Time filter

Source Type

Leo G.,Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Pathophysiology Unit | Triulzi F.,Buzzi Childrens Hospital Istituti Clinici di Perfezionamento | Incorvaia C.,Allergy Pulmonary Rehabilitation Unit
Current Allergy and Asthma Reports | Year: 2012

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a relatively common disease in children but is often overlooked because at times the clinical symptoms are subtle and nonspecific. This makes imaging very important in the diagnosis. Among the different techniques, plain radiography has limited utility, whereas CT scan and MRI have a major role in evaluating the modifications caused by the disease. In particular, a CT scan provides higher resolution of bone and soft tissue and removes the overlapping structures that are present in conventional radiography. CT is recommended in isolated sphenoid sinusitis, is essential in diagnosing fungal sinusitis, and is the technique of choice when orbital complications are suspected. MRI allows investigation of not only the morphology of structures, but their intrinsic biophysical and biochemical properties, such as water content, cellular density, lipid or blood product deposits, and fibrosis. MRI allows better soft tissue differentiation and high spatial resolution images depicting fine details. When indicated, MRI with contrast gadolinium-based agents may better characterize the local disease extension or its diffusion beyond paranasal and nasal cavities and has excellent contrast resolution. A combination of CT and MRI is useful in cases of diagnostic difficulties, especially when complications are involved. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source

Mauro M.,Allergy Unit | Russello M.,Allergy Unit | Incorvaia C.,Allergy Pulmonary Rehabilitation Unit | Gazzola G.,Allergy Unit | And 4 more authors.
International Archives of Allergy and Immunology | Year: 2011

Background: The most common pollen-fruit cross-reaction is the birch-apple syndrome. Allergen immunotherapy (IT) is clearly effective for birch allergy, but its efficacy on apple allergy is controversial. We performed a randomized study on patients with birch-apple syndrome to evaluate the outcome of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). Methods: Forty patients underwent IT with a birch extract (Staloral; Stallergenes, Antony, France), 20 by SCIT and 20 by SLIT. After 1 year of treatment, 15 patients (8 for SCIT and 7 for SLIT) accepted to undergo an oral apple challenge. Measurements of specific IgE to Bet v 1 and Mal d 1 and related allergens Api g 1 and Dau c 1 were obtained in 10 patients, at baseline and after IT. Results: Two of 8 SCIT-treated patients (25%) and 1 of 7 SLIT-treated patients (14.2%) developed complete tolerance to apple. In the remaining patients, an increase in the provocative dose was found in 3 of the SCIT-treated (37.5%) and 2 of the SLIT-treated patients (28.6%). Changes in the levels of specific IgE to Mal d 1 were unrelated to clinical results. Conclusions: These findings suggest that different doses of birch extract may be needed in different patients to improve the associated apple allergy and that a finer diagnostic work-up in selecting patients with birch-apple syndrome who are candidates to respond to birch pollen IT also concerning apple allergy is required. © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Leo G.,Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Pathophysiology Unit | Incorvaia C.,Allergy Pulmonary Rehabilitation Unit | Masieri S.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Triulzi F.,Buzzi Childrens Hospital
European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2010

Symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) are nasal blockage, nasal discharge, postnasal drip, facial pain, headache, and reduction or loss of smell, but they are often subtle and make it difficult to obtain a firm diagnosis based only on clinical data, and especially to distinguish CRS from persistent rhinitis. A. diagnosis of certainty of CRS relies upon either direct observation by nasal fibroendoscopy of nasal turbinates, middle meatus, and rhinopharynx, detecting mucopurulent discharge from the middle meatus, and/or oedema or mucosal obstruction, or by imaging of the rhinosinusal cavities. Imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) scanning and magnetic resonance (MR) are currently recommended in consensus documents, while plain radiography is considered of poor diagnostic value. However, recent studies indicated that radiography by the Waters projection had a sensitivity of 84.2% and a specificity of 76.6%, which suggests to use it routinely in suspected CRS, limiting the number of more expensive imaging investigations. This seems important in the current economic landscape that requires a cost-effectiveness evaluation in each diagnostic procedure. Source

Ridolo E.,University of Parma | Montagni M.,University of Parma | Caminati M.,University of Verona | Senna G.,University of Verona | And 2 more authors.
Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs | Year: 2014

Introduction: Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) is a very common disease, especially in association with allergic rhinitis but may also occur in isolated presentation. The treatment of AC has long been based on antihistamines, cromones and topical corticosteroids, but none of these drugs completely abolishes the clinical expression of AC. Areas covered: The development of new drugs for AC is analyzed highlighting the recent insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease. The major aim of development of drugs for AC is to have agents able to prevent the inflammatory effects of the interaction between the allergen and the specific IgE antibodies on mast cell surface. This may be obtained by blocking the effects of histamine (the main mediator of early allergic response) by H1-receptor antagonists, inhibiting the release of soluble factors able to recruit inflammatory cells (that sustain prolonged inflammation) by mast-cell stabilizers, inhibiting the effects of single mediators, inducing tolerance to the allergen by specific immunotherapy or even acting on factors related to activation and differentiation of T lymphocytes such as the toll-like receptors. Expert opinion: AC is an underestimated disease for which there is a search of more effective treatments. The availability of the drugs under current evaluation will allow more refined therapeutic strategies to apply according to the characteristics and the clinical severity of AC. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

Frati F.,Stallergenes | Incorvaia C.,Allergy Pulmonary Rehabilitation Unit | Lombardi C.,Allergy Unit | Senna G.,University of Verona
European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2012

Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only treatment able to act on the causes and not merely on the symptoms of allergy. AIT was introduced 100 years ago but remained an empirical treatment for more than 40 years, when the first controlled trial in 1954 opened the era of scientific evidence. A major advance was the introduction of venom immunotherapy to prevent anaphylaxis from insect stings in 1978. Concerning inhalant allergens, currently AIT may be administered in two forms, subcutaneous (SCIT), and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). A large number of trials, globally analyzed in a number of meta-analyses, gave sound evidence to the efficacy and safety of SCIT and SLIT in allergic rhinitis and asthma. Adverse systemic reactions are still a drawback for SCIT, while safety and tolerability of SLIT are very good, provided recommended doses and schedules of administration are used. A significant advance for SLIT development was the registration in Europe of the standardized quality tablets. New applications, such as food allergy and atopic dermatitis, as well as new routes of administration, are currently under evaluation. After 100 years of use, AIT has a central role in the management of allergy and the ongoing improvement seems able to warrant to AIT an even brighter future. Source

Discover hidden collaborations