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Dykewicz M.S.,Allergy and Immunology Unit | Hamilos D.L.,Harvard University
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2010

Rhinitis and sinusitis are among the most common medical conditions and are frequently associated. In Western societies an estimated 10% to 25% of the population have allergic rhinitis, with 30 to 60 million persons being affected annually in the United States. It is estimated that sinusitis affects 31 million patients annually in the United States. Both rhinitis and sinusitis can significantly decrease quality of life, aggravate comorbid conditions, and require significant direct medical expenditures. Both conditions also create even greater indirect costs to society by causing lost work and school days and reduced workplace productivity and school learning. Management of allergic rhinitis involves avoidance, many pharmacologic options, and, in appropriately selected patients, allergen immunotherapy. Various types of nonallergic rhinitis are treated with avoidance measures and a more limited repertoire of medications. For purposes of this review, sinusitis and rhinosinusitis are synonymous terms. An acute upper respiratory illness of less than approximately 7 days' duration is most commonly caused by viral illness (viral rhinosinusitis), whereas acute bacterial sinusitis becomes more likely beyond 7 to 10 days. Although the mainstay of management of acute bacterial sinusitis is antibiotics, treatment of chronic sinusitis is less straightforward because only some chronic sinusitis cases have an infectious basis. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has been subdivided into 3 types, namely CRS without nasal polyps, CRS with nasal polyps, and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. Depending on the type of CRS present, a variety of medical and surgical approaches might be required. © 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Source

Aberer W.,Medical University of Graz | Maurer M.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Reshef A.,Clinical Immunology and Angioedema Unit | Longhurst H.,Barts and the London Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2014

Background: Historically, treatment for hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks has been administered by healthcare professionals (HCPs). Patient self-administration could reduce delays between symptom onset and treatment, and attack burden. The primary objective was to assess the safety of self-administered icatibant in patients with HAE type I or II. Secondary objectives included patient convenience and clinical efficacy of self-administration. Methods: In this phase IIIb, open-label, multicenter study, adult patients were trained to self-administer a single 30-mg icatibant subcutaneous injection to treat their next attack. Icatibant-naïve patients were treated by an HCP prior to self-administration. Evaluations included adverse event (AE) reporting, a validated questionnaire for convenience, and visual analog scale for efficacy. Results: A total of 151 patients were enrolled; 104 had an attack requiring treatment during the study, and 97 patients (19 naïve) were included in the self-administration cohort. Recurrence or worsening of HAE symptoms (22 of 97) was the most commonly reported AE; rescue medications including icatibant (N = 3) and C1-inhibitor concentrate (N = 6) were used in 13 cases. Overall, 89 of 97 patients used a single injection of icatibant. No serious AEs or hospitalizations were reported. Most patients (91.7%) found self-administration preferable to administration in the clinic. The median time to symptom relief (3.8 h) was comparable with results from controlled trials of icatibant. Conclusions: With appropriate training, patients were successfully able to recognize HAE attacks and decide when to self-administer icatibant. This, coupled with the patient-reported high degree of satisfaction, convenience and ease of use supports the adoption of icatibant self-administration in clinical practice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Ponvert C.,University of Paris Descartes | Perrin Y.,Allergy and Immunology Unit | Le Bourgeois M.,University of Paris Descartes | Karila C.,University of Paris Descartes | And 3 more authors.
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology | Year: 2011

Studies based on skin and challenge tests have shown that 12-60% of children with suspected betalactam hypersensitivity were allergic to betalactams. Responses in skin and challenge tests were studied in 1865 children with suspected betalactam allergy (i) to confirm or rule out the suspected diagnosis; (ii) to evaluate diagnostic value of immediate and non-immediate responses in skin and challenge tests; (iii) to determine frequency of betalactam allergy in those children, and (iv) to determine potential risk factors for betalactam allergy. The work-up was completed in 1431 children, of whom 227 (15.9%) were diagnosed allergic to betalactams. Betalactam hypersensitivity was diagnosed in 50 of the 162 (30.9%) children reporting immediate reactions and in 177 of the 1087 (16.7%) children reporting non-immediate reactions (p<0.001). The likelihood of betalactam hypersensitivity was also significantly higher in children reporting anaphylaxis, serum sickness-like reactions, and (potentially) severe skin reactions such as acute generalized exanthematic pustulosis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and drug reaction with systemic symptoms than in other children (p<0.001). Skin tests diagnosed 86% of immediate and 31.6% of non-immediate sensitizations. Cross-reactivity and/or cosensitization among betalactams was diagnosed in 76% and 14.7% of the children with immediate and non-immediate hypersensitivity, respectively. The number of children diagnosed allergic to betalactams decreased with time between the reaction and the work-up, probably because the majority of children with severe and worrying reactions were referred for allergological work-up more promptly than the other children. Sex, age, and atopy were not risk factors for betalactam hypersensitivity. In conclusion, we confirm in numerous children that (i) only a few children with suspected betalactam hypersensitivity are allergic to betalactams; (ii) the likelihood of betalactam allergy increases with earliness and/or severity of the reactions; (iii) although non-immediate-reading skin tests (intradermal and patch tests) may diagnose non-immediate sensitizations in children with non-immediate reactions to betalactams (maculopapular rashes and potentially severe skin reactions especially), the diagnostic value of non-immediate-reading skin tests is far lower than the diagnostic value of immediate-reading skin tests, most non-immediate sensitizations to betalactams being diagnosed by means of challenge tests; (iv) cross-reactivity and/or cosensitizations among betalactams are much more frequent in children reporting immediate and/or anaphylactic reactions than in the other children; (v) age, sex and personal atopy are not significant risk factors for betalactam hypersensitivity; and (vi) the number of children with diagnosed allergy to betalactams (of the immediate-type hypersensitivity especially) decreases with time between the reaction and allergological work-up. Finally, based on our experience, we also propose a practical diagnostic approach in children with suspected betalactam hypersensitivity. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Villalta D.,Allergy and Immunology Unit | Tonutti E.,Allergy and Immunopathology Unit | Prause C.,University of Leipzig | Koletzko S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 11 more authors.
Clinical Chemistry | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Assays for IgG antibodies against deamidated gliadin (IgG-anti-dGli) are comparable in performance with tests detecting IgA antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (IgA-anti-tTG) in diagnosing celiac disease (CD). IgA-anti-tTG are absent in IgA deficiency, a condition often associated with CD. In IgA deficiency, IgG-anti-tTG, which have a lower overall diagnostic accuracy, are routinely measured. We examined whether IgG-anti-dGli would be useful for diagnosing CD in patients with IgA deficiency. METHODS: We studied 34 IgA-deficient CD patients, 185 IgA-competent newly diagnosed children with CD, 316 children without CD, 400 adult blood donors, and 6 control IgA-deficient individuals without CD. AntidGli and anti-tTG were measured by ELISA, and endomysium antibodies (EmA) were measured by immunofluorescence on monkey esophagus (IgA as well as IgG class for all antibodies). We calculated diagnostic sensitivity (percentage of patients above cutoff with 95% CIs) according to age-specific cutoffs for 95% diagnostic specificity and according to cutoffs proposed by the manufacturer of the assays. RESULTS: No IgA-deficient CD patients were positive for any IgA-based antibody assay. Diagnostic sensitivity of IgG-anti-tTG was 91.2% (95% CI 76.3%-97.7%) according to age-specific cutoffs and 82.4% (66.1%-92.0%) according to manufacturer cutoffs. The diagnostic sensitivity of IgG-EmA was 75.8% (58.8%-87.4%) and the sensitivity of IgG-anti-dGli was 88.2% (72.8%-95.9%) according to both cutoffs. CONCLUSIONS: IgG-anti-dGli and IgG-anti-tTG have comparable diagnostic sensitivities for IgA-deficient celiac patients. IgG-anti-dGli may be useful for diagnosing CD in IgA-deficient patients. Source

Pignatti P.,Allergy and Immunology Unit | Frossi B.,University of Udine | Pala G.,Allergy and Immunology Unit | Negri S.,Environmental Research Center | And 4 more authors.
International Archives of Allergy and Immunology | Year: 2013

Background: Persulfate salts are components of bleaching powders widely used by hairdressers during hair-bleaching procedures. Hairdressers are at high risk for occupational asthma and rhinitis, and ammonium persulfate is the main etiologic agent. Objective: To explore the effects of ammonium persulfate on human albumin, mast cells, and basophils in order to evaluate a possible effect of ammonium persulfate oxidizing activity in the mechanism of ammonium persulfate-induced occupational asthma. Methods: High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was performed on ammonium persulfate-incubated human albumin. The activation of LAD2 human mast cell and KU812 human basophil cell lines incubated with ammonium persulfate was evaluated. CD63 expression on persulfate-in-vitro-incubated blood basophils from nonexposed healthy controls (n = 31) and hairdressers with work-related respiratory symptoms (n = 29) was assessed by flow cytometry. Results: No persulfate-albumin conjugate was found. An oxidative process on tryptophan and methionine was detected. Ammonium persulfate induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and the degranulation of LAD2 and KU812 cells. Human basophils from healthy controls, incubated in vitro with ammonium persulfate, showed increased CD63 expression and ROS production. In hairdressers with ammonium persulfate-caused occupational asthma (positive persulfate challenge), basophil-CD63 expression was higher than in those with a negative challenge and in healthy controls. Conclusions: Ammonium persulfate incubated with human albumin did not generate any adduct but oxidized some amino acids. This oxidizing activity induced human mast cell and basophil activation which might be crucial in the mechanism of persulfate-induced occupational asthma and rhinitis. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

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