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Pittsburgh, PA, United States

Peters B.M.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Jabra-Rizk M.A.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | O'May G.A.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | William Costerton J.,Allegheny Singer Research Institute | Shirtliff M.E.,University of Maryland, Baltimore
Clinical Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2012

Microorganisms coexist in a complex milieu of bacteria, fungi, archaea, and viruses on or within the human body, often as multifaceted polymicrobial biofilm communities at mucosal sites and on abiotic surfaces. Only recently have we begun to appreciate the complicated biofilm phenotype during infection; moreover, even less is known about the interactions that occur between microorganisms during polymicrobial growth and their implications in human disease. Therefore, this review focuses on polymicrobial biofilm-mediated infections and examines the contribution of bacterial-bacterial, bacterial-fungal, and bacterial-viral interactions during human infection and potential strategies for protection against such diseases. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Wilson S.K.,Urologic | Costerton J.W.,Allegheny Singer Research Institute
Journal of Sexual Medicine | Year: 2012

Introduction. The numbers of inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) implanted has increased yearly due to the large numbers of patients treated for prostate cancer, patients becoming refractory to the five phosphodiesterase inhibitors and Peyronie's disease. Aim. Prosthesis implantation can be associated with a variety of complications with device infection being the most dreaded one. Main Outcome Measures. An understanding of the pathogenesis of these infections is necessary to allow the surgeon to plan treatment. Methods. Infection begins with colonization of planktonic bacteria in the implant space. Biofilm forms around the bacterial mass within 48 hours. Bacteria in biofilm have reduced growth rates, may change phenotypically, and develop resistance to drugs. Antibiotics and the body's macrophages will kill the planktonic bacteria released from the biofilm but never eliminate the infecting organisms. This review will delineate present thinking on infection prevention and biofilm's role in device infection. IPP infection before and after the coated implants will be characterized. Future ideas for prevention and treatment of infection will be explored. Results. The coated implants have reduced the incidence of IPP infections. The bacteria that cause the majority of infections in the era of the coated implant seem to have changed from predominantly nosocomial coagulase-negative Staphylococcus to more virulent organisms. Device infection requires new paradigms of prevention and treatment strategy because the infecting bacteria are different and the patients are sicker. Conclusions. The problem of infection is considerably decreased with coated IPP, yet those infections that do occur are systemic in nature and seem to be caused by more aggressive organisms. These infections are not usually amenable to salvage because the virulence of the bacteria. Future research to prevent these infections must be directed to magnifying the effective dosage of antibiotics to penetrate the biofilm or eliminating the bacteria's ability to secrete the slime. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.


Popescu A.,University of Pittsburgh | Kao A.H.,Allegheny Singer Research Institute
Current Neuropharmacology | Year: 2011

Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is the least understood, yet perhaps the most preva- lent manifestation of lupus. The pathogenesis of NPSLE is multifactorial and involves various inflammatory cytokines, autoantibodies, and immune complexes resulting in vasculopathic, cytotoxic and autoantibody-mediated neuronal injury. The management of NPSLE is multimodal and has not been subjected to rigorous study. Different treatment regimens include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anticoagulation, and immunosuppressives such as cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and methotrexate. For refractory NPSLE, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), plasmapheresis, and rituximab have been used. Adjunctive symptomatic treatment complements these therapies by target- ing mood disorders, psychosis, cognitive impairment, seizures or headaches. Several new biological agents are being tested including Belimumab, a human monoclonal antibody that targets B lymphocyte stimulator. This review focuses on the pathophysiology, treatment, and new potential therapies for neuropsychiatric manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers.


Patent
Carnegie Mellon University, Allegheny Singer Research Institute and Carmell Therapeutics Corporation | Date: 2014-12-15

Blood-derived plastic articles prepared from compositions including blood and, in some embodiments, at least one crosslinking agent and/or at least one biological response modifier, that can be useful for biological applications such as wound repair and tissue grafts; methods of making and using the same; methods for assessing the concentration of a biological response modifier in an article; and systems for preparing blood-derived plastic articles are provided.


Patent
Carnegie Mellon University, Carmell Therapeutics Corporation and Allegheny Singer Research Institute | Date: 2013-03-11

Blood-derived plastic articles prepared from compositions including blood and, in some embodiments, at least one crosslinking agent and/or at least one biological response modifier, that can be useful for biological applications such as wound repair and tissue grafts; methods of making and using the same; methods for assessing the concentration of a biological response modifier in an article; and systems for preparing blood-derived plastic articles are provided.

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