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Lazzarini P.A.,Allied Health Research Collaborative | Lazzarini P.A.,Queensland University of Technology | O'Rourke S.R.,Diabetes Center | Russell A.W.,University of Queensland | And 2 more authors.
Australian Health Review | Year: 2012

Objective. The aim of this paper is to report the clinical practice changes resulting from strategies to standardise diabetic foot clinical management in three diverse ambulatory service sites in Queensland, Australia. Methods. Multifaceted strategies were implemented in 2008, including: multidisciplinary teams, clinical pathways, clinical training, clinical indicators, and telehealth support. Prior to the intervention, none of the aforementioned strategies were used, except one site had a basic multidisciplinary team. A retrospective audit of consecutive patient records from July 2006 to June 2007 determined baseline clinical activity (n = 101).Aclinical pathway teleform was implemented as a clinical activity analyser in 2008 (n = 327) and followed up in 2009 (n = 406). Pre-and post-implementation data were analysed using Chi-square tests with a significance level set at P < 0.05. Results. There was an improvement in surveillance of the high risk population of 34% in 2008 and 19% in 2009, and treating according to risk of 15% in 2009 (P < 0.05). The documentation of all best-practice clinical activities performed improved 13-66% (P < 0.03). Conclusion. These findings support the use of multifaceted strategies to standardise practice and improve diabetic foot complications management in diverse ambulatory services. © 2012 AHHA.

Kuys S.S.,Allied Health Research Collaborative | Kuys S.S.,Griffith University | Peel N.M.,University of Queensland | Klein K.,University of Queensland | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association | Year: 2014

Background: Gait speed, recently proposed as the sixth vital sign of geriatric assessment, is a strong predictor of adverse outcomes. Walking faster than 1.0 m/s is associated with better survival in community-dwelling older adults, and a recent meta-analysis of older adults in clinical settings estimated usual gait speed to be 0.58 m/s. Here, we aimed to review gait speed values for long term care residents. Methods: Relevant databases were systematically searched for original research studies published prior to December 2012. Inclusion criteria were participants living in long term care, mean age >70 years, and gait speed measured over a short distance. Meta-analysis determined gait speed data adjusting for covariates including age, sex, and cognition. Results: Final data included 2888 participants from 34 studies. The percentage of residents ineligible because of inability to mobilize was stated in only 1 study. Of the 34 studies, 22 reported cognitive status using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Usual pace and maximal pace gait speeds were determined separately using a random effects model. No association between gait speed and covariates was found. Usual pace gait speed was 0.475 m/s (95% confidence interval 0.396-0.554) and maximal pace was 0.672 m/s (95% confidence interval 0.532-0.811). Conclusions: In ambulant older people in long term care, gait speed is slow but remains functional. However, since many residents are likely to have been ineligible to participate in assessments, these results cannot be generalized to the long term care population as a whole. © 2014.

Milne T.E.,Ipswich General Hospital | Rogers J.R.,Launceston General Hospital | Kinnear E.M.,The Prince Charles Hospital | Martin H.V.,The Prince Charles Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research | Year: 2013

Background: Charcot Neuro-Arthropathy (CN) is one of the more devastating complications of diabetes. To the best of the authors' knowledge, it appears that no clinical tools based on a systematic review of existing literature have been developed to manage acute CN. Thus, the aim of this paper was to systematically review existing literature and develop an evidence-based clinical pathway for the assessment, diagnosis and management of acute CN in patients with diabetes.Methods: Electronic databases (Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, Embase and Cochrane Library), reference lists, and relevant key websites were systematically searched for literature discussing the assessment, diagnosis and/or management of acute CN published between 2002-2012. At least two independent investigators then quality rated and graded the evidence of each included paper. Consistent recommendations emanating from the included papers were then fashioned in a clinical pathway.Results: The systematic search identified 267 manuscripts, of which 117 (44%) met the inclusion criteria for this study. Most manuscripts discussing the assessment, diagnosis and/or management of acute CN constituted level IV (case series) or EO (expert opinion) evidence. The included literature was used to develop an evidence-based clinical pathway for the assessment, investigations, diagnosis and management of acute CN.Conclusions: This research has assisted in developing a comprehensive, evidence-based clinical pathway to promote consistent and optimal practice in the assessment, diagnosis and management of acute CN. The pathway aims to support health professionals in making early diagnosis and providing appropriate immediate management of acute CN, ultimately reducing its associated complications such as amputations and hospitalisations. © 2013 Milne et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Fernando M.,James Cook University | Crowther R.,James Cook University | Lazzarini P.,Allied Health Research Collaborative | Lazzarini P.,Queensland University of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Biomechanics | Year: 2013

Background Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is an important cause of foot ulceration and limb loss. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effect of diabetic peripheral neuropathy on gait, dynamic electromyography and dynamic plantar pressures. Methods Electronic databases were searched systematically for articles reporting the effect of diabetic peripheral neuropathy on gait, dynamic electromyography and plantar pressures. Searches were restricted to articles published between January 2000 and April 2012. Outcome measures assessed included spatiotemporal parameters, lower limb kinematics, kinetics, muscle activation and plantar pressure. Meta-analyses were carried out on all outcome measures reported by ≥ 3 studies. Findings Sixteen studies were included consisting of 382 neuropathy participants, 216 diabetes controls without neuropathy and 207 healthy controls. Meta-analysis was performed on 11 gait variables. A high level of heterogeneity was noted between studies. Meta-analysis results suggested a longer stance time and moderately higher plantar pressures in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients at the rearfoot, midfoot and forefoot compared to controls. Systematic review of studies suggested potential differences in the biomechanical characteristics (kinematics, kinetics, EMG) of diabetic neuropathy patients. However these findings were inconsistent and limited by small sample sizes. Interpretation Current evidence suggests that patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy have elevated plantar pressures and occupy a longer duration of time in the stance-phase during gait. Firm conclusions are hampered by the heterogeneity and small sample sizes of available studies. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Hwang R.,Princess Alexandra Hospital | Chuan F.,Princess Alexandra Hospital | Peters R.,Princess Alexandra Hospital | Kuys S.,Allied Health Research Collaborative | Kuys S.,Griffith University
Heart and Lung: Journal of Acute and Critical Care | Year: 2013

Objectives: The purpose of the study was to examine the frequency and severity of urinary incontinence in people with heart failure (HF). Secondary aims were to determine the differences in known risk factors for those who were continent and incontinent, to investigate the correlates of urinary incontinence in people with HF, and to examine the relationship between urinary incontinence with medication adherence, in particular, diuretics, and quality of life. Background: Urinary incontinence is a common condition affecting older adults. However, the frequency of incontinence in people with HF remains largely unknown. Methods: This was a descriptive study. A convenience sample of 181 people with HF were surveyed to determine frequency, severity and presence of risk factors of urinary incontinence and dosages of prescribed HF medications. Instruments included the Revised Urinary Incontinence Scale, Medication Adherence Report Scale and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire Short Form. Regression analyses were used to examine relationships between variables and presence of urinary incontinence. Results: Eighty-nine people responded (66% male, mean age 67 years), 44 (49%) self-reporting urinary incontinence. Of these, 30 (34%) respondents rated their incontinence severity as slight or moderate. More incontinent respondents took furosemide doses greater than 20 mg daily (P = 0.046) and low doses of beta-blockers compared with continent respondents (P = 0.002). Taking low doses of beta-blockers explained 23% of variance for urinary incontinence (r2 = 0.23, P = 0.015). Incontinent respondents reported altering or missing a diuretic dose (P < 0.02) compared with those who were continent. Conclusions: Frequency of urinary incontinence in this group of people with HF appears high. It appears that screening for urinary incontinence may be important as part of routine care in HF management programmes. In addition, awareness of dosages of furosemide and beta-blockers and in particular, adherence to diuretics also should be monitored. Prospective studies investigating these issues and the effect of targeted interventions are required. © 2013.

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