All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute

Moscow, Russia

All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute

Moscow, Russia
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Ol'Khovskii G.G.,All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute
Thermal Engineering (English translation of Teploenergetika) | Year: 2014

In combined-cycle units that have been commissioned within recent years at Russian thermal power stations, up-to-date models of high-capacity (from 260 to 290 MW) power gas turbine units (GTUs) were installed. In their schematic diagrams and designs some engineering solutions unusual for domestic practice have been implemented. In the course of tests carried out under operating conditions, there have been obtained high efficiencies of both GTUs themselves (from 36 to 39%) and their turbine machines: compressors and turbines, low design NO x emissions at operating loads, and favorable performance characteristics in a wide range of loads and environmental conditions. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


Gladshtein V.I.,All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute
Thermal Engineering (English translation of Teploenergetika) | Year: 2011

The postulated analogy between the influence on longevity of a relatively high extent of creep-caused microdamage and initial decrease in a sample's cross section due to annular notch is used as a basis for carrying out an experimental study of the effect of temperature, stress, and loading time on the coefficient characterizing the relative residual longevity of metal after the occurrence of pore chains along the grain boundaries. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Gladshtein V.I.,All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute
Thermal Engineering (English translation of Teploenergetika) | Year: 2014

Comparative assessment of the effect the yield strength has on the characteristics of EI-415 steel under creep conditions is carried out based on the results from long-term (for more than 70000 h) tests of notched samples at an elevated temperature. The metal of three rotors (EI-415 steel) (one after it had been in operation for 137000 h and the other two in the delivery state with relatively increased and decreased levels of yield strength) was used as material under study. The notch sensitivity was evaluated from the ratio between the long-term strength of smooth samples and that of notched samples tested for long-term strength with recording the crack opening width. The resistances to crack incipience and to crack growth with a preset rate were determined from the lengths of cracks appeared at the end of two auxiliary notches of a smaller depth, and the creep fracture toughness was calculated from the break conditions. It is shown that the metal the properties of which are at the lower boundary of yield strength requirements is slightly more advantageous in the level of the above-mentioned characteristics. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


Ol'Khovskii G.G.,All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute
Thermal Engineering (English translation of Teploenergetika) | Year: 2013

The modern state of technology for making gas turbines around the world and heat-recovery combined-cycle units constructed on their basis are considered. The progress achieved in this field by Siemens, Mitsubishi, General Electric, and Alstom is analyzed, and the objectives these companies set forth for themselves for the near and more distant future are discussed. The 375-MW gas turbine unit with an efficiency of 40% produced by Siemens, which is presently the largest one, is subjected to a detailed analysis. The main specific features of this turbine are that the gas turbine unit's hot-path components have purely air cooling, due to which the installation has enhanced maneuverability. The single-shaft combined-cycle plant constructed on the basis of this turbine has a capacity of 570 MW and efficiency higher than 60%. Programs adopted by different companies for development of new-generation gas turbine units firing synthesis gas and fitted with low-emission combustion chambers and new cooling systems are considered. Concepts of rotor blades for new gas turbine units with improved thermal barrier coatings and composite blades different parts of which are made of materials selected in accordance with the conditions of their operation are discussed. © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Ol'khovskii G.G.,All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute
Thermal Engineering (English translation of Teploenergetika) | Year: 2015

In the review of the Conference on Gasification of Solid Fuels, which was held on October 2013 by the United States, the commercial use of the most advanced coal gasification systems in the chemical and power industry is considered. Data on the projects of integrated solid fuel gasification combined-cycle plants, either being developed or exploited in the United States, as well as the nature and results performed in specialized organizations to improve the existing gasification equipment and systems, are presented. © 2015, Maik Nauka-Interperiodica Publishing, all rights reserved.


Tugov A.N.,All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute
Thermal Engineering (English translation of Teploenergetika) | Year: 2015

The status of municipal solid waste (MSW) utilization for energy purposes in Europe, the United States, and China is revealed, showing that MSW has long been among alternative fuels abroad and is widely used as a renewable energy source. Energy utilities often deal with the construction and operation of thermal waste-to-energy facilities. Currently, thanks to the use of the best available technologies (BAT), among which are incineration in mechanical grate stokers and in vertex fluidized-bed furnaces, and multistage gas treatment, the problems of environmentally safe operation of facilities for MSW-to-energy utilization have been fully resolved. The main research is aimed at improving the energy efficiency of these facilities, primarily, by increasing steam parameters and organizing its intermediate superheating. It is shown that a high efficiency of converting the MSW energy potential into electricity can also be reached by integrating MSW incinerators into the heat flow scheme of thermal power plants, whose main fuel is coal or gas. Examples are given of active foreign MSW-to-energy facilities improved to increase electricity efficiency to 30% and more. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


Belyaev A.S.,All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute
Physics Essays | Year: 2015

A free photon gas is not a thermodynamic system and therefore cannot cool. Correspondingly, the microwave background cannot be a relic. The inflationary cosmic model is based on this assumption; and thus the theory of cosmological inflation is incorrect. © 2015 Physics Essays Publication.


Olkhovskii G.G.,All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute
Thermal Engineering | Year: 2016

Perspectives of using coal in combined-cycle gas turbine units (CCGTs), which are significantly more efficient than steam power plants, have been associated with preliminary coal gasification for a long time. Due to gasification, purification, and burning the resulting synthesis gas at an increased pressure, there is a possibility to intensify the processes occurring in them and reduce the size and mass of equipment. Physical heat evolving from gasification can be used without problems in the steam circuit of a CCGT. The downside of these opportunities is that the unit becomes more complex and expensive, and its competitiveness is affected, which was not achieved for CCGT power plants with coal gasification built in the 1990s. In recent years, based on the experience with these CCGTs, several powerful CCGTs of the next generation, which used higher-output and cost-effective gas-turbine plants (GTPs) and more advanced systems of gasification and purification of synthesis gas, were either built or designed. In a number of cases, the system of gasification includes devices of CO vapor reforming and removal of the emitted CO2 at a high pressure prior to fuel combustion. Gasifiers with air injection instead of oxygen injection, which is common in coal chemistry, also find application. In this case, the specific cost of the power station considerably decreases (by 15% and more). In units with air injection, up to 40% air required for separation is drawn from the intermediate stage of the cycle compressor. The range of gasified coals has broadened. In order to gasify lignites in one of the projects, a transfer reactor was used. The specific cost of a CCGT with coal gasification rose in comparison with the period when such units started being designed, from 3000 up to 5500 dollars/kW. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


Ol'khovskii G.G.,All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute
Thermal Engineering | Year: 2016

Domestic power plants use combined-cycle plants in which a gas-turbine plant (GTP) and a steam turbine rotate a common electric generator. In this instance, it is impossible to measure the power of each of them, so we have to resort to some assumptions. We have succeeded to check the validity of these assumptions and possible errors of their application testing combined-cycle plants (CCP) with the same GTP and a steam turbine but operating each on its own electrical generator. Comparative tests of a MS901FA GTP of the PGU-400 power-generating unit commissioned at Shatura GRES (a thermal power station) and a GTP of the same type installed at Nizhnevartovsk GRES were performed. As a result of these tests, dependences of the electric power of both gas-turbine plants and a turbine outlet temperature on the inlet temperature were obtained. A relation of the GTP efficiency, heat and air rate on the load are determined, and characteristics of compressors and turbines of both GTPs are defined. The performed tests have confirmed the accuracy of the determined characteristics of the two GTPs using both a direct measurement of net power (Nizhnevartovsk GRES) and an indirect measurement (Shatura GRES). © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


Ol'Khovskii G.G.,All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute
Thermal Engineering (English translation of Teploenergetika) | Year: 2012

Application of the balance method for dividing the overall power output produced by a single-shaft combined-cycle power plant between the steam turbine and gas turbine unit is considered. It is shown that the method can be used for obtaining trustworthy results of thermal tests. The effect of air flowrate taken for gas turbine cooling purposes on the gas turbine unit parameters and indicators is estimated. © 2012 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

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