All Russian research institute of phytopathology

Moscow Region, Russia

All Russian research institute of phytopathology

Moscow Region, Russia
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Lapina V.V.,Mordovia State University | Smolin N.V.,Mordovia State University | Ivoilov A.V.,Mordovia State University | Zhemchuzhina N.S.,All Russian research institute of phytopathology | Elizarova S.A.,All Russian research institute of phytopathology
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2016

For the first time was isolated and identified a generic (9 genera) and a species composition (25 species) determining a micocenosis under the sown spring crops on a leached humus in the forest-steppe belt of the Eu-ropean part of Russia. According to the results of a research all the detected micromycetes were divided into 3 groups in a frequency of occurrence: the most common types, rare but typical types and the random species. In the rhizoplane of a spring grain crops were met the germs of various micromycetes. Thus, under the spring wheat crops were dominated the species of Aspergillus wentii, Mucor pusillus, Penicillium purpurogenum. On barley and oats the appearance of a community was determined by the species of the genera Penicillium, Acremonium, As-pergillus, Mucor. It was revealed that the species composition of causative agents of a root rot in the Republic of Mordovia, that is located in the forest-steppe belt of the European part of Russia, is represented by the mi-cromycete Bipolaris sorokiniana and Fusarium species. These pathogens produce hydrolytic enzymes and tox-ins. Affecting plants, they are able to disrupt the metabolism and physiological processes in plant tissues. On the example of a spring wheat (the released varieties 'Prokhorovka') was studied a nature of the manifestation of pathogenic and toxic properties of causative agents of a root rot. Were established the differences in an action of strains of Bipolaris sorokiniana and Fusarium species on the development of diseases of the organs of seedling. It is proved that strains of the pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana had a greater pathogenicity and toxicity than species of the genus Fusarium. The results showed a high toxicity of the strains of F. heterosporum, F. spo-rotrichioides, F. oxysporum, F verticillioides, F. tricinctum. Strains of F. redolens and F. heterosporum under the code 3l/2 were moderately toxic, and the types F. sporotrichioide F. verticallioides, F. tricinctum were toxic but not pathogenic due to low representation in the mycobiota of roots.

Shcherbakova L.A.,All Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology | Odintsova T.I.,Vavilov Institute of General Genetics | Stakheev A.A.,RAS Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry | Fravel D.R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Zavriev S.K.,RAS Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2016

The biocontrol effect of then on-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain CS-20 against the tomato wilt pathogen F.oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (FOL) has been previously reported to be primarily plant-mediated. This study shows that CS-20 produces proteins, which elicit defense responses intomato plants. Three protein-containing fractions were isolated from CS-20 biomass using size exclusion chromatography. Exposure of seedling roots to one of these fractions prior to inoculation with pathogenic FOL strains significantly reduced wilt severity. This fraction initiated an ion exchange response in cultured tomato cells resulting in a reversible alteration of extracellular pH; increased tomato chitinase activity, and induced systemic resistance by enhancing PR-1 expression in tomato leaves. Two other protein fractions were inactive in seedling protection. The main polypeptide (designated CS20EP), which was specifically present in the defense-inducing fraction and was not detected in inactive protein fractions, was identified. The nucleotide sequence encoding this protein was determined, and its complete amino acid sequence was deduced from direct Edman degradation (25 N-terminal amino acid residues) and DNA sequencing. The CS20EP was found to be a small basic cysteine-rich protein with a pI of 9.87 and 23.43% of hydrophobic amino acid residues. BLAST search in the NCBI database showed that the protein is new; however, it displays 48% sequence similarity with a hypothetical protein FGSG_10784 from F. graminearum strain PH-1. The contribution of CS20EP to elicitation of tomato defense responses resulting in wilt mitigating is discussed. © 2016 Shcherbakova, Odintsova, Stakheev, Fravel and Zavriev.

Aver'yanov A.A.,All Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology | Pasechnik T.D.,All Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology | Lapikova V.P.,All Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology | Romanova T.S.,All Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology | Baker C.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2015

Systemic acquired disease resistance (SAR) of plants may result from an oxidative burst in their tissues caused by both increased production of ROS and decreased antioxidant activity, in particular, enzymatic. Here we tested whether the exogenous inhibitors of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), respectively, diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) and aminotriazole (AT), can systemically protect rice (Oryza sativa L.) from blast disease caused by fungus Magnaporthe oryzae Conouch et Kohn. The possible involvement of ROS in the protection was also examined. It was found that DDC did not affect fungal spore germination, and AT partially retarded it. Both compounds were non-toxic to plants and, when applied to the 4th leaf, greatly reduced the disease symptoms on the challenged 5th leaf. The protective action of AT apparently depended on the presence of hydrogen peroxide since the protection was diminished by a scavenger of H2O2 (dimethylthiourea) applied to the same leaf after AT, while exogenous H2O2, applied in place of AT, controlled the disease. Endogenous peroxide might accumulate due to inhibition of CAT that was actually observed in AT-treated leaves. Treatments of the 4th leaf with DDC or AT stimulated superoxide formation in the diffusate of the infected 5th leaf (as against treatment with water) pointing to the possible involvement of ROS in systemic defense responses. The same diffusates had enhanced fungitoxicities, which were reduced when antioxidants were added to the diffusate. Therefore, inhibitors of antioxidant enzymes systemically reduced rice blast, possibly via SAR. Both mechanisms of SAR induction (in the treated leaf) and expression (in the systemically protected leaf) might be mediated by ROS. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Terent'Ev A.O.,Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology | Sharipov M.Y.,Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology | Glinuskin A.P.,All Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology | Krylov I.B.,RAS N. D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry | And 2 more authors.
Mendeleev Communications | Year: 2016

β-Diketones and β-oxo esters are thiocyanated with the NaSCN/(NH4)2 Ce(NO3)6 system or with pre-generated dirhodanogen. Malonates undergo thiocyanation only with the NaSCN/(NH4)2 Ce(NO3)6 system. © 2016 Mendeleev Communications. Published by ELSEVIER B.V.

Sharma-Poudyal D.,Washington State University | Chen X.M.,Washington State University | Wan A.M.,Washington State University | Zhan G.M.,Northwest University, China | And 18 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2013

Wheat stripe rust (yellow rust [Yr]), caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an economically important disease of wheat worldwide. Virulence information on P. striiformis f. sp. tritici populations is important to implement effective disease control with resistant cultivars. In total, 235 P. striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates from Algeria, Australia, Canada, Chile, China, Hungary, Kenya, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Spain, Turkey, and Uzbekistan were tested on 20 single Yr-gene lines and the 20 wheat genotypes that are used to differentiate P. striiformis f. sp. tritici races in the United States. The 235 isolates were identified as 129 virulence patterns on the single-gene lines and 169 virulence patterns on the U.S. differentials. Virulences to YrA, Yr2, Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr9, Yr17, Yr25, YrUkn, Yr28, Yr31, YrExp2, Lemhi (Yr21), Paha (YrPa1, YrPa2, YrPa3), Druchamp (Yr3a, YrD, YrDru), Produra (YrPr1, YrPr2), Stephens (Yr3a, YrS, YrSte), Lee (Yr7, Yr22, Yr23), Fielder (Yr6, Yr20), Tyee (YrTye), Tres (YrTr1, YrTr2), Express (YrExp1, YrExp2), Clement (Yr9, YrCle), and Compair (Yr8, Yr19) were detected in all countries. At least 80% of the isolates were virulent on YrA, Yr2, Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr17, YrUkn, Yr31, YrExp2, Yr21, Stephens (Yr3a, YrS, YrSte), Lee (Yr7, Yr22, Yr23), and Fielder (Yr6, Yr20). Virulences to Yr1, Yr9, Yr25, Yr27, Yr28, Heines VII (Yr2, YrHVII), Paha (YrPa1, YrPa2, YrPa3), Druchamp (Yr3a, YrD, YrDru), Produra (YrPr1, YrPr2), Yamhill (Yr2, Yr4a, YrYam), Tyee (YrTye), Tres (YrTr1, YrTr2), Hyak (Yr17, YrTye), Express (YrExp1, YrExp2), Clement (Yr9, YrCle), and Compair (Yr8, Yr19) were moderately frequent (>20 to <80%). Virulence to Yr10, Yr24, Yr32, YrSP, and Moro (Yr10, YrMor) was low (≤20%). Virulence to Moro was absent in Algeria, Australia, Canada, Kenya, Russia, Spain, Turkey, and China, but 5% of the Chinese isolates were virulent to Yr10. None of the isolates from Algeria, Canada, China, Kenya, Russia, and Spain was virulent to Yr24; none of the isolates from Algeria, Australia, Canada, Nepal, Russia, and Spain was virulent to Yr32; none of the isolates from Australia, Canada, Chile, Hungary, Kenya, Kenya, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, and Spain was virulent to YrSP; and none of the isolates from any country was virulent to Yr5 and Yr15. Although the frequencies of virulence factors were different, most of the P. striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates from these countries shared common virulence factors. The virulences and their frequencies and distributions should be useful in breeding stripe-rust-resistant wheat cultivars and understanding the pathogen migration and evolution.

Filippov A.,All Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology | Rogozhin A.,All Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology | Kuznetsova M.,All Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology | Statsyuk N.,All Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology | And 2 more authors.
Zemdirbyste | Year: 2015

The VNIIFBlight decision support system is intended to identify weather conditions favourable or unfavourable for the late blight outbreaks on potato. To provide an improved choice of fungicide treatment dates, we investigated the use of a standard five-day weather forecast based disease management decision support system VNIIFBlight as well as the use of information about the late blight resistance level of the cultivars used. The efficiency of this decision support system was compared with a seven-day routine program of fungicide treatments in the course of four-year field trials in Moscow region and six-year “virtual” trials in four regions of Russia, three regions of Lithuania, and single regions of Canada, Ukraine, Poland, and the Netherlands. According to the results of field experiments, in the case of a high infection pressure (2004 and 2008), yield losses caused by late blight in the untreated control made up 62% and 39%, respectively, whereas the losses for both compared schemes of protection did not exceed 8.2% for both years. In the case of weak disease development (2005 and 2007), for all studied treatments, including the untreated control, yield losses did not exceed 3%. In all years, the use of the VNIIFBlight decision support system significantly reduced the number of fungicidal treatments as compared to the routine scheme of protection; this reduction in 2004, 2005, 2007 and 2008 made up 62, 50, 50 and 17%, respectively. According to the results of “virtual” trials, the use of the VNIIFBlight decision support system reduced the number of fungicide treatments of susceptible and resistant potato cultivars by 50% and 60% on average, respectively, as compared with the routine program. © Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, 2015.

PubMed | All Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology and U.S. Department of Agriculture
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in plant science | Year: 2015

This study demonstrates that the accumulation of apoplastic phenolics is stimulated in planta in response to bacterial inoculation. Past studies have shown that levels of extracellular phenolics are elicited in plant cell suspensions in response to bacteria, and that tomato plants infected with viroids showed changes in apoplastic phenolics. The method described here monitored changes in apoplastic phenolics in tobacco leaves following bacterial inoculation of the same tissue. Inoculation with a saprophyte, Pseudomonas fluorescens, which does not cause visible symptoms or physical damage, was used to elicit phenolics and examine the effects of variable parameters on phenolic composition. Location of the inoculation on the leaf, position, or developmental age of the leaf on the plant, and inoculum concentration were standardized for further experiments. The patterns of phenolic change in the apoplast were compared for tobacco inoculated with P. syringae pathovars, pv. syringae, which causes a resistant HR reaction within 15 h, and pv. tabaci, which causes a susceptible reaction with delayed visible symptoms. Both pathogens elicited lower increased levels of acetosyringone compared to the saprophyte, P. fluorescens but had greatly increased levels of the chlorogenic acid derivatives. The latter metabolites appear to have come from the intracellular stores, which could indicate a weakening of the apoplast/symplast barrier. This unexpected aspect will require further study of intracellular phenolics.

PubMed | All Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxins | Year: 2016

Aflatoxins and melanins are the products of a polyketide biosynthesis. In this study, the search of potential inhibitors of the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) biosynthesis was performed among compounds blocking the pigmentation in fungi. Four compounds-three natural (thymol, 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde, compactin) and one synthetic (fluconazole)-were examined for their ability to block the pigmentation and AFB1 production in

PubMed | All Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Jundishapur journal of microbiology | Year: 2015

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), produced by Aspergillus flavus, is one of the most life threatening food contaminants causing significant economic losses worldwide. Biological AFB1 degradation by microorganisms, or preferably microbial enzymes, is considered as one of the most promising approaches.The current work aimed to study the AFB1-degrading metabolites, produced by Phoma glomerata PG41, sharing a natural substrate with aflatoxigenic A. flavus, and the preliminary determination of the nature of these metabolites.The AFB1-degrading potential of PG41 metabolites was determined by a quantitative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of residual AFB1 after 72 hours incubation at 27C. The effects of pH, heat, and protease treatment on the AFB1-destroying activity of extracellular metabolites were examined.The AFB1-degrading activity of protein-enriched fractions, isolated from culture liquid filtrate and cell-free extract, is associated with high-molecular-weight components, is time- and pH-dependent, thermolabile, and is significantly reduced by proteinase K treatment. The AFB1 degradation efficiency of these fractions reaches 78% and 66%, respectively.Phoma glomerata PG41 strain sharing natural substrate with toxigenic A. flavus secretes metabolites possessing a significant aflatoxin-degrading activity. The activity is associated mainly with a protein-enriched high-molecular-weight fraction of extracellular metabolites and appears to be of enzymatic origin.

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