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Bauman G.,University of Western Ontario | Ferguson M.,Allan Blair Cancer Center | Lock M.,University of Western Ontario | Chen J.,University of Western Ontario | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2015

Purpose To initiate a phase 1/2 trial to examine the tolerability of a condensed combined-modality protocol for high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials Men scoring ≥3 on the Vulnerable Elderly Scale (VES) or refusing conventionally fractionated treatment for high-risk prostate cancer were eligible to participate. Androgen suppression was delivered for 12 months, and radiation therapy was delivered using 25 Gy to pelvic nodes delivered synchronously with 40 Gy to the prostate given as 1 fraction per week over 5 weeks. The phase 1 component included predetermined stopping rules based on 6-month treatment-related toxicity, with trial suspension specified if there were ≥6 of 15 patients (40%) or ≥3 of 15 (20%) who experienced grade ≥2 or ≥3 gastrointestinal (GI) or genitourinary (GU) toxicity, respectively. Results Sixteen men were enrolled, with 7 men meeting the criteria of VES ≥3 and 9 men having a VES <3 but choosing the condensed treatment. One man was not treated owing to discovery of a synchronous primary rectal cancer. Four patients (26%) experienced grade ≥2 toxicity at 6 weeks after treatment. There were 9 of 15 (60%) who experienced grade ≥2 GI or GU toxicity and 4 of 15 (26%) grade ≥3 GI or GU toxicity at 6 months, and 5 of 15 (30%) grade ≥2 GI and GU toxicity at 6 months. A review of the 15 cases did not identify any remedial changes, thus the phase 1 criteria were not met. Conclusion This novel condensed treatment had higher than anticipated late toxicities and was terminated before phase 2 accrual. Treatment factors, such as inclusion of pelvic lymph node radiation therapy, planning constraints, and treatment margins, or patient factors related to the specific frail elderly population may be contributing. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Oza A.M.,University of Toronto | ChalChal H.I.,Allan Blair Cancer Center | Grimshaw R.,Queen Elizabeth Health Science Center | Ellard S.L.,Cancer Agency Southern Interior Center | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2011

Purpose: Sunitinib is a multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. We conducted a two-stage phase II study to evaluate the objective response rate of oral sunitinib in recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer. Patients and methods: Eligibility required measurable disease and one or two prior chemotherapies, at least one platinum based. Platinum-sensitive or -resistant disease was allowed. Initial dose schedule was sunitinib 50 mg daily, 4 of 6 weeks. Observation of fluid accumulations during off-treatment periods resulted in adoption of continuous 37.5 mg daily dosing in the second stage of accrual. Results: Of 30 eligible patients, most had serous histology (67%), were platinum sensitive (73%) and had two prior chemotherapies (60%). One partial response (3.3%) and three CA125 responses (10%) were observed, all in platinum-sensitive patients using intermittent dosing. Sixteen (53%) had stable disease. Five had >30% decrease in measurable disease. Overall median progression-free survival was 4.1 months. Common adverse events included fatigue, gastrointestinal symptoms, hand-foot syndrome and hypertension. No gastrointestinal perforation occurred. Conclusions: Single-agent sunitinib has modest activity in recurrent platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer, but only at the 50 mg intermittent dose schedule, suggesting that dose and schedule may be vital considerations in further evaluation of sunitinib in this cancer setting. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.

Pitz M.W.,Cancercare Manitoba | Eisenhauer E.A.,Queens University | MacNeil M.V.,Dalhousie University | Thiessen B.,BritishColumbia Cancer Agency | And 14 more authors.
Neuro-Oncology | Year: 2015

Background. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive malignancy of the central nervous system in adults. Increased activity of the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K) signal transduction pathway is common. We performed a phase II study using PX-866, an oral PI3K inhibitor, in participants with recurrent GBM. Methods. Patients with histologically confirmed GBM at first recurrence were given oral PX-866 at a dose of 8 mg daily. An MRI and clinical exam were done every 8 weeks. Tissue was analyzed for potential predictive markers. Results. Thirty-three participants (12 female) were enrolled. Median age was 56 years (range 35-78y). Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 0-1 in 29 participants and 2 in the remainder. Median number of cycles was 1 (range 1-8). All participants have discontinued therapy: 27 for disease progression and 6 for toxicity (5 liver enzymes and 1 allergic reaction). Four participants had treatment-related serious adverse events (1 liver enzyme, 1 diarrhea, 2 venous thromboembolism). Other adverse effects included fatigue, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and lymphopenia. Twenty-four participants had a response of progression (73%), 1 had partial response (3%, and 8 (24%) had stable disease (median, 6.3 months; range, 3.1-16.8 months). Median 6-month progression-free survival was 17%. None of the associations between stable disease and PTEN, PIK3CA, PIK3R1, or EGFRvIII status were statistically significant. Conclusions. PX-866 was relatively well tolerated. Overall response rate was low, and the study did not meet its primary endpoint; however, 21% of participants obtained durable stable disease. This study also failed to identify a statistically significant association between clinical outcome and relevant biomarkers in patients with available tissue. © 2015 The Author(s).

Wu J.S.Y.,University of Calgary | Brasher P.M.A.,University of British Columbia | El-Gayed A.,University of Saskatchewan | Pervez N.,University of Alberta | And 6 more authors.
Radiotherapy and Oncology | Year: 2012

Purpose: To estimate the late morbidity of a novel, hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy schedule of 55 Gy in 16 fractions (4 fractions/week, 3.4 Gy per fraction) for localized prostate cancer. Methods and materials: A multi-center phase 2 study enrolled seventy-three patients between September 2004 and June 2006. After insertion of fiducial gold markers, they were treated with image-guidance (IGRT) using conformal techniques with intensity-modulation, if necessary, and then followed every 6 months for toxicity rating and PSA. Patient reported outcomes were collected yearly. Median follow up was 4.6 years. Results: At 4 years post-radiotherapy, the cumulative incidence of combined urinary and bowel grade 3 toxicity was 7% (95% CI 3-16%) and grade 2+ was 33% (95% CI 24-46%). All except two patients recovered from their grade 3 events. Patient-reported reduction of function was most pronounced at year two for urinary function (mean -7, SD 16), and at year one for bowel function (mean -7, SD 21). The cumulative incidence of biochemical (PSA nadir + 2) or biopsy-proven relapse at 4 years was 9% (95% CI 4-18%). Conclusions: Hypofractionated radiotherapy is clinically feasible and more convenient than conventional schedules for patients with localized prostate cancer. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Goss P.E.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Hershman D.L.,Columbia University | Cheung A.M.,University of Toronto | Ingle J.N.,Mayo Medical School | And 13 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2014

Background: Treatment of breast cancer with aromatase inhibitors is associated with damage to bones. NCIC CTG MA.27 was an open-label, phase 3, randomised controlled trial in which women with breast cancer were assigned to one of two adjuvant oral aromatase inhibitors-exemestane or anastrozole. We postulated that exemestane-a mildly androgenic steroid-might have a less detrimental effect on bone than non-steroidal anastrozole. In this companion study to MA.27, we compared changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine and total hip between patients treated with exemestane and patients treated with anastrozole. Methods: In MA.27, postmenopausal women with early stage hormone (oestrogen) receptor-positive invasive breast cancer were randomly assigned to exemestane 25 mg versus anastrozole 1 mg, daily. MA.27B recruited two groups of women from MA.27: those with BMD T-scores of -2·0 or more (up to 2 SDs below sex-matched, young adult mean) and those with at least one T-score (hip or spine) less than -2·0. Both groups received vitamin D and calcium; those with baseline T-scores of less than -2·0 also received bisphosphonates. The primary endpoints were percent change of BMD at 2 years in lumbar spine and total hip for both groups. We analysed patients according to which aromatase inhibitor and T-score groups they were allocated to but BMD assessments ceased if patients deviated from protocol. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00354302. Findings: Between April 24, 2006, and May 30, 2008, 300 patients with baseline T-scores of -2·0 or more were accrued (147 allocated exemestane, 153 anastrozole); and 197 patients with baseline T-scores of less than -2·0 (101 exemestane, 96 anastrozole). For patients with T-scores greater than -2·0 at baseline, mean change of bone mineral density in the spine at 2 years did not differ significantly between patients taking exemestane and patients taking anastrozole (-0·92%, 95% CI -2·35 to 0·50 vs -2·39%, 95% CI -3·77 to -1·01; p=0·08). Respective mean loss in the hip was -1·93% (95% CI -2·93 to -0·93) versus -2·71% (95% CI -4·32 to -1·11; p=0·10). Likewise for those who started with T-scores of less than -2·0, mean change of spine bone mineral density at 2 years did not differ significantly between the exemestane and anastrozole treatment groups (2·11%, 95% CI -0·84 to 5·06 vs 3·72%, 95% CI 1·54 to 5·89; p=0·26), nor did hip bone mineral density (2·09%, 95% CI -1·45 to 5·63 vs 0·0%, 95% CI -3·67 to 3·66; p=0·28). Patients with baseline T-score of -2·0 or more taking exemestane had two fragility fractures and two other fractures, those taking anastrozole had three fragility fractures and five other fractures. For patients who had baseline T-scores of less than -2·0 taking exemestane, one had a fragility fracture and four had other fractures, whereas those taking anastrozole had five fragility fractures and one other fracture. Interpretation: Our results demonstrate that adjuvant treatment with aromatase inhibitors can be considered for breast cancer patients who have T-scores less than -2·0. Funding: Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute, Pfizer, Canadian Institutes of Health Research. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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