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Shostak Z.A.,All Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Meteorology
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology | Year: 2011

The methods are presented of agrometeorological forecasting of winter and spring grain crops for the district, all types of farm units, and field taking account of the regional crop forecast, weather conditions, cereal cropping technologies, and soil cultivation level. The additional yields of winter and spring wheat and spring barley and oat are developed depending on the soil cultivation level, summertime soil moistening, and doses of mineral fertilizers. The method tested on the basis of independent data demonstrated that the accuracy of such forecasts is 83-99% for the fields with intensive cultivation technology and 80% for the farm units. © 2011 Allerton Press, Inc.

Alexakhin R.M.,All Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Meteorology
Atomic Energy | Year: 2013

A leading factor determining the prospects for nuclear power is an assessment of the radiation safety of the environment and people. The anthropocentric (public health) and ecocentric principles of radiation protection are singled out and the role of the natural radiation background is described. Key environmental problems in the development of nuclear power are handling radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuel, radiation accidents with emission of radionuclides into the ambient environment and decommissioning of NFC enterprises. The importance of harmonizing the standards for admissible irradiation of man and biota is noted. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Evseeva T.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Belykh E.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Geras'kin S.,All Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Meteorology | Majstrenko T.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2012

In spite of the long history of the research, radioactive contamination of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS) in the Republic of Kazakhstan has not been adequately characterized. Our cartographic investigation has demonstrated highly variable radioactive contamination of the SNTS. The Cs-137, Sr-90, Eu-152, Eu-154, Co-60, and Am-241 activity concentrations in soil samples from the " Balapan" site were 42.6-17646, 96-18250, 1.05-11222, 0.6-4865, 0.23-4893, and 1.2-1037 Bq kg -1, correspondingly. Cs-137 and Sr-90 activity concentrations in soil samples from the " Experimental field" site were varied from 87 up to 400 and from 94 up to 1000 Bq kg -1, respectively. Activity concentrations of Co-60, Eu-152, and Eu-154 were lower than the minimum detectable activity of the method used. Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (K-40, Ra-226, U-238, and Th-232) in the majority of soil samples from the " Balapan" and the " Experimental field" sites did not exceed typical for surrounding of the SNTS areas levels. Estimation of risks associated with radioactive contamination based on the IAEA clearance levels for a number of key radionuclides in solid materials shows that soils sampled from the "Balapan" and the " Experimental field" sites might be considered as radioactive wastes. Decrease in specific activity of soil from the sites studied up to safety levels due to Co-60, Cs-137, Sr-90, Eu-152, Eu-154 radioactive decay and Am-241 accumulation-decay will occur not earlier than 100 years. In contrast, soils from the " Experimental field" and the " Balapan" sites (except 0.5-2.5 km distance from the " Chagan" explosion point) cannot be regarded as the radioactive wastes according safety norms valid in Russia and Kazakhstan. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Dolgii-Trach V.A.,All Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Meteorology
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology | Year: 2012

An optimization scheme is considered of the method of instrumental determination of soil moisture used within the Roshydromet system. The scheme enables to reduce the volume of instrumental operations by 2. 5-3 times using the empirical statistical dependences between the water content in different layers of the soil profile. Efficiency of the filtration of outliers in the data sample is studied on the basis of the analysis of regression residuals when deriving the regression equations. © 2012 Allerton Press, Inc.

Geras'kin S.,All Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Meteorology | Evseeva T.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Oudalova A.,All Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Meteorology
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2013

The results of field studies carried out on different plant species (winter rye and wheat, spring barley, oats, Scots pine, wild vetch, crested hairgrass) in various radioecological situations (nuclear weapon testing, the Chernobyl accident, uranium and radium processing) to investigate the effects of long-term chronic exposure to radionuclides are discussed. Plant populations growing in areas with relatively low levels of pollution are characterized by an increased level of both cytogenetic disturbances and genetic diversity. Although ionizing radiation causes primary damage at the molecular level, there are emergent effects at the level of populations, non-predictable from the knowledge of elementary mechanisms of cellular effects formation. Accumulation of cellular alterations may afterward influence biological parameters important for populations such as health and reproduction. Presented data provide evidence that in plant populations inhabiting heavily contaminated territories cytogenetic damage could be accompanied by a decrease in reproductive capacity. However, in less contaminated sites, because of the scarcity of data available, a steady relationship between cytogenetic effects and reproductive capacity was not revealed. Under radioactive contamination of the plant's environment, a population's resistance to exposure may increase. However, there are radioecological situations where an enhanced radioresistance has not evolved or has not persisted. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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