Alliance for Research in Exercise

Adelaide, Australia

Alliance for Research in Exercise

Adelaide, Australia
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Mills S.J.,Hampstead Rehabilitation Center | Mills S.J.,International Center for Allied | McDonnell M.N.,Alliance for Research in Exercise | Thewlis D.,Alliance for Research in Exercise | Mackintosh S.,University of South Australia
Brain Injury | Year: 2017

Primary objective: To examine the relationship between postural alignment and mobility skills for adults after acquired brain injury (ABI). Methods: Systematic review of the literature. Seven electronic databases, grey literature and reference lists of the shortlisted publications were searched. Studies were included if participants were adults with ABI, both postural alignment and mobility were measured and analysis included a relationship between alignment and mobility. Those that met the inclusion criteria were assessed with a critical appraisal tool. The review was registered with PROSPERO, registration number CRD42015019867. Results: Seven observational studies were included that had examined a relationship between postural alignment and mobility after ABI. Critical appraisal scores were moderate to strong. While some studies reported that improved postural alignment was related to improved mobility after ABI, results varied and there was insufficient evidence to answer the primary question. Heterogeneous study designs did not allow meta-regression. Conclusions: A small amount of observational evidence exists for a relationship between postural alignment and mobility after ABI. Results vary, with some studies reporting that a more stable, upright trunk correlates with better mobility, and others providing conflicting or ambiguous results. Further research is needed to establish the relationship between postural alignment and mobility skills after ABI. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Knight A.,Alliance for Research in Exercise | Bryan J.,Alliance for Research in Exercise | Wilson C.,University of South Australia | Hodgson J.,University of Western Australia | Murphy K.,Alliance for Research in Exercise
BMC Geriatrics | Year: 2015

Background: The incidence of age-related cognitive decline is rising considerably around the world. There is evidence from a number of recent cross-sectional and prospective studies indicating positive associations between the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MedDiet) and improved cognitive outcomes among the elderly including, reduced age-related cognitive decline and enhanced age-related cognitive performance. However, to date no study has validated these associations in healthy older adult populations (≥65 years and above) with randomised evidence. The main aim of the present study is to provide justified evidence regarding the efficacy of a MedDiet approach to safely reduce the onset of cognitive decline, and promote optimal cognitive performance among healthy older adults using rigorous, randomised intervention methodology. Methods/Design: MedLey is a 6-month, randomised controlled 2-cohort parallel group intervention trial, with initial assessment at baseline and repeated every three months. A sample of 166 healthy Australian men and women aged 65 years and above, with normal cognitive function and proficient in English language were recruited from metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia for the study. Participants randomly allocated to the experimental group are required to maintain an intervention dietary pattern based from the traditional Cretan MedDiet (i.e. vegetables, fruits, olive oil, legumes, fish, whole grain cereals, nuts and seeds and low consumption of processed foods, dairy products, red meat and vegetable oils) for six months, while those participants allocated to the control group are asked to maintain their customary lifestyle and diet. The primary outcome of interest is the quantitative difference in age-related cognitive performance, as measured by latent variables (cognitive constructs) sensitive to normal ageing and diet (i.e. speed of processing, memory, attention, executive functions, visual spatial and visuomotor ability). Secondary outcomes include change in biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, glucose, insulin, blood flow velocity, and psychological well-being factors (i.e. stress, sleep, anxiety, depression). Discussion: To our knowledge this will be one of the first randomised clinical trials worldwide to provide evidence for the cause-effect relationship between the MedDiet and age-related cognitive function in a healthy older adult population (≥65 years and over). Trial registration: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12613000602729. © 2015 Knight et al.

Knight A.,University of South Australia | Knight A.,Alliance for Research in Exercise | Bryan J.,University of South Australia | Bryan J.,Alliance for Research in Exercise | And 2 more authors.
Ageing Research Reviews | Year: 2016

The rise in the ageing population has resulted in increased incident rates of cognitive impairment and dementia. The subsequent financial and societal burden placed on an already strained public health care system is of increasing concern. Evidence from recent studies has revealed modification of lifestyle and dietary behaviours is, at present, the best means of prevention. Some of the most important findings, in relation to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and the contemporary Western diet, and potential molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of these two diets on age-related cognitive function, are discussed in this review. A major aim of this review was to discuss whether or not a MedDiet intervention would be a feasible preventative approach against cognitive decline for older adults living in Western countries. Critical appraisal of the literature does somewhat support this idea. Demonstrated evidence highlights the MedDiet as a potential strategy to reduce cognitive decline in older age, and suggests the Western diet may play a role in the aetiology of cognitive decline. However, strong intrinsic Western socio-cultural values, traditions and norms may impede on the feasibility of this notion. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

PubMed | Alliance for Research in Exercise, University of South Australia and Flinders University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiotherapie Canada | Year: 2016

To investigate the magnitude of change in outcomes after repeated exposure to evidence-based practice (EBP) training in entry-level health professional students.Using an observational cross-sectional analytic design, the study tracked 78 students in physiotherapy, podiatry, health science, medical radiations, and human movement before and after two sequential EBP courses. The first EBP course was aimed at developing foundational knowledge of and skills in the five steps of EBP; the second was designed to teach students to apply these steps. Two EBP instruments were used to collect objective (actual knowledge) and self-reported (terminology, confidence, practice, relevance, sympathy) data. Participants completed both instruments before and after each course.Effect sizes were larger after the first course than after the second for relevance (0.72 and 0.26, respectively), practice (1.23 and 0.43), terminology (2.73 and 0.84), and actual knowledge (1.92 and 1.45); effect sizes were larger after the second course for sympathy (0.03 and 0.14) and confidence (0.81 and 1.12).Knowledge and relevance changed most meaningfully (i.e., showed the largest effect size) for participants with minimal prior exposure to training. Changes in participants confidence and attitudes may require a longer time frame and repeated training exposure.

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