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Alikina O.,RAS Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry | Chernobrovkina M.,All Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Meteorology | Dolgov S.,RAS Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry | Miroshnichenko D.,RAS Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology | Year: 2016

Ancient wheats are increasingly considered as valuable resources for genes of interest which could be analyzed and introduced into cultivated varieties by genetic engineering technologies. The first stage of biotechnological crop improvement consists of successful in vitro plant regeneration. Twelve wheat germplasms with different genomic formulas (AA, AABB, AAGG, AABBDD, AAD-DGG genomes) were examined with the use of two explant types (immature vs. mature embryos). All of the tested germplasms were able to regenerate plants, although the morphogenic ability of immature embryos was higher. The highest rate of embryogenic/regenerable structure formation was found in immature embryo cultures of tetraploid species (T. polonicum, T. turgidum, T. carthlicum, and T. dicoccum) as well as of hexaploid T. spelta. At the same time, diploid einkorn wheat (T. monococcum) and polyploid species with G chromosomes (T. timopheevii and T. kiharae) were characterized by low embryogenesis and by the presence of albino plantlets among shoots. © 2016, Brazilian Society of Plant Breeding. All rights reserved.


Geras'kin S.,All Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Meteorology | Oudalova A.,All Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Meteorology | Michalik B.,Central Mining Institute of Poland | Dikareva N.,All Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Meteorology | Dikarev V.,All Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Meteorology
Chemosphere | Year: 2011

Genotoxic potential of two environmental compartments (water and sediment) from the Upper Silesia Coal Basin (USCB), Poland were evaluated and compared by employing root meristem cells of Allium cepa. The clear genotoxic effect of water and sediment sampled was shown, with an important contribution of severe types of cytogenetic abnormalities. The most biologically relevant pollutants were revealed through multivariate statistical analysis of relationships between biological effects registered and the environment contamination. Overall, results of simultaneous use of conventional monitoring methods and biological tests suggested that contemporary levels of persistent pollutants in post-mining areas of the USCB may enhance the risk both for human health and biological components of natural ecosystems. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Garnier-Laplace J.,Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety | Geras'kin S.,All Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Meteorology | Della-Vedova C.,Magelis | Beaugelin-Seiller K.,Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2013

The discrepancy between laboratory or controlled conditions ecotoxicity tests and field data on wildlife chronically exposed to ionising radiation is presented for the first time. We reviewed the available chronic radiotoxicity data acquired in contaminated fields and used a statistical methodology to support the comparison with knowledge on inter-species variation of sensitivity to controlled external γ irradiation. We focus on the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and effects data on terrestrial wildlife reported in the literature corresponding to chronic dose rate exposure situations (from background∼100 nGy/h up to ∼10 mGy/h). When needed, we reconstructed the dose rate to organisms and obtained consistent unbiased data sets necessary to establish the dose rate-effect relationship for a number of different species and endpoints. Then, we compared the range of variation of radiosensitivity of species from the Chernobyl-Exclusion Zone with the statistical distribution established for terrestrial species chronically exposed to purely gamma external irradiation (or chronic Species radioSensitivity Distribution - SSD). We found that the best estimate of the median value (HDR50) of the distribution established for field conditions at Chernobyl (about 100 μGy/h) was eight times lower than the one from controlled experiments (about 850 μGy/h), suggesting that organisms in their natural environmental were more sensitive to radiation. This first comparison highlights the lack of mechanistic understanding and the potential confusion coming from sampling strategies in the field. To confirm the apparent higher sensitive of wildlife in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, we call for more a robust strategy in field, with adequate design to deal with confounding factors. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Evseeva T.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Belykh E.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Geras'kin S.,All Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Meteorology | Majstrenko T.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2012

In spite of the long history of the research, radioactive contamination of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS) in the Republic of Kazakhstan has not been adequately characterized. Our cartographic investigation has demonstrated highly variable radioactive contamination of the SNTS. The Cs-137, Sr-90, Eu-152, Eu-154, Co-60, and Am-241 activity concentrations in soil samples from the " Balapan" site were 42.6-17646, 96-18250, 1.05-11222, 0.6-4865, 0.23-4893, and 1.2-1037 Bq kg -1, correspondingly. Cs-137 and Sr-90 activity concentrations in soil samples from the " Experimental field" site were varied from 87 up to 400 and from 94 up to 1000 Bq kg -1, respectively. Activity concentrations of Co-60, Eu-152, and Eu-154 were lower than the minimum detectable activity of the method used. Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (K-40, Ra-226, U-238, and Th-232) in the majority of soil samples from the " Balapan" and the " Experimental field" sites did not exceed typical for surrounding of the SNTS areas levels. Estimation of risks associated with radioactive contamination based on the IAEA clearance levels for a number of key radionuclides in solid materials shows that soils sampled from the "Balapan" and the " Experimental field" sites might be considered as radioactive wastes. Decrease in specific activity of soil from the sites studied up to safety levels due to Co-60, Cs-137, Sr-90, Eu-152, Eu-154 radioactive decay and Am-241 accumulation-decay will occur not earlier than 100 years. In contrast, soils from the " Experimental field" and the " Balapan" sites (except 0.5-2.5 km distance from the " Chagan" explosion point) cannot be regarded as the radioactive wastes according safety norms valid in Russia and Kazakhstan. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Geras'kin S.,All Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Meteorology | Evseeva T.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Oudalova A.,All Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Meteorology
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2013

The results of field studies carried out on different plant species (winter rye and wheat, spring barley, oats, Scots pine, wild vetch, crested hairgrass) in various radioecological situations (nuclear weapon testing, the Chernobyl accident, uranium and radium processing) to investigate the effects of long-term chronic exposure to radionuclides are discussed. Plant populations growing in areas with relatively low levels of pollution are characterized by an increased level of both cytogenetic disturbances and genetic diversity. Although ionizing radiation causes primary damage at the molecular level, there are emergent effects at the level of populations, non-predictable from the knowledge of elementary mechanisms of cellular effects formation. Accumulation of cellular alterations may afterward influence biological parameters important for populations such as health and reproduction. Presented data provide evidence that in plant populations inhabiting heavily contaminated territories cytogenetic damage could be accompanied by a decrease in reproductive capacity. However, in less contaminated sites, because of the scarcity of data available, a steady relationship between cytogenetic effects and reproductive capacity was not revealed. Under radioactive contamination of the plant's environment, a population's resistance to exposure may increase. However, there are radioecological situations where an enhanced radioresistance has not evolved or has not persisted. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Shostak Z.A.,All Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Meteorology
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology | Year: 2011

The methods are presented of agrometeorological forecasting of winter and spring grain crops for the district, all types of farm units, and field taking account of the regional crop forecast, weather conditions, cereal cropping technologies, and soil cultivation level. The additional yields of winter and spring wheat and spring barley and oat are developed depending on the soil cultivation level, summertime soil moistening, and doses of mineral fertilizers. The method tested on the basis of independent data demonstrated that the accuracy of such forecasts is 83-99% for the fields with intensive cultivation technology and 80% for the farm units. © 2011 Allerton Press, Inc.


Sirotenko O.D.,All Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Meteorology | Pavlova V.N.,All Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Meteorology
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology | Year: 2010

A new approach to identifying the weather-crop yield functionals is suggested. It is shown that elimination of crop yield trends using the difference regression (the first and second orders) makes it possible to substantially increase the accuracy and reliability of estimates of climate change (variation) influence on the agriculture productivity. The methodology suggested for assessing a climate change influence is realized for the grain crops in two regions of the Russian Federation with contrast climate conditions. At the same time, it is found that short-term (up to 2-3 years) crop yield trends taken into account and related to changes in the soil effective fertility promote a noticeable increase in the quality of long-term crop yield forecasts. © 2010 Allerton Press, Inc.


Geras'kin S.A.,All Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Meteorology | Volkova P.Y.,All Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Meteorology
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

Polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes were studied in the endosperm and embryos of seeds from Scots pine populations inhabiting sites in the Bryansk region of Russia radioactively contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. Chronic radiation exposure at dose rates from 0.8. μGy/h led to a significant increase in the rate of enzymatic loci mutations. The main parameters of genetic variability of the affected Scots pine populations had considerably higher values than those from the reference site. Changes in the genetic makeup of Scots pine populations were observed at dose rates greater than 10.4. μGy/h. However, the higher mutation rate had no effect on the activities of antioxidant enzymes. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Alexakhin R.M.,All Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Meteorology
Atomic Energy | Year: 2013

A leading factor determining the prospects for nuclear power is an assessment of the radiation safety of the environment and people. The anthropocentric (public health) and ecocentric principles of radiation protection are singled out and the role of the natural radiation background is described. Key environmental problems in the development of nuclear power are handling radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuel, radiation accidents with emission of radionuclides into the ambient environment and decommissioning of NFC enterprises. The importance of harmonizing the standards for admissible irradiation of man and biota is noted. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Dolgii-Trach V.A.,All Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Meteorology
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology | Year: 2012

An optimization scheme is considered of the method of instrumental determination of soil moisture used within the Roshydromet system. The scheme enables to reduce the volume of instrumental operations by 2. 5-3 times using the empirical statistical dependences between the water content in different layers of the soil profile. Efficiency of the filtration of outliers in the data sample is studied on the basis of the analysis of regression residuals when deriving the regression equations. © 2012 Allerton Press, Inc.

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