All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute

Moscow, Russia

All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute

Moscow, Russia
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Tumanovskii A.G.,All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute
Thermal Engineering | Year: 2017

Evaluation of the technical state of the modern coal-fired power plants and quality of coal consumed by Russian thermal power plants (TPP) is provided. Measures aimed at improving the economic and environmental performance of operating 150–800 MW coal power units are considered. Ways of efficient use of technical methods of NOx control and electrostatic precipitators’ upgrade for improving the efficiency of ash trapping are summarized. Examples of turbine and boiler equipment efficiency upgrading through its deep modernization are presented. The necessity of the development and introduction of new technologies in the coal-fired power industry is shown. Basic technical requirements for a 660–800 MW power unit with the steam conditions of 28 MPa, 600/600°C are listed. Design solutions taking into account features of Russian coal combustion are considered. A field of application of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers and their effectiveness are indicated. The results of development of a new generation coal-fired TPP, including a steam turbine with an increased efficiency of the compartments and disengaging clutch, an elevated steam conditions boiler, and a highly efficient NOx/SO2 and ash particles emission control system are provided. In this case, the resulting ash and slag are not to be sent to the ash dumps and are to be used to a maximum advantage. Technical solutions to improve the efficiency of coal gasification combined cycle plants (CCP) are considered. A trial plant based on a 16 MW gas turbine plant (GTP) and an air-blown gasifier is designed as a prototype of a high-power CCP. The necessity of a state-supported technical reequipment and development program of operating coal-fired power units, as well as putting into production of new generation coal-fired power plants, is noted. © 2017, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


Kontorovich T.S.,All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute | Radin Y.A.,All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute
Thermal Engineering | Year: 2017

Over the most recent 15 years, the Russian power industry has largely relied on imported equipment manufactured in compliance with foreign standards and procedures. This inevitably necessitates their harmonization with the regulatory documents of the Russian Federation, which include calculations of strength, low cycle fatigue, and assessment of the equipment service life. An important regulatory document providing the engineering foundation for cyclic strength and life assessment for high-load components of the boiler and steamline of a water/steam circuit is RD 10-249-98:2000: Standard Method of Strength Estimation in Stationary Boilers and Steam and Water Piping. In January 2015, the National Standard of the Russian Federation 12952-3:2001 was introduced regulating the issues of design and calculation of the pressure parts of water-tube boilers and auxiliary installations. Thus, there appeared to be two documents simultaneously valid in the same energy field and using different methods for calculating the low-cycle fatigue strength, which leads to different results. In this connection, the current situation can lead to incorrect ideas about the cyclic strength and the service life of high-temperature boiler parts. The article shows that the results of calculations performed in accordance with GOST R 55682.3-2013/EN 12952-3: 2001 are less conservative than the results of the standard RD 10-249-98. Since the calculation of the expected service life of boiler parts should use GOST R 55682.3-2013/EN 12952-3: 2001, it becomes necessary to establish the applicability scope of each of the above documents. © 2017, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


Gladshteyn V.I.,All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute | Troitskiy A.I.,All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute
Thermal Engineering | Year: 2017

Research of a metal of the stop valve case (SVC) of the K-300-23.5 LMZ turbine (steel grade 15Kh1M1FL), destroyed after operation for 331000 hours, is performed. It’s chemical composition and properties are determined as follows: a short-term mechanical tensile stress at 20°C and at elevated temperature, critical temperature, fragility, critical crack opening at elevated temperature, and long-term strength. Furthermore, nature of the microstructure, packing density of carbide particles and their size, and chemical composition of carbide sediment are estimated. A manifestation of metal properties for the main case components by comparison with a forecast of the respective characteristics made for the operating time of 331000 hours is tested. Property-time relationships are built for the forecast using statistical treatment of the test results for the samples cut out from more than 300 parts. Representativeness of the research results is proved: the statistical treatment of their differences are within the range of ±5%. It has been found that, after 150000 hours of operation, only the tensile strength insignificantly depends on the operating time at 20°C, whereas indicators of strength at elevated temperature significantly reduce, depending on the operating time. A brittle-to-ductile transition temperature (BDTT) raises, a critical notch opening changes in a complicated way, a long-term strength reduces. It has been found empirically that the limit of a long-term strength of the SVC metal at 540°C and the operating time of 105 hours is almost 1.6 times less than the required value in the as-delivered state. It is possible to evaluate a service life of the operating valves with the operating time of more than 330000 hours with respect to the long-term strength of the metal taking into account the actual temperature and stress. Guidelines for the control of similar parts are provided. © 2017, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


Ol'Khovskii G.G.,All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute
Thermal Engineering (English translation of Teploenergetika) | Year: 2014

In combined-cycle units that have been commissioned within recent years at Russian thermal power stations, up-to-date models of high-capacity (from 260 to 290 MW) power gas turbine units (GTUs) were installed. In their schematic diagrams and designs some engineering solutions unusual for domestic practice have been implemented. In the course of tests carried out under operating conditions, there have been obtained high efficiencies of both GTUs themselves (from 36 to 39%) and their turbine machines: compressors and turbines, low design NO x emissions at operating loads, and favorable performance characteristics in a wide range of loads and environmental conditions. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


Gladshtein V.I.,All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute
Thermal Engineering (English translation of Teploenergetika) | Year: 2011

The postulated analogy between the influence on longevity of a relatively high extent of creep-caused microdamage and initial decrease in a sample's cross section due to annular notch is used as a basis for carrying out an experimental study of the effect of temperature, stress, and loading time on the coefficient characterizing the relative residual longevity of metal after the occurrence of pore chains along the grain boundaries. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Ol'Khovskii G.G.,All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute
Thermal Engineering (English translation of Teploenergetika) | Year: 2013

The modern state of technology for making gas turbines around the world and heat-recovery combined-cycle units constructed on their basis are considered. The progress achieved in this field by Siemens, Mitsubishi, General Electric, and Alstom is analyzed, and the objectives these companies set forth for themselves for the near and more distant future are discussed. The 375-MW gas turbine unit with an efficiency of 40% produced by Siemens, which is presently the largest one, is subjected to a detailed analysis. The main specific features of this turbine are that the gas turbine unit's hot-path components have purely air cooling, due to which the installation has enhanced maneuverability. The single-shaft combined-cycle plant constructed on the basis of this turbine has a capacity of 570 MW and efficiency higher than 60%. Programs adopted by different companies for development of new-generation gas turbine units firing synthesis gas and fitted with low-emission combustion chambers and new cooling systems are considered. Concepts of rotor blades for new gas turbine units with improved thermal barrier coatings and composite blades different parts of which are made of materials selected in accordance with the conditions of their operation are discussed. © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Tugov A.N.,All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute
Thermal Engineering (English translation of Teploenergetika) | Year: 2015

The status of municipal solid waste (MSW) utilization for energy purposes in Europe, the United States, and China is revealed, showing that MSW has long been among alternative fuels abroad and is widely used as a renewable energy source. Energy utilities often deal with the construction and operation of thermal waste-to-energy facilities. Currently, thanks to the use of the best available technologies (BAT), among which are incineration in mechanical grate stokers and in vertex fluidized-bed furnaces, and multistage gas treatment, the problems of environmentally safe operation of facilities for MSW-to-energy utilization have been fully resolved. The main research is aimed at improving the energy efficiency of these facilities, primarily, by increasing steam parameters and organizing its intermediate superheating. It is shown that a high efficiency of converting the MSW energy potential into electricity can also be reached by integrating MSW incinerators into the heat flow scheme of thermal power plants, whose main fuel is coal or gas. Examples are given of active foreign MSW-to-energy facilities improved to increase electricity efficiency to 30% and more. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


Olkhovskii G.G.,All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute
Thermal Engineering | Year: 2016

Perspectives of using coal in combined-cycle gas turbine units (CCGTs), which are significantly more efficient than steam power plants, have been associated with preliminary coal gasification for a long time. Due to gasification, purification, and burning the resulting synthesis gas at an increased pressure, there is a possibility to intensify the processes occurring in them and reduce the size and mass of equipment. Physical heat evolving from gasification can be used without problems in the steam circuit of a CCGT. The downside of these opportunities is that the unit becomes more complex and expensive, and its competitiveness is affected, which was not achieved for CCGT power plants with coal gasification built in the 1990s. In recent years, based on the experience with these CCGTs, several powerful CCGTs of the next generation, which used higher-output and cost-effective gas-turbine plants (GTPs) and more advanced systems of gasification and purification of synthesis gas, were either built or designed. In a number of cases, the system of gasification includes devices of CO vapor reforming and removal of the emitted CO2 at a high pressure prior to fuel combustion. Gasifiers with air injection instead of oxygen injection, which is common in coal chemistry, also find application. In this case, the specific cost of the power station considerably decreases (by 15% and more). In units with air injection, up to 40% air required for separation is drawn from the intermediate stage of the cycle compressor. The range of gasified coals has broadened. In order to gasify lignites in one of the projects, a transfer reactor was used. The specific cost of a CCGT with coal gasification rose in comparison with the period when such units started being designed, from 3000 up to 5500 dollars/kW. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


Ol'khovskii G.G.,All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute
Thermal Engineering | Year: 2016

Domestic power plants use combined-cycle plants in which a gas-turbine plant (GTP) and a steam turbine rotate a common electric generator. In this instance, it is impossible to measure the power of each of them, so we have to resort to some assumptions. We have succeeded to check the validity of these assumptions and possible errors of their application testing combined-cycle plants (CCP) with the same GTP and a steam turbine but operating each on its own electrical generator. Comparative tests of a MS901FA GTP of the PGU-400 power-generating unit commissioned at Shatura GRES (a thermal power station) and a GTP of the same type installed at Nizhnevartovsk GRES were performed. As a result of these tests, dependences of the electric power of both gas-turbine plants and a turbine outlet temperature on the inlet temperature were obtained. A relation of the GTP efficiency, heat and air rate on the load are determined, and characteristics of compressors and turbines of both GTPs are defined. The performed tests have confirmed the accuracy of the determined characteristics of the two GTPs using both a direct measurement of net power (Nizhnevartovsk GRES) and an indirect measurement (Shatura GRES). © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


Ol'Khovskii G.G.,All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute
Thermal Engineering (English translation of Teploenergetika) | Year: 2012

Application of the balance method for dividing the overall power output produced by a single-shaft combined-cycle power plant between the steam turbine and gas turbine unit is considered. It is shown that the method can be used for obtaining trustworthy results of thermal tests. The effect of air flowrate taken for gas turbine cooling purposes on the gas turbine unit parameters and indicators is estimated. © 2012 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

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