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Shcherbakova L.A.,All Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology | Odintsova T.I.,Vavilov Institute of General Genetics | Stakheev A.A.,RAS Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry | Fravel D.R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Zavriev S.K.,RAS Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2016

The biocontrol effect of then on-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain CS-20 against the tomato wilt pathogen F.oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (FOL) has been previously reported to be primarily plant-mediated. This study shows that CS-20 produces proteins, which elicit defense responses intomato plants. Three protein-containing fractions were isolated from CS-20 biomass using size exclusion chromatography. Exposure of seedling roots to one of these fractions prior to inoculation with pathogenic FOL strains significantly reduced wilt severity. This fraction initiated an ion exchange response in cultured tomato cells resulting in a reversible alteration of extracellular pH; increased tomato chitinase activity, and induced systemic resistance by enhancing PR-1 expression in tomato leaves. Two other protein fractions were inactive in seedling protection. The main polypeptide (designated CS20EP), which was specifically present in the defense-inducing fraction and was not detected in inactive protein fractions, was identified. The nucleotide sequence encoding this protein was determined, and its complete amino acid sequence was deduced from direct Edman degradation (25 N-terminal amino acid residues) and DNA sequencing. The CS20EP was found to be a small basic cysteine-rich protein with a pI of 9.87 and 23.43% of hydrophobic amino acid residues. BLAST search in the NCBI database showed that the protein is new; however, it displays 48% sequence similarity with a hypothetical protein FGSG_10784 from F. graminearum strain PH-1. The contribution of CS20EP to elicitation of tomato defense responses resulting in wilt mitigating is discussed. © 2016 Shcherbakova, Odintsova, Stakheev, Fravel and Zavriev. Source


Terent'Ev A.O.,Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology | Sharipov M.Y.,Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology | Glinuskin A.P.,All Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology | Krylov I.B.,RAS N. D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry | And 2 more authors.
Mendeleev Communications | Year: 2016

β-Diketones and β-oxo esters are thiocyanated with the NaSCN/(NH4)2 Ce(NO3)6 system or with pre-generated dirhodanogen. Malonates undergo thiocyanation only with the NaSCN/(NH4)2 Ce(NO3)6 system. © 2016 Mendeleev Communications. Published by ELSEVIER B.V. Source


Sharma-Poudyal D.,Washington State University | Chen X.M.,Washington State University | Wan A.M.,Washington State University | Zhan G.M.,Northwest University, China | And 18 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2013

Wheat stripe rust (yellow rust [Yr]), caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an economically important disease of wheat worldwide. Virulence information on P. striiformis f. sp. tritici populations is important to implement effective disease control with resistant cultivars. In total, 235 P. striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates from Algeria, Australia, Canada, Chile, China, Hungary, Kenya, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Spain, Turkey, and Uzbekistan were tested on 20 single Yr-gene lines and the 20 wheat genotypes that are used to differentiate P. striiformis f. sp. tritici races in the United States. The 235 isolates were identified as 129 virulence patterns on the single-gene lines and 169 virulence patterns on the U.S. differentials. Virulences to YrA, Yr2, Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr9, Yr17, Yr25, YrUkn, Yr28, Yr31, YrExp2, Lemhi (Yr21), Paha (YrPa1, YrPa2, YrPa3), Druchamp (Yr3a, YrD, YrDru), Produra (YrPr1, YrPr2), Stephens (Yr3a, YrS, YrSte), Lee (Yr7, Yr22, Yr23), Fielder (Yr6, Yr20), Tyee (YrTye), Tres (YrTr1, YrTr2), Express (YrExp1, YrExp2), Clement (Yr9, YrCle), and Compair (Yr8, Yr19) were detected in all countries. At least 80% of the isolates were virulent on YrA, Yr2, Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr17, YrUkn, Yr31, YrExp2, Yr21, Stephens (Yr3a, YrS, YrSte), Lee (Yr7, Yr22, Yr23), and Fielder (Yr6, Yr20). Virulences to Yr1, Yr9, Yr25, Yr27, Yr28, Heines VII (Yr2, YrHVII), Paha (YrPa1, YrPa2, YrPa3), Druchamp (Yr3a, YrD, YrDru), Produra (YrPr1, YrPr2), Yamhill (Yr2, Yr4a, YrYam), Tyee (YrTye), Tres (YrTr1, YrTr2), Hyak (Yr17, YrTye), Express (YrExp1, YrExp2), Clement (Yr9, YrCle), and Compair (Yr8, Yr19) were moderately frequent (>20 to <80%). Virulence to Yr10, Yr24, Yr32, YrSP, and Moro (Yr10, YrMor) was low (≤20%). Virulence to Moro was absent in Algeria, Australia, Canada, Kenya, Russia, Spain, Turkey, and China, but 5% of the Chinese isolates were virulent to Yr10. None of the isolates from Algeria, Canada, China, Kenya, Russia, and Spain was virulent to Yr24; none of the isolates from Algeria, Australia, Canada, Nepal, Russia, and Spain was virulent to Yr32; none of the isolates from Australia, Canada, Chile, Hungary, Kenya, Kenya, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, and Spain was virulent to YrSP; and none of the isolates from any country was virulent to Yr5 and Yr15. Although the frequencies of virulence factors were different, most of the P. striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates from these countries shared common virulence factors. The virulences and their frequencies and distributions should be useful in breeding stripe-rust-resistant wheat cultivars and understanding the pathogen migration and evolution. Source


Aver'yanov A.A.,All Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology | Pasechnik T.D.,All Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology | Lapikova V.P.,All Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology | Romanova T.S.,All Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology | Baker C.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2015

Systemic acquired disease resistance (SAR) of plants may result from an oxidative burst in their tissues caused by both increased production of ROS and decreased antioxidant activity, in particular, enzymatic. Here we tested whether the exogenous inhibitors of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), respectively, diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) and aminotriazole (AT), can systemically protect rice (Oryza sativa L.) from blast disease caused by fungus Magnaporthe oryzae Conouch et Kohn. The possible involvement of ROS in the protection was also examined. It was found that DDC did not affect fungal spore germination, and AT partially retarded it. Both compounds were non-toxic to plants and, when applied to the 4th leaf, greatly reduced the disease symptoms on the challenged 5th leaf. The protective action of AT apparently depended on the presence of hydrogen peroxide since the protection was diminished by a scavenger of H2O2 (dimethylthiourea) applied to the same leaf after AT, while exogenous H2O2, applied in place of AT, controlled the disease. Endogenous peroxide might accumulate due to inhibition of CAT that was actually observed in AT-treated leaves. Treatments of the 4th leaf with DDC or AT stimulated superoxide formation in the diffusate of the infected 5th leaf (as against treatment with water) pointing to the possible involvement of ROS in systemic defense responses. The same diffusates had enhanced fungitoxicities, which were reduced when antioxidants were added to the diffusate. Therefore, inhibitors of antioxidant enzymes systemically reduced rice blast, possibly via SAR. Both mechanisms of SAR induction (in the treated leaf) and expression (in the systemically protected leaf) might be mediated by ROS. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source


Filippov A.,All Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology | Rogozhin A.,All Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology | Kuznetsova M.,All Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology | Statsyuk N.,All Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology | And 2 more authors.
Zemdirbyste | Year: 2015

The VNIIFBlight decision support system is intended to identify weather conditions favourable or unfavourable for the late blight outbreaks on potato. To provide an improved choice of fungicide treatment dates, we investigated the use of a standard five-day weather forecast based disease management decision support system VNIIFBlight as well as the use of information about the late blight resistance level of the cultivars used. The efficiency of this decision support system was compared with a seven-day routine program of fungicide treatments in the course of four-year field trials in Moscow region and six-year “virtual” trials in four regions of Russia, three regions of Lithuania, and single regions of Canada, Ukraine, Poland, and the Netherlands. According to the results of field experiments, in the case of a high infection pressure (2004 and 2008), yield losses caused by late blight in the untreated control made up 62% and 39%, respectively, whereas the losses for both compared schemes of protection did not exceed 8.2% for both years. In the case of weak disease development (2005 and 2007), for all studied treatments, including the untreated control, yield losses did not exceed 3%. In all years, the use of the VNIIFBlight decision support system significantly reduced the number of fungicidal treatments as compared to the routine scheme of protection; this reduction in 2004, 2005, 2007 and 2008 made up 62, 50, 50 and 17%, respectively. According to the results of “virtual” trials, the use of the VNIIFBlight decision support system reduced the number of fungicide treatments of susceptible and resistant potato cultivars by 50% and 60% on average, respectively, as compared with the routine program. © Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, 2015. Source

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