Alliance Statistics and Data Center

Rochester, MN, United States

Alliance Statistics and Data Center

Rochester, MN, United States
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DeMatteo R.P.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Ballman K.V.,Alliance Statistics and Data Center | Antonescu C.R.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Corless C.,Oregon Health And Science University | And 8 more authors.
Annals of Surgery | Year: 2013

Objective: To conduct the first adjuvant trial of imatinib mesylate for treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Background: GIST is the most common sarcoma. Although surgical resection has been the mainstay of therapy for localized, primary GIST, postoperative tumor recurrence is common. The KIT protooncogene or, less frequently, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha is mutated in GIST; the gene products of both are inhibited by imatinib mesylate. Methods: This was a phase II, intergroup trial led by the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group, registered at as NCT00025246. From September 2001 to September 2003, we accrued 106 patients who had undergone complete gross tumor removal but were deemed at high risk for recurrence. Patients were prescribed imatinib 400 mg per day for 1 year and followed with serial radiologic evaluation. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Results: After a median follow-up of 7.7 years, the 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS rates were 99%, 97%, and 83%, which compared favorably with a historical 5-year OS rate of 35%. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 96%, 60%, and 40%. On univariable analysis, age and mitotic rate were associated with OS. On multivariable analysis, the RFS rate was lower with increasing tumor size, small bowel site, KIT exon 9 mutation, high mitotic rate, and older age. Conclusions: Adjuvant imatinib in patients with primary GIST who are at high risk of recurrence prolongs OS compared with that of historical controls. Optimal duration of adjuvant therapy remains undefined. © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Navari R.M.,Indiana University | Qin R.,Alliance Statistics and Data Center | Ruddy K.J.,Mayo Medical School | Liu H.,Alliance Statistics and Data Center | And 6 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2016

Background We examined the efficacy of olanzapine for the prevention of nausea and vomiting in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. METHODS In a randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial, we compared olanzapine with placebo, in combination with dexamethasone, aprepitant or fosaprepitant, and a 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3-receptor antagonist, in patients with no previous chemotherapy who were receiving cisplatin (=70 mg per square meter of body-surface area) or cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin. The doses of the three concomitant drugs administered before and after chemotherapy were similar in the two groups. The two groups received either 10 mg of olanzapine orally or matching placebo daily on days 1 through 4. Nausea prevention was the primary end point; a complete response (no emesis and no use of rescue medication) was a secondary end point. RESULTS In the analysis, we included 380 patients who could be evaluated (192 assigned to olanzapine, and 188 to placebo). The proportion of patients with no chemotherapyinduced nausea was significantly greater with olanzapine than with placebo in the first 24 hours after chemotherapy (74% vs. 45%, P=0.002), the period from 25 to 120 hours after chemotherapy (42% vs. 25%, P=0.002), and the overall 120-hour period (37% vs. 22%, P=0.002). The complete-response rate was also significantly increased with olanzapine during the three periods: 86% versus 65% (P<0.001), 67% versus 52% (P=0.007), and 64% versus 41% (P<0.001), respectively. Although there were no grade 5 toxic effects, some patients receiving olanzapine had increased sedation (severe in 5%) on day 2. CONCLUSIONS Olanzapine, as compared with placebo, significantly improved nausea prevention, as well as the complete-response rate, among previously untreated patients who were receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. © 2016 Massachusetts Medical Society.

Sha D.,Molecular Therapeutics | Sha D.,Shandong University | Lee A.M.,Molecular Therapeutics | Shi Q.,Alliance Statistics and Data Center | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2014

Purpose: A let-7 microRNA-complementary site (LCS6) polymorphism in the 3′ untranslated region of the KRAS gene has been shown to disrupt let-7 binding and upregulate KRAS expression. We evaluated the LCS6 genotype and its association with KRAS mutation status, clinicopathologic features, and disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with stage III colon cancer who enrolled in a phase III clinical trial (NCCTG N0147). Experimental Design: The LCS6 genotype was assayed by real-time PCR in DNA extracted from whole blood (n = 2,834) and compared with paired tumor tissue (n = 977). χ2 and two-sample t tests were used to compare baseline factors and KRAS mutation status between patients defined by LCS6 variant status. Log-rank tests and multivariate Cox models assessed associations between LCS6 status and DFS, respectively. Results: We identified 432 (15.2%) blood samples and 143 (14.6%) tumor samples heterozygous or homozygous for the LCS6 G-allele, and 2,402 of 2,834 (84.8%) blood samples and 834 of 977 (85.4%) tumor samples homozygous for the LCS6 T-allele. Genotype results were highly concordant (99.8%) in cases with paired blood and tumor tissue (n = 977). G-allele carriers were significantly more frequent in Caucasians versus other races (χ2 test, P < 0.0001). The LCS6 genotype was not associated with KRAS mutation status, clinicopathologic features (all P > 0.2), or DFS (log-rank P = 0.49; HR, 0.929; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-1.14), even after combining LCS6 genotype with KRAS mutation status. Conclusions: In the largest association study investigating the LCS6 polymorphism in colon cancers, the germline LCS6 genotype was not associated with KRAS mutation status or with clinical outcome in patients with stage III tumors. ©2014 AACR.

Thanarajasingam G.,Mayo Medical School | Atherton P.J.,Alliance Statistics and Data Center | Novotny P.J.,Alliance Statistics and Data Center | Loprinzi C.L.,Mayo Medical School | And 2 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2016

Background: Traditional methods of reporting adverse events in clinical trials are inadequate for modern cancer treatments with chronic administration. Conventional analysis and display of maximum grade adverse events do not capture toxicity profiles that evolve over time or longer lasting, lower grade toxic effects; we aimed to address this shortcoming in this study. Methods: We developed an analytic approach and standardised, comprehensive format, the Toxicity over Time (ToxT) approach, which combines graphs and adverse event tabular displays with multiple longitudinal statistical techniques into a readily applicable method to study toxic effects. Plots visualising summary statistics or individual patient data over discrete timepoints were combined with statistical methods including the following longitudinal techniques: repeated measures models that describe the changes in adverse events across all cycles of treatment; time-to-event analyses of first and worst grade toxicity; and area under the curve (AUC) analyses summarising adverse event profiles over the entire course of a study, including chronic low-grade events. We applied ToxT analysis to adverse event data from two completed North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG/Alliance) trials: N9741 (NCT00003594), in which different combinations of oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and irinotecan were investigated for metastatic colorectal cancer, and 979254, in which survivors of breast cancer were given venlafaxine or placebo for control of hot flashes. Findings: In trial NCCTG 979254 there was a higher incidence of late-occurring dry mouth in patients who were given venlafaxine than in those given placebo (week 1 [baseline]: 13% [six incidence in 48 patients, SD 5] vs 22% [11/49, SD 6]; p=0·20; week 5: 49% [24/49, 7] vs 2% [1/46, 2]; p<0·0001). In trial NCCTG N9741 there was an increased incidence of early nausea for patients given irinotecan plus oxaliplatin (IROX) compared with those given 5-fluorouracil plus oxaliplatin (FOLFOX; cycle 1 mean grade nausea 1·1 [SD 1·0] vs 0·6 [0·7]; p<0·0001). Event charts showed earlier occurrences of higher grades of diarrhoea for patients given IROX compared with those given FOLFOX, and the AUC analysis shows a higher magnitude of diarrhoea consistently over time throughout the study in patients given IROX versus those given FOLFOX (mean AUC 4·2 [SD 5·2] vs 2·9 [4·2]; p<0·0001). Interpretation: The ToxT analytical approach incorporates the dimension of time into adverse event assessment and offers a more comprehensive depiction of toxic effects than present methods. With new, continuously administered targeted agents, immunotherapy, and maintenance regimens, these improved longitudinal analyses are directly relevant to patients and are crucial in cancer clinical trials. Funding: National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health and the Mayo Comprehensive Cancer Center. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Barton D.L.,Alliance Statistics and Data Center | Liu H.,Alliance Statistics and Data Center | Dakhil S.R.,Wichita Community Clinical Oncology Program | Linquist B.,Alliance Statistics and Data Center | And 7 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2013

Background Safe, effective interventions to improve cancer-related fatigue (CRF) are needed because it remains a prevalent, distressing, and activity-limiting symptom. Based on pilot data, a phase III trial was developed to evaluate the efficacy of American ginseng on CRF. Methods A multisite, double-blind trial randomized fatigued cancer survivors to 2000mg of American ginseng vs a placebo for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was the general subscale of the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory-Short Form (MFSI-SF) at 4 weeks. Changes from baseline at 4 and 8 weeks were evaluated between arms by a two-sided, two-sample t test. Toxicities were evaluated by self-report and the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) provider grading. Results Three hundred sixty-four participants were enrolled from 40 institutions. Changes from baseline in the general subscale of the MFSI-SF were 14.4 (standard deviation [SD] = 27.1) in the ginseng arm vs 8.2 (SD = 24.8) in the placebo arm at 4 weeks (P =. 07). A statistically significant difference was seen at 8 weeks with a change score of 20 (SD = 27) for the ginseng group and 10.3 (SD = 26.1) for the placebo group (P =. 003). Greater benefit was reported in patients receiving active cancer treatment vs those who had completed treatment. Toxicities per self-report and CTCAE grading did not differ statistically significantly between arms. Conclusions Data support the benefit of American ginseng, 2000mg daily, on CRF over an 8-week period. There were no discernible toxicities associated with the treatment. Studies to increase knowledge to guide the role of ginseng to improve CRF are needed. © The Author 2013.

Sinicrope F.A.,Mayo Medical School | Shi Q.,Alliance Statistics and Data Center | Smyrk T.C.,Mayo Medical School | Thibodeau S.N.,Mayo Medical School | And 9 more authors.
Gastroenterology | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Categorization of colon cancers into distinct subtypes using a combination of pathway-based biomarkers could provide insight into stage-independent variability in outcomes. METHODS: We used a polymerase chain reaction-based assay to detect mutations in BRAF (V600E) and in KRAS in 2720 stage III cancer samples, collected prospectively from patients participating in an adjuvant chemotherapy trial (NCCTG N0147). Tumors deficient or proficient in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) were identified based on detection of MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 proteins and methylation of the MLH1 promoter. Findings were validated using tumor samples from a separate set of patients with stage III cancer (n = 783). Association with 5-year disease-free survival was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Tumors were categorized into 5 subtypes based on MMR status and detection of BRAF or KRAS mutations which were mutually exclusive. Three subtypes were MMR proficient: those with mutations in BRAF (6.9% of samples), mutations in KRAS (35%), or tumors lacking either BRAF or KRAS mutations (49%). Two subtypes were MMR deficient: the sporadic type (6.8%) with BRAF mutation and/or or hypermethylation of MLH1 and the familial type (2.6%), which lacked BRAFV600E or hypermethylation of MLH1. A higher percentage of MMR-proficient tumors with BRAFV600E were proximal (76%), high-grade (44%), N2 stage (59%), and detected in women (59%), compared with MMR-proficient tumors without BRAFV600E or KRAS mutations (33%, 19%, 41%, and 42%, respectively; all P <.0001). A significantly lower proportion of patients with MMR-proficient tumors with mutant BRAF (hazard ratio = 1.43; 95% confidence interval: 1.11-1.85; Padjusted =.0065) or mutant KRAS (hazard ratio = 1.48; 95% confidence interval: 1.27-1.74; Padjusted <.0001) survived disease-free for 5 years compared with patients whose MMR-proficient tumors lacked mutations in either gene. Disease-free survival rates of patients with MMR-deficient sporadic or familial subtypes was similar to those of patients with MMR-proficient tumors without BRAF or KRAS mutations. The observed differences in survival rates of patients with different tumor subtypes were validated in an independent cohort. CONCLUSIONS: We identified subtypes of stage III colon cancer, based on detection of mutations in BRAF (V600E) or KRAS, and MMR status that show differences in clinical and pathologic features and disease-free survival. Patients with MMR-proficient tumors and BRAF or KRAS mutations had statistically shorter survival times than patients whose tumors lacked these mutations. The tumor subtype found in nearly half of the study cohort (MMR-proficient without BRAFV600E or KRAS mutations) had similar outcomes to those of patients with MMR-deficient cancers. © 2015 AGA Institute.

Boughey J.C.,Mayo Medical School | McCall L.M.,Duke University | Ballman K.V.,Alliance Statistics and Data Center | Mittendorf E.A.,The Surgical Center | And 6 more authors.
Annals of Surgery | Year: 2014

Objective: To determine the impact of tumor biology on rates of breastconserving surgery and pathologic complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. CopyrightBackground: The impact of tumor biology on the rate of breastconserving surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy has not been well studied.Methods: We used data from ACOSOG Z1071, a prospective, multicenter study assessing sentinel lymph node surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients presenting with nodepositive breast cancer from 2009 through 2011, to determine rates of breastconserving surgery and pCR after chemotherapy by approximated biologic subtype.Results: Of the 756 patients enrolled on Z1071, 694 had findings available from pathologic review of breast and axillary specimens from surgery after chemotherapy. Approximated subtype was triplenegative in 170 (24.5%), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)positive in 207 (29.8%), and hormonereceptorpositive, HER2negative in 317 (45.7%) patients. Patient age, clinical tumor and nodal stage at presentation did not differ across subtypes. Rates of breastconserving surgery were significantly higher in patients with triplenegative (46.8%) and HER2positive tumors (43.0%) than in those with hormonereceptorpositive, HER2negative tumors (34.5%) (P = 0.019). Rates of pCR in both the breast and axilla were 38.2% in triplenegative, 45.4% in HER2positive, and 11.4% in hormonereceptorpositive, HER2negative disease (P 0.0001). Rates of pCR in the breast only and the axilla only exhibited similar differences across tumor subtypes.Conclusions: Patients with triplenegative and HER2positive breast cancers have the highest rates of breastconserving surgery and pCR after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patients with these subtypes are most likely to be candidates for less invasive surgical approaches after chemotherapy. © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Smith E.M.L.,University of Michigan | Pang H.,Alliance Statistics and Data Center | Pang H.,Duke University | Cirrincione C.,Alliance Statistics and Data Center | And 10 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2013

Importance: There are no known effective treatments for painful chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Objective: To determine the effect of duloxetine, 60 mg daily, on average pain severity. Design, Setting, and Patients: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial at 8 National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative research networks that enrolled 231 patients who were 25 years or older being treated at community and academic settings between April 2008 and March 2011. Study follow-up was completed July 2012. Stratified by chemotherapeutic drug and comorbid pain risk, patients were randomized to receive either duloxetine followed by placebo or placebo followed by duloxetine. Eligibility required that patients have grade 1 or higher sensory neuropathy according to the NCI Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events and at least 4 on a scale of 0 to 10, representing average chemotherapy-induced pain, after paclitaxel, other taxane, or oxaliplatin treatment. Interventions: The initial treatment consisted of taking 1 capsule daily of either 30 mg of duloxetine or placebo for the first week and 2 capsules of either 30 mg of duloxetine or placebo daily for 4 additional weeks. Main Outcome Measures: The primary hypothesis was that duloxetine would be more effective than placebo in decreasing chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathic pain. Pain severity was assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form "average pain" item with 0 representing no pain and 10 representing as bad as can be imagined. Results: Individuals receiving duloxetine as their initial 5-week treatment reported a mean decrease in average pain of 1.06 (95% CI, 0.72-1.40) vs 0.34 (95% CI, 0.01-0.66) among those who received placebo (P=.003; effect size, 0.513). The observed mean difference in the average pain score between duloxetine and placebo was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.26-1.20). Fifty-nine percent of those initially receiving duloxetine vs 38% of those initially receiving placebo reported decreased pain of any amount. Conclusion and Relevance: Among patients with painful chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, the use of duloxetine compared with placebo for 5 weeks resulted in a greater reduction in pain. Trial Registration: Identifier: NCT00489411. ©2013 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Yoon H.H.,Mayo Medical School | Tougeron D.,Mayo Medical School | Shi Q.,Alliance Statistics and Data Center | Alberts S.R.,Mayo Medical School | And 7 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2014

Purpose: We examined the prognostic impact of specific KRAS mutations in patients with stage III colon adenocarcinoma receiving adjuvant FOLFOX alone or combined with cetuximab in a phase III trial (N0147). Analysis was restricted to BRAF-wild-type tumors, because BRAF mutation was associated with poor prognosis, and BRAF and KRAS mutations are mutually exclusive. Experimental Design: The seven most common KRAS mutations in codon 12 and codon 13 were examined in 2,478 BRAF-wild-type tumors. Because KRAS mutations in codon 12 (n = 779) or 13 (n = 220) were not predictive of adjuvant cetuximab benefit, study arms were pooled for analysis. Disease-free survival (DFS) was evaluated by HRs using Cox models. Results: KRAS mutations in codon 12 (multivariate HR, 1.52;95% confidence interval, CI, 1.28-1.80; P < 0.0001) or codon 13 (multivariate HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.04-1.77; P = 0.0248) were significantly associated with shorter DFS compared with patients with wild-type KRAS/ BRAF tumors, independent of covariates. KRAS codon 12 mutations were independently associated with proficient mismatch repair (P < 0.0001), proximal tumor site (P < 0.0001), low grade, age, and sex, whereas codon 13 mutations were associated with proximal site (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: KRAS mutations in either codon 12 or 13 are associated with inferior survival in patients with resected stage III colon cancer. These data highlight the importance of accurate molecular characterization and the significant role of KRAS mutations in both codons in the progression of this malignancy in the adjuvant setting. ©2014 AACR.

Boughey J.C.,Mayo Medical School | Suman V.J.,Alliance Statistics and Data Center | Mittendorf E.A.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Ahrendt G.M.,University of Pittsburgh | And 7 more authors.
Annals of Surgery | Year: 2015

Objective: To evaluate factors affecting sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with initial nodepositive breast cancer. Background: SLN surgery is increasingly used for nodal staging after NAC and optimal technique for SLN identification is important. Methods: The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1071 prospective trial enrolled clinical T0-4, N1-2, M0 breast cancer patients. After NAC, SLN surgery and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) were planned. Multivariate logistic regression modeling assessing factors influencing SLN identification was performed. Results: Of 756 patients enrolled, 34 women withdrew, 21 were ineligible, 12 underwent ALND only, and 689 had SLN surgery attempted. At least 1 SLN was identified in 639 patients (92.7%: 95% CI: 90.5%-94.6%). Among factors evaluated, mapping technique was the only factor found to impact SLN identification; with use of blue dye alone increasing the likelihood of failure to identify the SLN relative to using radiolabeled colloid +/- blue dye (P = 0.006; OR = 3.82; 95% CI: 1.47-9.92). The SLN identification rate was 78.6% with blue dye alone; 91.4% with radiolabeled colloid and 93.8% with dual mapping agents. Patient factors (age, body mass index), tumor factors (clinical T or N stage), pathologic nodal response to chemotherapy, site of tracer injection, and length of chemotherapy treatment did not significantly affect the SLN identification rate. Conclusions: The SLN identification rate after NAC was higher when mapping was performed using radiolabeled colloid alone or with blue dye com- pared with blue dye alone. Optimal tracer use is important to ensure successful identification of SLN(s) after NAC. Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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