected daily, frozen, and composited for each period. Analysis of diets and excrement was conducted using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technology. In all cases, the excreted minerals and digestibility values were greater (P < 0.01) for the macrominerals when the HIGH diet was fed, whereas the digestibility values for the microminerals were often lower when the HIGH diet was fed. The macrominerals Ca and P both had consistent urine and fecal values for each of the final 3 collection periods within diet. The micromineral values were generally consistent for each 5-d collection period but varied between periods for several microminerals. These results indicate that a 5-d adjustment period was adequate for pigs to adjust to the treatment diets. A 5-d collection period was adequate for Ca and P, but the micromineral excretion and digestibility values were more variable, and a collection period of 10 d might be warranted. The results also indicated that the innate microminerals had a higher digestibility and bioavail-ability than thought previously and their digestibility is greater than that of inorganic microminerals. Thus, these results indicate that the innate microminerals should be an important factor in establishing the micromineral requirements for growing pigs. © 2016 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

Lynch S.J.,Dublin City University | Horgan K.A.,Alltech Biotechnology Center | White B.,Dublin City University | Walls D.,Dublin City University
Biological Trace Element Research | Year: 2016

Selenium (Se) is found in inorganic and organic forms, both of which are commonly used in animal feed supplements. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the chemical form of Se on its associated ameliorative effects on cadmium (Cd)-induced DNA damage in a porcine model. At a cellular level, Cd mediates free oxygen radical production leading in particular to DNA damage, with consequential mutagenesis and inhibition of DNA replication. In this study, porcine jejunal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) were pre-incubated for 48 h with one of Se-yeast (Sel-Plex), selenomethionine (Se-M), sodium selenite (Se-Ni) or sodium selenate (Se-Na). The effects of this supplementation on cell viability and DNA damage following cadmium chloride (CdCl2) exposure were subsequently evaluated. IPEC-J2 cells were cultivated throughout in medium supplemented with porcine serum to generate a superior model that recapitulated the porcine gut epithelium. The results illustrated that Se antioxidant effects were both composition- and dose-dependent as evident from cell viability (Alamar Blue and 5-carboxyfluorescein diacetate acetoxymethyl ester) and DNA damage assays (Comet and TUNEL). Both the Se-yeast and Se-M organic species, when used at the European Food Safety Authority guideline levels, had a protective effect against Cd-induced DNA damage in the IPEC-J2 model system whereas for inorganic Se-Ni and Se-Na sources no protective effects were observed and in fact these were shown to enhance the negative effects of Cd-induced DNA damage. It can be concluded that nutritional supplementation with organoselenium may protect porcine gut integrity from damage induced by Cd. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

PubMed | Alltech Biotechnology Center and Dublin City University
Type: | Journal: Biological trace element research | Year: 2016

Selenium (Se) is found in inorganic and organic forms, both of which are commonly used in animal feed supplements. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the chemical form of Se on its associated ameliorative effects on cadmium (Cd)-induced DNA damage in a porcine model. At a cellular level, Cd mediates free oxygen radical production leading in particular to DNA damage, with consequential mutagenesis and inhibition of DNA replication. In this study, porcine jejunal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) were pre-incubated for 48h with one of Se-yeast (Sel-Plex), selenomethionine (Se-M), sodium selenite (Se-Ni) or sodium selenate (Se-Na). The effects of this supplementation on cell viability and DNA damage following cadmium chloride (CdCl

Che T.M.,Urbana University | Johnson R.W.,Urbana University | Kelley K.W.,Urbana University | Dawson K.A.,Alltech Biotechnology Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2012

This study explored the hypothesis that mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) acts to reduce systemic inflammation in pigs by evaluating cytokine production of alveolar macrophages (AM) and serum cytokine concentrations. A total of 160 pigs were fed diets containing 0.2 or 0.4% MOS for 2 or 4 wk postweaning compared with control diets without MOS. Dietary MOS did not affect the serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and tended (P = 0.081) to increase that of IL-10. These cytokine concentrations also changed over time (P < 0.001). After 2-wk feeding of the control or MOS diets, AM were collected and stimulated ex vivo with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (PLIC) as infection models. The LPS-stimulated AM from MOS-fed pigs (n = 12) secreted less TNF-α (P < 0.001) and more IL-10 (P = 0.026) than those from control-fed pigs (n = 6). However, dietary MOS had less effect on ex vivo TNF-α and IL-10 production by PLIC-stimulated AM (P = 0.091 and P > 0.10, respectively. Further, effects of MOS were examined in 4 in vitro experiments. In Exp. 1 (n = 4 pigs), MOS and mannan-rich fraction (MRF), when added to AM cultures, were able to increase TNF-α production. This direct effect of MOS was not due to endotoxin contamination as verified in Exp. 2 (n = 6 pigs) using polymyxin B, an inhibitor of LPS activation of toll-like receptor 4. Polymyxin B inhibited production of TNF-α by AM after treatment with LPS (P < 0.001), but not after treatment with MOS in the absence of LPS (P > 0.70). In Exp. 3 (n = 6 pigs), when MOS was directly applied in vitro, the pattern of cytokine production by LPS-activated AM was similar to that observed ex vivo, as MOS suppressed LPS-induced TNF-α (P < 0.001) and enhanced LPS-induced IL-10 (P = 0.028). In Exp. 4 (n = 6 pigs), when MRF replaced MOS, AM-produced TNF-α induced by LPS or PLIC was suppressed by MRF (P = 0.015 or P < 0.001, respectively). These data establish that MOS and MRF suppress LPS-induced TNF-α secretions by AM. Generally, the study suggests that MOS may be a potent immunomodulator because it directly activates AM to secrete TNF-α and alters the cytokine responses of bacterial endotoxin-induced AM in both ex vivo and in vitro systems. In particular, feeding MOS to pigs for 2 wk reduces TNF-α and increases IL-10 concentrations after ex vivo treatment of AM with LPS. These immunomodulatory properties of MOS may have important implications for both host defense and avoidance of harmful overstimulation of the immune system. © 2012 American Society of Animal Science.

It is widely accepted that inclusion of live yeast in equine diets can increase numbers of fibrolytic bacteria in the hindgut and thus increase overall digestibility of the diet and a more stable hindgut environment. Additionally, it is recognised that horses suffering from laminitis may have impaired hindgut activity and may benefit from dietary yeast inclusion. Little work has been carried out examining the effects of adding live yeast to forage-only diets in the horse. The aim of this study was to examine the effects on fermentation of the addition of live yeast to varying forage sources using the in vitro gas production technique and using inocula from laminitic horses. Four different forage sources: hay (H), haylage (Hy), red clover silage (RCS) and dried lucerne chop (LC) were incubated in triplicate with or without the addition of live yeast. Substrates were subjected to a pepsin pre-treatment and the extent and rate of degradation were then measured using the gas production technique. Three hundred mg of dried forage were incubated with 30 ml of faecal inocula from laminitic-prone horses with or without 1 mg of live yeast and gas production measured over 96 h. VFA were determined using gas chromatography. Fermentation kinetics were fitted to the model p = a + b (l - e -ct). Mean gas production at 96 h was significantly (P<0.001) increased in all forages following the inclusion of yeast. There was no significant effect on acetate, propionate or n-butyrate. Addition of live yeast to faeces from laminitic-prone horses increased the gas production over mean retention time from all forages. This may be suggestive of increased fibrolytic and lactate-utilising bacterial activity and could potentially prove beneficial for laminitic horses. Further work is needed to establish the full effect of yeast on fibre digestibility and fermentative capacity in vivo in laminitic horses.

McKelvey S.M.,Alltech Biotechnology Center | Horgan K.A.,Alltech Biotechnology Center | Murphy R.A.,Alltech Biotechnology Center
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2015

Lead, an environmental toxin is known to induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions in humans through a number of mechanisms including the deactivation of antioxidants thus leading to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent DNA damage. Selenium on the other hand has been proven to play an important role in the protection of cells from free radical damage and oxidative stress, though its effects are thought to be form and dose dependent. As the liver is the primary organ required for metabolite detoxification, HepG2 cells were chosen to assess the protective effects of various selenium compounds following exposure to the genotoxic agent lead nitrate. Initially DNA damage was quantified using a comet assay, gene expression patterns associated with DNA damage and signalling were also examined using PCR arrays and the biological pathways which were most significantly affected by selenium were identified. Interestingly, the organic type selenium compounds (selenium yeast and selenomethionine) conferred protection against lead induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells; this is evident by reduction in the quantity of DNA present in the comet tail of cells cultured in their presence with lead. This trend also followed through the gene expression changes noted in DNA damage pathways analysed. These results were in contrast with those of inorganic sodium selenite which promoted lead induced DNA damage evident in both the comet assay results and the gene expression analysis. Over all this study provided valuable insights into the effects which various selenium compounds had on the DNA damage and signalling pathway indicating the potential for using organic forms of selenium such as selenium enriched yeast to protect against DNA damaging agents. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH.

PubMed | Alltech Biotechnology Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biological trace element research | Year: 2015

The trace mineral selenium (Se) is an essential element for human and animal nutrition. The addition of Se to the diet through dietary supplements or fortified food/feed is increasingly common owing to the often sub-optimal content of standard diets of many countries. Se supplements commercially available include the inorganic mineral salts such as sodium selenite or selenate, and organic forms such as Se-enriched yeast. Today, Se yeast is produced by several manufacturers and has become the most widely used source of Se for human supplementation and is also widely employed in animal nutrition where approval in all species has been granted by regulatory bodies such as the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Characterisation and comparison of Se-enriched yeast products has traditionally been made by quantifying total selenomethionine (SeMet) content. A disadvantage of this approach, however, is that it does not consider the effects of Se deposition on subsequent digestive availability. In this study, an assessment was made of the water-soluble extracts of commercially available Se-enriched yeast samples for free, peptide-bound and total water-soluble SeMet. Using LC-MS/MS, a total of 62 Se-containing proteins were identified across four Se yeast products, displaying quantitative/qualitative changes in abundance relative to the certified reference material, SELM-1 (P value <0.05; fold change 2). Overall, the study indicates that significant differences exist between Se yeast products in terms of SeMet content, Se-containing protein abundance and associated metabolic pathways.

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