Leitchenkov G.L.,All Russia Scientific Research Institute for Geology and Mineral Resources of the World Ocean |
Guseva Y.B.,Polar Marine Geosurvey Expedition |
Gandyukhin V.V.,Polar Marine Geosurvey Expedition |
Ivanov S.V.,Polar Marine Geosurvey Expedition |
Safonova L.V.,Polar Marine Geosurvey Expedition
Geotectonics | Year: 2014
The Southern Indian Ocean comprises large sedimentary basins of the Riiser-Larsen Sea (western sector); the Cosmonauts, Cooperation (Commonwealth), Davis seas (central sector); and the Mawson-d'Urville seas (eastern sector). The main tectonic provinces of the Southern Indian Ocean (Antarctica) have been outlined as a result of comprehensive interpretation of the geophysical data. Special attention is paid to determining the boundary between the rifted continental and oceanic crust. The basin of the Riiser-Larsen Sea was formed in the Early Jurassic under the action of the Karoo mantle plume. The intrusive complex, as a remote manifestation of the mantle plume, occurs along the inner boundary of the marginal rift. Opening of the ocean in the basin of Riiser-Larsen Sea started about 160 Ma ago and was characterized by rearrangement of plate motion and intense volcanic activity at the early stage. In the basin of the Cosmonauts, Cooperation, and Davis seas, the final stage of rifting was accompanied by the rise of the lithospheric mantle and by intrusive magmatism. The opening of the ocean started here 134 Ma ago. Emplacement of the Kerguelen plume resulted in jumping of ridges and detachment of continental crustal blocks from the Indian margin with the formation of the Kerguelen Plateau (microcontinent). The basin of the Mawson-d'Urville seas has evolved under conditions of long-term rifting since the Late Jurassic and is characterized by an extended zone of mantle unroofing. Breakup of the lithosphere between Australia and Antarctica developed asynchronously over a time interval of 95-65 Ma ago with propagation of MOR from the west eastward. The research was carried out using a great body of geophysical information (~140000 km of CDP seismic profiling, more than 250 stations of seismic refraction sounding, and more than 250000 km of magnetic and gravity profiles) obtained by expeditions from many countries over more than 30 years. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.