Allied Technology Group Inc

Rockville, MD, United States

Allied Technology Group Inc

Rockville, MD, United States

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Gubata M.E.,U.S. Army | Piccirillo A.L.,U.S. Army | Piccirillo A.L.,Allied Technology Group Inc. | Packnett E.R.,U.S. Army | And 3 more authors.
Military Medicine | Year: 2013

Objective: Physically demanding jobs and history of deployment put Soldiers at increased risk for injury, hospitalizations, and disability. Characterizing differences in disability outcomes by occupation and deployment history may identify specific military populations for targeted prevention and intervention programs as well as potential areas of future research. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on U.S. Army enlisted men evaluated in the Department of Defense's Disability Evaluation System (DES) between fiscal years 2005 and 2011, comparing those assigned a Combat Arms military occupational specialty (MOS) to individuals with any other MOS (Other). Results: Among deployed Soldiers, those with Combat Arms MOS were substantially and significantly more likely to receive medical disability retirement than Other MOS and were more likely to be evaluated for conditions compatible with combat exposures, including post-traumatic stress disorder, residuals of traumatic brain injury, and paralysis. Among nondeployed Soldiers, Combat Arms MOS were only slightly more likely to receive medical disability than Other MOS, and no substantial differences in medical conditions were noted between the two MOS groups. Conclusions: Combat Arms MOS is a significant risk factor for disability retirement primarily among deployed men. Further research is needed to identify specific military occupations most at risk for disability retirement. © Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S. All rights reserved.


Sikorski C.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Emerson M.A.,U.S. Navy | Cowan D.N.,U.S. Army | Niebuhr D.W.,Allied Technology Group Inc.
Military Medicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To assess factors associated with medical disability in the U.S. Marine Corps. Methods: Case-control study enrolling 11,554 medical disability cases of U.S. enlisted Marines referred to the Physical Evaluation Board fiscal year 2001 to 2009 and 42,216 controls frequency matched to cases in a 4:1 ratio on year of accession into the service were analyzed utilizing bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Increased age and body mass index at accession were associated with higher odds of medical disability. Females (odds ratio adjusted [OR adj] = 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-1.3) have higher odds of disability than males. "Healthy Warrior Effect" was observed in that those who deployed (OR adj = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.46-0.50) had decreased odds of medical disability than those who did not deploy. Medical waivers at accession (OR adj = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.01-1.23) increased the odds of medical disability. Conclusions: Continued surveillance of the disability evaluation system is needed to help develop preventive measures and to help policy makers establish evidence-based policies on accession, deployment, and retention standards over the lifecycle of service members. © Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S. All rights reserved.


Gubata M.,U.S. Army | Packnett E.,Allied Technology Group Inc. | Feng X.,Allied Technology Group Inc. | Cowan D.,Allied Technology Group Inc. | Niebuhr D.,U.S. Army
Noise and Health | Year: 2013

Hearing loss is a common condition among US adults, with some evidence of increasing prevalence in young adults. Noise-induced hearing loss attributable to employment is a significant source of preventable morbidity world-wide. The US military population is largely comprised of young adult males serving in a wide variety of occupations, many in high noise-level conditions, at least episodically. To identify accession and service-related risk factors for hearing-related disability, matched case-control study of US military personnel was conducted. Individuals evaluated for hearing loss disability in the US Army and Marine Corps were frequency matched to controls without history of disability evaluation on service and enlistment year. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine the association between accession and service-related factors and hearing-related disability evaluations between October 2002 and September 2010. Individuals with medically disqualifying audiograms or hearing loss diagnoses at application for military service were 8 and 4 times more likely, respectively, to have a disability evaluation related to hearing loss, after controlling for relevant accession, demographic, and service-related factors. Conservative hearing loss thresholds on pre-enlistment audiograms, stricter hearing loss medical waiver policies or qualified baseline audiograms pre-enlistment are needed in the U.S military. Industrial corporations or labor unions may also benefit from identifying individuals with moderate hearing loss at the time of employment to ensure use of personal protective equipment and engineer controls of noise.


Packnett E.R.,U.S. Army | Packnett E.R.,Allied Technology Group Inc. | Gubata M.E.,U.S. Army | Cowan D.N.,U.S. Army | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Traumatic Stress | Year: 2012

Since the start of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, over 2 million U.S. military members were deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. The estimated prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among soldiers and Marines returning from combat zones varies from 5%-20%; little is known about those individuals whose PTSD renders them unfit for duty. This report describes the rates and correlates of PTSD in soldiers and Marines evaluated for disability. Data for service members who underwent disability evaluation between fiscal years 2005-2010 were analyzed for trends in disability rates, ratings, retirement, and comorbid disability. PTSD rates varied by age, sex, race, rank, branch of service, and component. Most cases were deployed and were considered combat-related. Over the study period, the rate and severity of disability from PTSD increased substantially. Significant increases in disability from PTSD incidence, rating, and retirement were observed in both services. Other medical conditions, largely musculoskeletal and neurological, were present in the majority of cases indicating many cases also experienced disabling physical injuries. Further research is needed to target interventions accurately for redeploying service members to minimize comorbidity associated with disability from PTSD and facilitate continuation in military service or successful transition to civilian life. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.


Cowan D.N.,U.S. Army | Cowan D.N.,Allied Technology Group Inc. | Bedno S.A.,U.S. Army | Urban N.,U.S. Army | And 4 more authors.
Occupational Medicine | Year: 2011

Background: Musculoskeletal injuries are a major cause of morbidity in military training. They are more common among overweight/obese individuals, and the prevalence of overweight/obesity in the military has increased. During strong economic periods, the military can be challenged to recruit enough qualified personnel, and physical standards are sometimes relaxed. Aims: This study was conducted to compare the incidence of and outpatient utilization for training-related overuse injuries among men who were over body fat (OBF) standards compared with those who were weight qualified (WQ). Methods: All study subjects were men ≥18 years old, who were classified as OBF or WQ and were followed for 90 days. During this period, everyone entering through the study sites was required to take a physical fitness test (5 min step test). Only individuals passing the fitness test were included in these analyses.Results There were 812 OBF and 6511 WQ study participants. OBF were 47% more likely to experience a musculoskeletal injury and had 49% higher health care utilization. Other significant factors included age >19 and a history of smoking. Conclusions: Among this population who had passed a fitness test, those who were OBF had a substantially higher risk of injury and higher utilization for these injuries. Because the recruiting environment is much better, military entrance standards have been tightened, but should the economy improve substantially the military may again be challenged to recruit adequate numbers of personnel, and the lessons learned in this project may prove valuable. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.


Packnett E.R.,U.S. Army | Packnett E.R.,Allied Technology Group Inc. | Niebuhr D.W.,U.S. Army | Bedno S.A.,U.S. Army | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

Background: The high prevalence of overweight and obesity in military recruits and in the US population as a whole necessitates understanding the health effects of body composition and associated morbidity. Objective: In this study, we examined the effect of body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) and medical status on premature discharge from the US Army in a large cohort of first-time-enlisted, active-duty soldiers. Design: We determined the odds ratios (ORs) associated with BMI and medical status at enlistment by using a retrospective cohort of first-time, active-duty army recruits. Results: ORs for BMI, calculated by using 24-24.9 as a reference, exhibited a U-shaped pattern. Soldiers with a BMI >34 had the highest ORs for all-cause (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.32, 1.64) and medical (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.46, 1.93) discharges. A BMI <17 was 1.35 times as likely (95% CI: 1.02, 1.80) to result in an all-cause discharge and 1.45 times as likely (95% CI: 1.01, 2.08) to result in a medical discharge. ORs for soldiers who required a medical reexamination did not vary when all-cause discharge (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.14) and medical discharge (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.15) were compared. The medical discharge OR for soldiers who required a medical waiver to enter the army (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.48, 1.64) was higher than the OR for all-cause discharge (OR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.32). Conclusion: Enlistment BMI and medical qualification status play an important role in early discharge and may provide a valuable tool in the development of fitness, nutrition, and injury-prevention interventions in higher-risk groups. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition.


Gubata M.E.,U.S. Army | Urban N.,U.S. Army | Urban N.,Allied Technology Group Inc. | Cowan D.N.,U.S. Army | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Psychosomatic Research | Year: 2013

Objective: Mental health disorders contribute substantially to medical and occupational morbidity. The role of fitness and physical activity in the prevention of mental health disorders is not well established, but epidemiologic data suggest that physical activity can protect against anxiety and depression. Method: The analyses presented in this report, from a prospective cohort study, evaluate the association between fitness (as measured by a 5-minute step test), and being overweight (defined as exceeding weight and body fat allowances) at military entrance, with subsequent onset of mental disorder diagnosis in the first year of service. The association between risk factors and mental disorder diagnosis was analyzed using multivariate Poisson regression with the adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) as the measure of association. Results: Among weight-qualified participants, factors associated with increased incidence of mental disorder included failing the physical fitness test (aIRR: 1.36, p < 0.0001), female sex (aIRR: 2.17, p < 0.0001), and smoking (aIRR: 1.49, p < 0.0001). Among fit participants, being overweight was not significantly associated with mental disorder (aIRR: 1.11, p = 0.1540). Conclusions: This test has potential military utility as an adjunct part of the medical examination process. Additional research is needed among civilians to determine if similar associations exist. If so, intervention studies should be conducted to determine if improving physical fitness reduces subsequent psychiatric disorder risk, particularly among young adults entering into stressful situations. © 2013.


Niebuhr D.W.,U.S. Army | Li Y.,U.S. Army | Cowan D.N.,U.S. Army | Cowan D.N.,Allied Technology Group Inc. | And 5 more authors.
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2011

Schizophrenia is a pervasive neuropsychiatric disorder of uncertain etiology. Multiple studies have documented immune activation in individuals with schizophrenia. One antigen capable of inducing a prolonged immune response is bovine casein derived from ingested milk products. Increased levels of casein antibodies have been found in individuals with schizophrenia after diagnosis. This study was directed at determining the potential association between schizophrenia and pre-illness onset levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to bovine casein. Parallel analyses for casein antibody levels with bipolar disorder were included as comparison. Cases were service members who received medical discharges from the military with a schizophrenia diagnosis from 1992 to 2005. Serum specimens were selected for 855 cases and 1165 matched healthy controls. IgG antibodies to bovine whole-casein were measured by solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated to examine the associations of casein IgG level with risk of schizophrenia by time to diagnosis and by subjects' initial level. Increasing casein IgG antibody levels among those with a high initial level, drawn before diagnosis, was associated with an 18% increase in the hazard risk of schizophrenia per unit increase (value of low-positive standard) in IgG antibody levels (HR = 1.18; 95% CI 1.04, 1.34). This is the first report to identify an association between the risk of schizophrenia and elevated antibodies to bovine casein prior to disease onset. Additional research is required to elucidate the complex genetic environmental interactions involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and to identify potentially modifiable risk factors. © 2011.


Li Y.,U.S. Army | Weber N.S.,U.S. Army | Fisher J.A.,U.S. Army | Fisher J.A.,Allied Technology Group Inc. | And 7 more authors.
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2013

Introduction: Multiple studies have documented immune activation in many individuals with schizophrenia suggesting that antigens capable of generating a prolonged immune response may be important environmental factors in many cases of this disorder. While existing studies have found single-agent associations of antibodies to food and neurotropic infectious agents with schizophrenia, a simultaneous examination of multiple agents may shed light on agent interactions or possible etiopathogenic pathways. Methods: We used traditional regression and novel statistical techniques to examine associations of single and combined infectious and food antigens with schizophrenia. We tested 6106 serum samples from 855 cases and 1165 matched controls. Results: Higher antibody levels to casein were borderline significant in the prediction of schizophrenia (HR. = 1.08, p. = 0.06). Study participants with higher cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG antibody levels had a reduced risk of developing schizophrenia (HR. = 0.90; p. = 0.02). While IgG antibodies to gliadin, Toxoplasma gondii, vaccinia, measles, and human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) showed no significant independent associations with schizophrenia, the increase in antibody levels to several combinations of agents, to include casein, measles, CMV, T. gondii and vaccinia, was predictive of an 18-34% increase in the risk of developing schizophrenia. Conclusion: Certain patterns of antibodies, involving some agents, were predictive of developing schizophrenia, with the magnitude of association rising when the level of antibodies increased to two or more agents. A heightened antibody response to a combination of several infectious/food antigens might be an indicator of an altered immune response to antigenic stimuli. © 2013 .


Gubata M.E.,U.S. Army | Packnett E.R.,U.S. Army | Packnett E.R.,Allied Technology Group Inc | Blandford C.D.,Allied Technology Group Inc | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been recognized as a major public health issue for several decades. Despite technological advancements in protective equipment and medical care available during recent military conflicts, TBI is the most common neurological condition among Soldiers and Marines evaluated for discharge from service. This study describes the demographic, service-related, and disability characteristics of Soldiers and Marines referred for combat-related TBI disability evaluation. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of Soldiers and Marines evaluated for combat-related disability between October 1, 2004 and September 30, 2010 was performed. Traumatic brain injury cases were identified using the Veterans Affairs Schedule for Rating Disabilities code for TBI and compared with other combat-related disabilities. RESULTS: Combat-related TBI disability rates have significantly increased in both the Army and the Marine Corps since 2005. Significantly more unfitting conditions are present on average in combat-related TBI cases than in other combat-related disability cases. Combat-related TBI disability cases are more likely to be medically retired than other types of combat-related disability. CONCLUSIONS: Because veterans with combat-related TBI disabilities are likely to require chronic care for TBI-associated medical conditions, disability evaluation policy and programs must ensure that combat-related TBI disabilities are accurately identified and compensated, and the potential long-term care needs are addressed. Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

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