All Russian Research Institute for Silviculture and Mechanization of Forestry

Pushkino, Russia

All Russian Research Institute for Silviculture and Mechanization of Forestry

Pushkino, Russia

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Straw N.A.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | Williams D.T.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | Gninenko Y.I.,All Russian Research Institute for Silviculture and Mechanization of Forestry
Forestry | Year: 2013

Surveys of ash trees along the major motorway routes leading away from the city of Moscow during July 2013 indicated that emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) was well established up to 235 km west of the city and 220 km to the south. Over the last 4 years, the beetle has spread in these directions at an average rate of 30-41 km year-1, which cannot be explained by natural dispersal alone and implies that human-assisted transport is contributing significantly to the spread of the pest, probably via the hitchhiking of adult beetles on vehicles. The European common ash (Fraxinus excelsior) is uncommon in Moscow and in the boreal forests to the west and north, but those trees that are present suggest that this species is not killed as rapidly by A. planipennis as North American ash species and that it may need to suffer a degree of stress before it succumbs rapidly to infestation. Nevertheless, A. planipennis is a major threat to F. excelsior, and south of Moscow, where the beetle has become established in natural broadleaved woodlands in which F. excelsior is a major component, many of the ash trees are suffering severe dieback and mortality. The abundance and almost continuous distribution of F. excelsior in these woodlands means that A. planipennis now has the opportunity to spread unhindered on a broad front to other countries in Europe. © 2013 © Crown copyright 2013.

Tenow O.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Nilssen A.C.,University of Tromsø | Bylund H.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Pettersson R.,Uppsala University | And 18 more authors.
Journal of Animal Ecology | Year: 2013

We show that the population ecology of the 9- to 10-year cyclic, broadleaf-defoliating winter moth (Operophtera brumata) and other early-season geometrids cannot be fully understood on a local scale unless population behaviour is known on a European scale. Qualitative and quantitative data on O. brumata outbreaks were obtained from published sources and previously unpublished material provided by authors of this article. Data cover six decades from the 1950s to the first decade of twenty-first century and most European countries, giving new information fundamental for the understanding of the population ecology of O. brumata. Analyses on epicentral, regional and continental scales show that in each decade, a wave of O. brumata outbreaks travelled across Europe. On average, the waves moved unidirectionally ESE-WNW, that is, toward the Scandes and the Atlantic. When one wave reached the Atlantic coast after 9-10 years, the next one started in East Europe to travel the same c. 3000 km distance. The average wave speed and wavelength was 330 km year-1 and 3135 km, respectively, the high speed being incongruous with sedentary geometrid populations. A mapping of the wave of the 1990s revealed that this wave travelled in a straight E-W direction. It therefore passed the Scandes diagonally first in the north on its way westward. Within the frame of the Scandes, this caused the illusion that the wave moved N-S. In analogy, outbreaks described previously as moving S-N or occurring contemporaneously along the Scandes were probably the result of continental-scale waves meeting the Scandes obliquely from the south or in parallel. In the steppe zone of eastern-most and south-east Europe, outbreaks of the winter moth did not participate in the waves. Here, broadleaved stands are small and widely separated. This makes the zone hostile to short-distance dispersal between O. brumata subpopulations and prevents synchronization within meta-populations. We hypothesize that hostile boundary models, involving reciprocal host-herbivore-enemy reactions at the transition between the steppe and the broadleaved forest zones, offer the best explanation to the origin of outbreak waves. These results have theoretical and practical implications and indicate that multidisciplinary, continentally coordinated studies are essential for an understanding of the spatio-temporal behaviour of cyclic animal populations. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2012 British Ecological Society.

Oberemok V.V.,Taurida National University | Laikova K.V.,Crimea State Medical University | Gninenko Y.I.,All Russian Research Institute for Silviculture and Mechanization of Forestry | Zaitsev A.S.,Taurida National University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Plant Protection Research | Year: 2015

This review contains a brief history of the use of insecticides. The peculiarities, main advantages, and disadvantages of some modern insecticides are described. The names of the discoverers of some of the most popular insecticide preparations on the world market, are listed. The tendencies to find new insecticides to control the quantity of phytophagous insects are discussed. Special attention is paid to the perspective of creating preparations based on nucleic acids, in particular DNA insecticides. The use of insect-specific, short single-stranded DNA fragments as DNA insecticides, is paving the way in the field of "intellectual" insecticides that "think" before they act. It is worth noting, though, that in the near future, the quantity of produced insecticides will increase due to the challenges associated with food production for a rapidly growing population. It is concluded, that an agreeable interaction of scientists and manufacturers of insecticides should lead to the selection of the most optimal solutions for insect pest control, which would be safe, affordable, and effective at the same time. © Volodymyr Volodymyrovych Oberemok et al. 2015.

Oberemok V.V.,Taurida National University | Laikova K.V.,Crimea State Medical University | Zaitsev A.S.,Taurida National University | Nyadar P.M.,Taurida National University | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Biological Sciences | Year: 2015

DNA insecticides are novel preparations based on short single-stranded fragments of anti-apoptotic (IAP) genes of nuclear polyhedrosis viruses. In this article we report about the harmlessness of the DNA insecticides based on singlestranded fragments of the LdMNPV (Lymantria dispar multiple nucleocapsid polyhedrosis virus) IAP3 gene for tobacco hornworm and black cutworm, and present the first evidence of significant insect-specific insecticidal effect of singlestranded TnSNPV (Trichoplusia ni single nucleocapsid polyhedrosis virus) IAP3 gene fragments on the viability of cabbage looper and their harmlessness for black cutworm and wheat weevil. Our results show that DNA insecticides based on LdMNPV IAP3 and TnSNPV IAP3 gene fragments can be selective in action and have potential use in insect pest control.

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