Vu K.,Maisonneuve Rosemont Hospital |
Tai P.,Allan Blair Cancer Center |
Au J.S.K.,Queen Elizabeth Hospital
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews | Year: 2016
This review summarizes techniques, indications and contraindications for radiotherapy for non-melanoma skin cancer. Different radiotherapy techniques including brachytherapy, electron treatments, photon treatments with electronic brachytherapy, linear accelerator, and orthovoltage machines are available. Radiation oncologists have to select the best technique for different sites and scenarios. Details of specific radiotherapeutic preparation and clinical care discussed in this review will be of great help to the reader at the point of care. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers.
Oza A.M.,University of Toronto |
ChalChal H.I.,Allan Blair Cancer Center |
Grimshaw R.,Queen Elizabeth Health science Center |
Ellard S.L.,Cancer Agency Southern Interior Center |
And 4 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2011
Purpose: Sunitinib is a multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. We conducted a two-stage phase II study to evaluate the objective response rate of oral sunitinib in recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer. Patients and methods: Eligibility required measurable disease and one or two prior chemotherapies, at least one platinum based. Platinum-sensitive or -resistant disease was allowed. Initial dose schedule was sunitinib 50 mg daily, 4 of 6 weeks. Observation of fluid accumulations during off-treatment periods resulted in adoption of continuous 37.5 mg daily dosing in the second stage of accrual. Results: Of 30 eligible patients, most had serous histology (67%), were platinum sensitive (73%) and had two prior chemotherapies (60%). One partial response (3.3%) and three CA125 responses (10%) were observed, all in platinum-sensitive patients using intermittent dosing. Sixteen (53%) had stable disease. Five had >30% decrease in measurable disease. Overall median progression-free survival was 4.1 months. Common adverse events included fatigue, gastrointestinal symptoms, hand-foot syndrome and hypertension. No gastrointestinal perforation occurred. Conclusions: Single-agent sunitinib has modest activity in recurrent platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer, but only at the 50 mg intermittent dose schedule, suggesting that dose and schedule may be vital considerations in further evaluation of sunitinib in this cancer setting. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.
PubMed | Southwest Oncology Group Statistical Center, Cancer Research and Biostatistics, Willford Hall Medical Center, University of Houston and 15 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2017
CRA1008 Background: S0221 is a SWOG-coordinated phase III adjuvant chemotherapy intergroup trial in node-positive and high-risk node-negative operable breast cancer which hypothesized that 1) the weekly AC+G regimen is superior to ddAC x 6 and 2) 12 weeks of weekly paclitaxel (wP) is superior to q 2 week paclitaxel x 6 (ddP).Between December 2003 and November 2010, 2,716 patients were randomized in a 2 x 2 factorial design to 1) AC+G vs ddAC and 2) P 80 mg/mBy September 7, 2012, 487 events and 340 deaths had occurred, prompting the third planned interim analysis. The Data Safety and Monitoring Committee recommended reporting the results since the futility boundary was crossed. A Cox model adjusting for the AC arms had a HR = 1.08 (95% CI 0.90-1.28; p=0.42), with the 99.5% CI excluding the original alternative hypothesis that the HR=0.82. There was no significant interaction of the two factors. Estimated 5-year progression-free survivals were 82% for weekly P and 81% for ddP. Toxicity data were available for 1,385 patients treated with ddP and 1,367 treated with weekly P. Grade 5 toxicity occurred in 4 patients on ddP and 2 on weekly P. Percent grade 3-4 toxicity per arm are shown in the Table.Either ddPx6 or weekly P x 12 are acceptable schedules of P administration. The differences in leukopenia likely reflect ascertainment bias against weekly P. If this is accepted, weekly P x 12 produces less overall toxicity than 6 cycles of ddP. Support: NCI grants CA32102, CA38926, CA21115, CA21076, CA77597, CA25224, CA77202, CCSRI15469, and Amgen, Inc.NCT00070564. [Table: see text].
Goss P.E.,Massachusetts General Hospital |
Hershman D.L.,Columbia University |
Cheung A.M.,University of Toronto |
Ingle J.N.,Mayo Medical School |
And 13 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2014
Background: Treatment of breast cancer with aromatase inhibitors is associated with damage to bones. NCIC CTG MA.27 was an open-label, phase 3, randomised controlled trial in which women with breast cancer were assigned to one of two adjuvant oral aromatase inhibitors-exemestane or anastrozole. We postulated that exemestane-a mildly androgenic steroid-might have a less detrimental effect on bone than non-steroidal anastrozole. In this companion study to MA.27, we compared changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine and total hip between patients treated with exemestane and patients treated with anastrozole. Methods: In MA.27, postmenopausal women with early stage hormone (oestrogen) receptor-positive invasive breast cancer were randomly assigned to exemestane 25 mg versus anastrozole 1 mg, daily. MA.27B recruited two groups of women from MA.27: those with BMD T-scores of -2·0 or more (up to 2 SDs below sex-matched, young adult mean) and those with at least one T-score (hip or spine) less than -2·0. Both groups received vitamin D and calcium; those with baseline T-scores of less than -2·0 also received bisphosphonates. The primary endpoints were percent change of BMD at 2 years in lumbar spine and total hip for both groups. We analysed patients according to which aromatase inhibitor and T-score groups they were allocated to but BMD assessments ceased if patients deviated from protocol. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00354302. Findings: Between April 24, 2006, and May 30, 2008, 300 patients with baseline T-scores of -2·0 or more were accrued (147 allocated exemestane, 153 anastrozole); and 197 patients with baseline T-scores of less than -2·0 (101 exemestane, 96 anastrozole). For patients with T-scores greater than -2·0 at baseline, mean change of bone mineral density in the spine at 2 years did not differ significantly between patients taking exemestane and patients taking anastrozole (-0·92%, 95% CI -2·35 to 0·50 vs -2·39%, 95% CI -3·77 to -1·01; p=0·08). Respective mean loss in the hip was -1·93% (95% CI -2·93 to -0·93) versus -2·71% (95% CI -4·32 to -1·11; p=0·10). Likewise for those who started with T-scores of less than -2·0, mean change of spine bone mineral density at 2 years did not differ significantly between the exemestane and anastrozole treatment groups (2·11%, 95% CI -0·84 to 5·06 vs 3·72%, 95% CI 1·54 to 5·89; p=0·26), nor did hip bone mineral density (2·09%, 95% CI -1·45 to 5·63 vs 0·0%, 95% CI -3·67 to 3·66; p=0·28). Patients with baseline T-score of -2·0 or more taking exemestane had two fragility fractures and two other fractures, those taking anastrozole had three fragility fractures and five other fractures. For patients who had baseline T-scores of less than -2·0 taking exemestane, one had a fragility fracture and four had other fractures, whereas those taking anastrozole had five fragility fractures and one other fracture. Interpretation: Our results demonstrate that adjuvant treatment with aromatase inhibitors can be considered for breast cancer patients who have T-scores less than -2·0. Funding: Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute, Pfizer, Canadian Institutes of Health Research. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Canadian Cancer Trials Group IND197: a phase II study of foretinib in patients with estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative recurrent or metastatic breast cancer
PubMed | Queen Elizabeth Health science Center, Vancouver Cancer Center, Hopital Charles LeMoyne, Allan Blair Cancer Center and 7 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Breast cancer research and treatment | Year: 2016
In murine models, overexpression of the MET receptor transgene induces tumors with human basal gene expression characteristics supporting MET inhibition as a treatment strategy for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Foretinib is an oral multi-kinase inhibitor of MET, RON, AXL, TIE-2, and VEGF receptors with anti-tumor activity in advanced HCC and papillary renal cell cancer. Patients with centrally reviewed primary TNBC and 0-1 prior regimens for metastatic disease received dailyforetinib 60mg po in a 2-stage single-arm trial. Primary endpoints were objective response and early progression rates per RECIST 1.1. In stage 2, correlative studies of MET, PTEN, EGFR, and p53 on archival and fresh tumor specimens were performed along with enumeration of CTCs. 45 patients were enrolled with 37 patients having response evaluable and centrally confirmed primary TNBC (cTNBC). There were 2 partial responses (ITT 4.7% response evaluable cTNBC 5.4%) with a median duration of 4.4months (range 3.7-5m) and 15 patients had stable disease (ITT 33%, response evaluable cTNBC 40.5%) with a median duration of 5.4months (range 2.3-9.7m). The most common toxicities (all grades/grade 3) were nausea (64/4%), fatigue (60/4%), hypertension (58/49%), and diarrhea (40/7%). Six serious adverse events were considered possibly related to foretinib and 4 patients went off study due to adverse events. There was no correlation between MET positivity and response nor between response and PTEN, EGFR, p53, or MET expression in CTCs. Although CCTG IND 197 did not meet its primary endpoint, the observation of a clinical benefit rate of 46% in this cTNBC population suggests that foretinib may have clinical activity as a single, non-cytotoxic agent in TNBC (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01147484).
Yu E.,London Health Sciences Center |
Suzuki H.,Seirei Hamamatsu General Hospital |
Younus J.,London Health Sciences Center |
Elfiki T.,Windsor Regional Cancer Center |
And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2012
Objective: To assess the impact of radiation management on male breast cancer (MBC) at London Regional Cancer Program (LRCP). Methods and Materials: Men with a diagnosis of breast cancer referred to LRCP were reviewed. The seventh American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system was used. Patients treated with and without post-mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) were analyzed. Disease-free survival (DFS) was defined as time duration from diagnosis to first recurrence. Overall survival (OS) was defined as time duration from pathologic diagnosis to death or last follow-up with any death defined as an event. Survival estimates were obtained using Kaplan-Meier methodology. Results: From January 1977 to December 2006, 81 men had invasive ductal carcinoma. The median age was 65 (range, 35-87 years). There were 15 Stage I, 40 Stage II, 20 Stage III, and 6 Stage IV patients. Median follow-up time was 46 months (range, 1-225 months). Of the 75 patients treated with curative intent, 29 did not receive PMRT and 46 completed PMRT. Patients who received PMRT demonstrated no benefit in overall survival (p = 0.872) but significantly better local recurrence free survival (p < 0.001) compared with those who did not receive RT. There was trend toward improving locoregional recurrence with PMRT in patients with high-risk features (node-positive, advanced stage, and ≤2 mm or unknown surgical margin). The median, 5-year, and 10-year disease-free survival and overall survival for the 75 patients were 77.7 months, 66.3%, 32.7%, and 91.2 months, 73.9%, and 36.6%, respectively. Conclusion: The experience at LRCP suggests that high-risk MBC patients should consider PMRT to improve their chance of local recurrence-free survival. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Skarsgard D.,University of Calgary |
Cadman P.,Saskatoon Cancer Center |
El-Gayed A.,Saskatoon Cancer Center |
Pearcey R.,11560 University Ave |
And 3 more authors.
Radiation Oncology | Year: 2010
Background: Fiducial markers and daily electronic portal imaging (EPI) can reduce the risk of geographic miss in prostate cancer radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to estimate CTV to PTV margin requirements, without and with the use of this image guidance strategy.Methods: 46 patients underwent placement of 3 radio-opaque fiducial markers prior to prostate RT. Daily pre-treatment EPIs were taken, and isocenter placement errors were corrected if they were ≥ 3 mm along the left-right or superior-inferior axes, and/or ≥ 2 mm along the anterior-posterior axis. During-treatment EPIs were then obtained to estimate intra-fraction motion.Results: Without image guidance, margins of 0.57 cm, 0.79 cm and 0.77 cm, along the left-right, superior-inferior and anterior-posterior axes respectively, are required to give 95% probability of complete CTV coverage each day. With the above image guidance strategy, these margins can be reduced to 0.36 cm, 0.37 cm and 0.37 cm respectively. Correction of all isocenter placement errors, regardless of size, would permit minimal additional reduction in margins.Conclusions: Image guidance, using implanted fiducial markers and daily EPI, permits the use of narrower PTV margins without compromising coverage of the target, in the radiotherapy of prostate cancer. © 2010 Skarsgard et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Bauman G.,University of Western Ontario |
Ferguson M.,Allan Blair Cancer Center |
Lock M.,University of Western Ontario |
Chen J.,University of Western Ontario |
And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2015
Purpose To initiate a phase 1/2 trial to examine the tolerability of a condensed combined-modality protocol for high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials Men scoring ≥3 on the Vulnerable Elderly Scale (VES) or refusing conventionally fractionated treatment for high-risk prostate cancer were eligible to participate. Androgen suppression was delivered for 12 months, and radiation therapy was delivered using 25 Gy to pelvic nodes delivered synchronously with 40 Gy to the prostate given as 1 fraction per week over 5 weeks. The phase 1 component included predetermined stopping rules based on 6-month treatment-related toxicity, with trial suspension specified if there were ≥6 of 15 patients (40%) or ≥3 of 15 (20%) who experienced grade ≥2 or ≥3 gastrointestinal (GI) or genitourinary (GU) toxicity, respectively. Results Sixteen men were enrolled, with 7 men meeting the criteria of VES ≥3 and 9 men having a VES <3 but choosing the condensed treatment. One man was not treated owing to discovery of a synchronous primary rectal cancer. Four patients (26%) experienced grade ≥2 toxicity at 6 weeks after treatment. There were 9 of 15 (60%) who experienced grade ≥2 GI or GU toxicity and 4 of 15 (26%) grade ≥3 GI or GU toxicity at 6 months, and 5 of 15 (30%) grade ≥2 GI and GU toxicity at 6 months. A review of the 15 cases did not identify any remedial changes, thus the phase 1 criteria were not met. Conclusion This novel condensed treatment had higher than anticipated late toxicities and was terminated before phase 2 accrual. Treatment factors, such as inclusion of pelvic lymph node radiation therapy, planning constraints, and treatment margins, or patient factors related to the specific frail elderly population may be contributing. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wu J.S.Y.,University of Calgary |
Brasher P.M.A.,University of British Columbia |
El-Gayed A.,University of Saskatchewan |
Pervez N.,University of Alberta |
And 6 more authors.
Radiotherapy and Oncology | Year: 2012
Purpose: To estimate the late morbidity of a novel, hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy schedule of 55 Gy in 16 fractions (4 fractions/week, 3.4 Gy per fraction) for localized prostate cancer. Methods and materials: A multi-center phase 2 study enrolled seventy-three patients between September 2004 and June 2006. After insertion of fiducial gold markers, they were treated with image-guidance (IGRT) using conformal techniques with intensity-modulation, if necessary, and then followed every 6 months for toxicity rating and PSA. Patient reported outcomes were collected yearly. Median follow up was 4.6 years. Results: At 4 years post-radiotherapy, the cumulative incidence of combined urinary and bowel grade 3 toxicity was 7% (95% CI 3-16%) and grade 2+ was 33% (95% CI 24-46%). All except two patients recovered from their grade 3 events. Patient-reported reduction of function was most pronounced at year two for urinary function (mean -7, SD 16), and at year one for bowel function (mean -7, SD 21). The cumulative incidence of biochemical (PSA nadir + 2) or biopsy-proven relapse at 4 years was 9% (95% CI 4-18%). Conclusions: Hypofractionated radiotherapy is clinically feasible and more convenient than conventional schedules for patients with localized prostate cancer. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mackey A.,Allan Blair Cancer Center
Online Journal of Nursing Informatics | Year: 2013
The origin of the photograph has evolved from pewter backdrops to flimsy paper images to digital stills and video. This paper provides a comparative analysis of photos taken and preserved in the 20th century as opposed to photos taken and stored through social networking sites in the 21st century. In the age of technology and social media, photographs are published and reproduced at an exponential rate, influencing a limitless number of people. There is an exorbitant amount of material available through these sites, but is there an efficient means to obtain this information? And ultimately who is responsible for the archiving of such photos considering the vastness of the World Wide Web? This paper discusses how the evolution of technology and the meaning of photography impacts historical nurse researchers. In addition, it examines a historical case study based on primary data obtained from a 1944 World War II scrapbook (Boyle, 1944).