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Esposito S.,University of Milan | Terranova L.,University of Milan | Patria M.F.,University of Milan | Marseglia G.L.,University of Pavia | And 10 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

Background: The main aim of this study was to evaluate Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in a group of school-aged children and adolescents with asthma because these results might indicate the theoretical risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) of such patients and the potential protective efficacy of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Methods: Oropharyngeal samples were obtained from 423 children with documented asthma (300 males, 70.9%), and tested for the autolysin-A-encoding (lytA) and the wzg (cpsA) gene of S. pneumoniae by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: S. pneumoniae was identified in the swabs of 192 subjects (45.4%): 48.4% of whom were aged <10years, 46.9% aged 10-14 years, and 4.7% aged ≥15years (p < 0.001). Carriage was significantly less frequent among the children who had received recent antibiotic therapy (odds ratio [OR 0.41]; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.22-0.76). Multivariate analyses showed no association between carriage and vaccination status, with ORs of 1.05 (95% CI 0.70-1.58) for carriers of any pneumococcal serotype, 1.08 (95% CI 0.72-1.62) for carriers of any of the serotypes included in 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), and 0.76 (95% CI 0.45-1.28) for carriers of any of the six additional serotypes of PCV13. Serotypes 19F, 4 and 9V were the most frequently identified serotypes in vaccinated subjects. Conclusions: These results showed that carriage of S. pneumoniae is relatively common in all school-aged children and adolescents with asthma, regardless of the severity of disease and the administration of PCV7 in the first years of life. This highlights the problem of the duration of the protection against colonisation provided by pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and the importance of re-colonization by the same pneumococcal serotypes included in the previously used vaccine. © 2016 Esposito et al.

Ventura M.T.,University of Bari | Napolitano S.,University of Bari | Buquicchio R.,University of Bari | Cecere R.,University of Bari | Arsieni A.,Allergology Unit
Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology | Year: 2012

The guidelines for the management of urticaria in adults and children have been published in outstanding position papers. By contrast, the onset of urticaria in the elderly has not yet had a clear definition. In order to approach diagnosis and treatment in a population of elderly patients, we have performed an epidemiological study on a population of elderly people observed in the Immuno Allergology Unit in Bari University Hospital. The patients underwent skin prick test for food allergy and laboratory and instrumental tests. From the data it resulted that 49% of cases have had urticaria because of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), 16% of cases were positive to food, while in 21% of cases systemic and metabolic diseases (SMDs) have been diagnosed. If we consider the young controls, urticaria for ADR was present in 48% of cases; however, in 28% it was possible to make the diagnosis of food allergy, 12% cases had a SMD. Our results show that the main cause of urticaria in the elderly is related to drug assumption because of the high number of drugs taken, followed by internal pathologies correlated to the typical immune and metabolic changes of the elderly. Furthermore, from the observation of our data it was possible to give guidelines for the treatment of urticaria in geriatric age. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Sopo S.M.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Monaco S.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Greco M.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Scala G.,Allergology Unit
International Archives of Allergy and Immunology | Year: 2014

We describe 2 cases of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) caused by cow's milk (CM) passed through breast milk. The onset in both cases was characterized by chronic symptoms (regurgitation, colic, diarrhea, failure to thrive); in one patient, two acute episodes due to the direct consumption of CM formula by the infant were also reported. The diagnosis of FPIES through breast milk can be easily overlooked, especially in milder cases. We also discuss some important issues concerning the general management of the disease. In conclusion, (1) the diagnosis of chronic FPIES should be taken into account even in exclusively breast-fed infants who present suggestive symptoms such as persistent regurgitation, small amounts of vomiting, lethargy, failure to thrive, dehydration, diarrhea (sometimes bloody) and abdominal distention. A 2-week maternal elimination diet should be considered even in apparently mild cases. (2) CM seems to be the most frequently reported culprit food. (3) In those cases in which acute FPIES is elicited by the direct consumption of the culprit food in breast-fed infants, maternal diet may be unrestricted. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Drago L.,University of Milan | Drago L.,IRCCS Galeazzi Institute | Nicola L.,University of Milan | Nicola L.,IRCCS Galeazzi Institute | And 4 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2010

Background. Oral administration of probiotics is known to modulate cytokines profile not only locally, but also systemically. Four strains of Lactobacillus salivarius, LDR0723, BNL1059, RGS1746 and CRL1528, were evaluated for their ability to modulate release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Findings. Strains were assessed for effects on production of Interleukin-12 (IL-12), Interferon- (IFN-), Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Interleukin-5 (IL-5) by incubating bacterial suspensions with THP-1 macrophage like cells. Cytokines were determined by means of specific quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. LDR0723 and CRL1528 led to a sustained increment in production of IL-12 and IFN- and to a decrease in release of IL-4 and IL-5, while BNL1059 and RGS1746 favoured Th2 response, leading to a decrease in Th1/Th2 ratio with respect to unstimulated cells. Conclusions. In conclusion, capability of L. salivarius to modulate immune response was strictly strain dependent and strains of the same species might have opposite effects. Therefore, a careful evaluation of anti-inflammatory properties of lactobacilli should be performed on single strain, before any consideration on potential probiotic use. © 2010 Drago et al.

Della Giustina A.,National Healthcare System Fornovo | Landi M.,National Healthcare System ASL TO | Bellini F.,University of Bologna | Bosoni M.,Pediatric Unit | And 6 more authors.
World Allergy Organization Journal | Year: 2014

In recent years, the interest of the scientific world towards vitamin D gradually increased, and several studies have been conducted to dissect its possible role in modulating the development/course of allergic diseases. Also, Vitamin D supplementation has been assessed as a beneficial approach for treating allergies in some, but not all studies. We reviewed herein the available and relevant literature concerning the possible links between Vitamin D, its supplementation and allergic diseases. A literature search was made independently by the Authors, identifying articles for a narrative review. As per literature, Vitamin D plays a key role in calcium and phosphate metabolism, and it is essential for bone health in infants, children and adolescents. However, there is presently insufficient evidence to support vitamin D supplementation for prevention or treatment of allergic diseases in infants, children and adolescents, concerning allergic rhinitis, asthma, food allergy and atopic dermatitis. © 2014 Della Giustina et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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