Clinical Allergy and Immunology Unit

Milano, Italy

Clinical Allergy and Immunology Unit

Milano, Italy
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Primavesi L.,Clinical Allergy and Immunology Unit | Pravettoni V.,Clinical Allergy and Immunology Unit | Farioli L.,Niguarda Ca Granda Hospital | Pastorello E.A.,Niguarda Ca Granda Hospital
European Food Research and Technology | Year: 2011

Tomato contains at least two different lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) that are responsible for the oral allergy syndrome. In this paper, our attention was addressed on the influence of two technological treatments (chemical peeling and thermal treatment) on IgE-binding capacity of tomato LTP. Chemical peeling did not significantly alter IgE-binding capacity of tomato LTP. IgE immunoblotting of whole fresh tomato and of the same after chemical peeling showed the same protein bands able to bind patients' IgE. Furosine, an indicator of intensities of thermal treatment sustained by the products, was analyzed in some commercial tomato products of different types. Products with furosine index between 2.8 and 17.6 substantially presented the same immunoblotting pattern. The heat resistance of tomato LTP confirms once again the extreme stability of this allergen. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


PubMed | San Marco General Hospital, Legnano Hospital, ICP Hospital, Treviglio Hospital and 5 more.
Type: | Journal: Journal of asthma and allergy | Year: 2013

An important subpopulation in allergic rhinitis is represented by patients with severe form of disease that is not responsive to drug treatment. It has been reported that grass pollen subcutaneous immunotherapy is effective in drug-resistant patients. In a real-life study, we evaluated the efficacy of 5-grass pollen tablets in patients with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinitis not responsive to drug therapy.We carried out this multicenter observational study in adults and adolescents with grass-induced allergic rhinitis not responsive to drug therapy who were treated for a year with 5-grass pollen tablets. Clinical data collected before and after sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) included Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) classification of allergic rhinitis, response to therapy, and patient satisfaction.Forty-seven patients entered the study. By ARIA classification, three patients had moderate to severe intermittent allergic rhinitis, ten had mild persistent allergic rhinitis, and 34 had moderate to severe persistent allergic rhinitis. There were no cases of mild intermittent allergic rhinitis before SLIT. After SLIT, 33 patients had mild intermittent allergic rhinitis, none had moderate to severe intermittent allergic rhinitis, seven had mild persistent allergic rhinitis, and seven had moderate to severe persistent allergic rhinitis. The mean medication score decreased from 4.21.3 before to 2.42.0 after SLIT (P<0.01), representing a reduction of 42%. The response to treatment before SLIT was judged as poor by 70% of patients and very poor by 30%. Patient satisfaction was significantly increased after SLIT (P<0.01).In real life, most patients with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinitis not responsive to drug treatment can achieve control of the condition with one season of treatment using 5-grass pollen tablets.


Pastorello E.A.,Niguarda Ca Granda Hospital | Monza M.,Clinical Allergy and Immunology Unit | Pravettoni V.,Clinical Allergy and Immunology Unit | Longhi R.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | And 4 more authors.
International Archives of Allergy and Immunology | Year: 2010

Background: Pru p 3 is the major peach allergen recognized by more than 90% of peach-allergic individuals of the Mediterranean area. Identification of the dominant Pru p 3 T-cell epitopes can improve our understanding of the immune responses against this protein and could be helpful in the development of hypoallergenic immunotherapy. For this purpose, we examined the phenotypes, specificities and cytokine secretion profiles of proliferating T cells in response to Pru p 3 in peach-allergic individuals. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 15 peach-allergic patients were incubated with Pru p 3. The proliferation of antigen-specific T-cell lines (TCLs) was assessed by tritiated methylthymidine incorporation. T-cell epitopes were identified by analyzing the reactivity of TCLs against 8 overlapping peptides spanning the entire length of Pru p 3. We characterized the phenotype of Pru-p-3-specific TCLs by flow cytometry and analyzed their production of interleukin (IL) 4 and γ-interferon (IFN-γ) by ELISA. Results: Ninety-two Pru-p-3-specific TCLs were isolated (stimulation index ≥5). These TCLs proliferated mainly in response to Pru p 312-27 and Pru p 357-72. Pru-p-3-specific TCLs were mainly CD4+ (81%) and expressed cell surface CD30. In addition, TCLs produced high levels of IL-4 and low levels of IFN-γ, indicating a Th2 phenotype. Conclusions: Two immunodominant T-cell-reactive regions of Pru p 3 were identified: Pru p 312-27 and Pru p 3 57-72. These peptides showed a differential ability to elicit a Th2 response. Taken together, our results provide a better understanding of the immunological T-cell reactivity against Pru p 3. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Pastorello E.A.,Niguarda Ca Granda Hospital | Pravettoni V.,Clinical Allergy and Immunology Unit | Farioli L.,Niguarda Ca Granda Hospital | Primavesi L.,Clinical Allergy and Immunology Unit | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Green beans belong to the Fabaceae family, which includes widely consumed species, such as beans, peanuts, and soybeans. In the literature, few cases have described allergic reactions upon the exposure to green bean boiling steam or ingestion. Here, we describe five patients reporting documented adverse reactions upon the ingestion of cooked green beans, and we characterize the responsible allergen. Fresh and cooked green beans were tested by a prick + prick technique. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and IgE immunoblotting were performed with boiled vegetable extract, and the N-terminal sequence of the immunoreactive protein was obtained by analyzing the excised band in a protein sequencer. Immunoblotting inhibition of cooked green bean with in-house-purified peach lipid transfer protein (LTP) Pru p 3 was performed. An interesting green bean protein was chromatographically purified, tested with a pool serum, and inhibited with Pru p 3. Moreover, its molecular mass was determined by mass spectrometry. Prick + prick tests with raw and cooked green beans were positive for all of the patients. IgE immunoblotting showed that all of the patients reacted toward a unique IgE-binding protein at about 9 kDa. The obtained N-terminal sequence revealed the following amino acids: Ala-Ile-Ser-X-Gly-Qln-Val-Thr-Ser-Ser-Leu-Ala, corresponding to an LTP. A complete inhibition of the IgE binding to this protein, in both raw and purified extract, was obtained by purified peach Pru p 3, confirming previous IgE immunoblotting results. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


PubMed | Clinical Allergy and Immunology Unit and Niguarda Ca Granda Hospital
Type: Case Reports | Journal: European annals of allergy and clinical immunology | Year: 2015

From the literature, patients with a history of anaphylaxis to hymenoptera venom and positive specific IgE have shown a correlation between elevated tryptase levels and two clinical situations: systemic mastocytosis and an increased risk of reactions to venom immunotherapy or hymenoptera sting. Other clinical scenarios could explain elevated tryptase levels.A 67 year old male (P1) and a 77 year old male (P2) were evaluated for previous severe anaphylaxis to hymenoptera sting. They underwent standard diagnostic work-up for hymenoptera venom allergy. Having found elevated tryptase levels, these were followed by a bone marrow biopsy to rule out systemic mastocytosis.P1: specific IgE and skin tests were positive for Vespula species; tryptase 52.8 ng/ml; P2: specific IgE and skin tests were positive for Vespa cabro and tryptase 153 ng/ml. Bone marrow biopsy results were negative for mastocytosis. We carried out magnetic resonance imaging, in P1 to better characterize the severe osteoporosis and in P2 because during physical examination a pulsating mass had been identified in the mesogastrium, and an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta which required surgical intervention in both patients was detected. Eight months after surgery, tryptase levels had diminished significantly (P1: 11.6 ng/ml and P2: 14.5 ng/ml).The elevated tryptase levels were correlated to abdominal aneurysm in both patients. In fact, post-surgery tryptase levels dramatically decreased. These two cases demonstrate that high tryptase levels in subjects with a history of hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis can be associated to undiagnosed aneurysmatic disease.


Asero R.,Ambulatorio di Allergologia | Pravettoni V.,Clinical Allergy and Immunology Unit
Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2013

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonspecific lipid transfer protein (LTP) is the main cause of primary food allergy in adults living in the Mediterranean area. The way allergic patients get sensitized to this protein is all but established, and the clinical expression of sensitization is extremely variable, ranging from long-lasting symptomless sensitization to severe anaphylaxis. Such variability is seemingly due to the presence/absence of a number of cofactors. RECENT FINDINGS: The possibility that LTP sensitization occurs via the inhalation of LTP-containing pollen particles seems unlikely; in contrast, peach particles containing the protein seem able to sensitize both via the airways and the skin. Cosensitization to pollen allergens as well as to labile plant food allergens makes LTP allergy syndrome less severe. In some LTP sensitized subjects clinical food allergy occurs only in the presence of cofactors such as exercise, NSAIDs, or chronic urticaria. SUMMARY: Lipid transfer protein allergy syndrome shows some peculiarities that are unique in the primary food allergy panorama: geographical distribution, frequent asymptomatic sensitization, frequent need for cofactors, and reduced severity when pollen allergy is present. Future studies will have to address these points as the results may have favorable effects on other, more severe, types of food allergy. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Pravettoni V.,Clinical Allergy and Immunology Unit | Primavesi L.,Clinical Allergy and Immunology Unit | Piantanida M.,Clinical Allergy and Immunology Unit
European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2012

Anisakiasis, firstly described in 1960s in the Netherlands, is a fish-borne parasitic disease caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked fish or cephalopods contaminated by third stage (L3) larvae of the Anisakidae family, in particular Anisakis simplex (As),A. pegreffii and Pseudoterranova decipiens. Every year, approximately 20,000 cases of anisakiasis were reported worldwide, over 90% are from Japan and most others in Spain, the Netherlands and Germany, depending on the habits of fish consuming. Live As larvae can elicit i) a parasitic infection of the digestive tract or, occasionally, other organs, causing erosive and/or haemorrhagic lesions, ascites, perforations until granulomas and masses, if larva is not removed; and ii) allergic reactions, as anaphylaxis, acute/chronic urticaria and angioedema. Like other parasite infestations, As larva induces an immune adaptive response characterised by T-lymphocyte proliferation with polyclonal and monoclonal (responsible for As allergic symptoms) IgE production, eosinophilia and mastocytosis. Several As allergens, many of which thermostable, were described. In particular the major allergen Ani s 1 and Ani s 7 could characterized a past or a recent infection. There is a general agreement that an active infection is required to initiate allergic sensitivity to Anisakis. Until now, the only effective treatment for anisakiasis is the endoscopic removal of live larvae and the best protection against anisakiasis is to educate consumers about the dangers of eating raw fish and to recommend avoiding the consumption of raw or inadequately thermally treated marine fish or cephalopods.


Pravettoni V.,Clinical Allergy and Immunology Unit | Primavesi L.,Clinical Allergy and Immunology Unit | Piantanida M.,Clinical Allergy and Immunology Unit
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health | Year: 2014

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the IgE-mediated pathogenesis of severe asthma presented by a patient only after handling shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms (SM).Material and Methods: Skin tests were performed using in-house extracts from mushrooms that the patient usually handled, i.e., shiitake, porcini, oyster and black fungus mushroom varieties. Specific IgE to champignons and various molds were determined. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) immunoblotting was performed to detect IgE-binding components. Four negative controls were included in the study.Results: Skin prick tests performed with in-house mushroom extracts from varieties other than shiitake were completely negative, in contrast to the positive test obtained for shiitake mushrooms. Serum specific IgE levels for common molds and champignons were all negative. SDS-PAGE revealed many protein bands in the four mushroom extracts. Immunoblotting using the patient’s serum showed allergenic bands at about 15 and 24 kDa exclusively for SM that were not shared with negative controls. Another faint band was detectable at approximately 37 kDa for SM and porcini varieties.Conclusions: Here, we present the first European case of SM-induced occupational asthma, a disease more frequently occurring in Asia. Asthma attacks stopped when the patient avoided contact with shiitake mushrooms. No skin reactions and no IgE-binding proteins by immunoblotting were detectable with the other mushrooms tested. The positive skin test with shiitake mushrooms and IgE-binding components in the shiitake extract confirmed the IgE-mediated etiology of the reaction. © 2014, Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.


PubMed | Clinical Allergy and Immunology Unit
Type: Case Reports | Journal: International journal of occupational medicine and environmental health | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to investigate the IgE-mediated pathogenesis of severe asthma presented by a patient only after handling shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms (SM).Skin tests were performed using in-house extracts from mushrooms that the patient usually handled, i.e., shiitake, porcini, oyster and black fungus mushroom varieties. Specific IgE to champignons and various molds were determined. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) immunoblotting was performed to detect IgE-binding components. Four negative controls were included in the study.Skin prick tests performed with in-house mushroom extracts from varieties other than shiitake were completely negative, in contrast to the positive test obtained for shiitake mushrooms. Serum specific IgE levels for common molds and champignons were all negative. SDS-PAGE revealed many protein bands in the four mushroom extracts. Immunoblotting using the patients serum showed allergenic bands at about 15 and 24 kDa exclusively for SM that were not shared with negative controls. Another faint band was detectable at approximately 37 kDa for SM and porcini varieties.Here, we present the first European case of SM-induced occupational asthma, a disease more frequently occurring in Asia. Asthma attacks stopped when the patient avoided contact with shiitake mushrooms. No skin reactions and no IgE-binding proteins by immunoblotting were detectable with the other mushrooms tested. The positive skin test with shiitake mushrooms and IgE-binding components in the shiitake extract confirmed the IgE-mediated etiology of the reaction.


PubMed | Clinical Allergy and Immunology Unit and Cardiac Pulmonary Rehabilitation
Type: | Journal: Journal of asthma and allergy | Year: 2016

Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIAn) is defined as the occurrence of anaphylactic symptoms (skin, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular symptoms) after physical activity. In about a third of cases, cofactors, such as food intake, temperature (warm or cold), and drugs (especially nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) can be identified. When the associated cofactor is food ingestion, the correct diagnosis is food-dependent EIAn (FDEIAn). The literature describes numerous reports of FDEIAn after intake of very different foods, from vegetables and nuts to meats and seafood. One of the best-characterized types of FDEIAn is that due to 5-gliadin of wheat, though cases of FDEIAn after wheat ingestion by sensitization to wheat lipid transfer protien (LTP) are described. Some pathophysiological mechanisms underlying EIAn have been hypothesized, such as increase/alteration in gastrointestinal permeability, alteration of tissue transglutaminase promoting IgE cross-linking, enhanced expression of cytokines, redistribution of blood during physical exercise leading to altered mast-cell degranulation, and also changes in the acid-base balance. Nevertheless, until now, none of these hypotheses has been validated. The diagnosis of EIAn and FDEIAn is achieved by means of a challenge, with physical exercise alone for EIAn, and with the assumption of the suspected food followed by physical exercise for FDEIAn; in cases of doubtful results, a double-blind placebo-controlled combined food-exercise challenge should be performed. The prevention of this particular kind of anaphylaxis is the avoidance of the specific trigger, ie, physical exercise for EIAn, the assumption of the culprit food before exercise for FDEIAn, and in general the avoidance of the recognized cofactors. Patients must be supplied with an epinephrine autoinjector, as epinephrine has been clearly recognized as the first-line intervention for anaphylaxis.

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