All Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology

Pushkin, Russia

All Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology

Pushkin, Russia
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Onishchuk O.P.,All Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology | Vorobyov N.I.,All Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology | Provorov N.A.,All Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology | Year: 2017

The most recent data on the system of cmp (competitiveness) genes that determine the nodulation competitiveness of rhizobial strains, i.e., the ability to compete for nodule formation in leguminous plants, is analyzed. Three genetic approaches for the construction of economically valuable strains of rhizobia are proposed: the amplification of positive regulators of competitiveness, the inactivation of the negative regulators of this trait, and the introduction of efficient competitiveness factors into strains capable of active nitrogen fixation. © 2017, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.

Provorov N.A.,All Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology | Andronov E.E.,All Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology
Microbiology (Russian Federation) | Year: 2016

The processes of speciation and macroevolution of root nodule bacteria (rhizobia), based on deep rearrangements of their genomes and occurring in the N2-fixing symbiotic system, are reconstructed. At the first stage of rhizobial evolution, transformation of free-living diazotrophs (related to Rhodopseudomonas) to symbiotic N2-fixers (Bradyrhizobium) occurred due to the acquisition of the fix gene system, which is responsible for providing nitrogenase with electrons and redox potentials, as well as for oxygen-dependent regulation of nitrogenase synthesis in planta, and then of the nod genes responsible for the synthesis of the lipo-chitooligosaccharide Nod factors, which induce root nodule development. The subsequent rearrangements of bacterial genomes included (1) increased volume of hereditary information supported by species, genera (pangenome), and individual strains; (2) transition from the unitary genome to a multicomponent one; and (3) enhanced levels of bacterial genetic plasticity and horizontal gene transfer, resulting in formation of new genera—of which Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium, and Sinorhizobium are the largest—and of over 100 species. Rhizobial evolution caused by development and diversification of the Nod factor-synthesizing systems may result in either relaxed host specificity range (transition of Bradyrhizobium from autotrophic to symbiotrophic carbon metabolism in interaction with a broad spectrum of legumes) or narrowed host specificity range (transition of Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium to “altruistic” interaction with legumes of the galegoid clade). Reconstruction of the evolutionary pathway from symbiotic N2-fixers to their free-living ancestors makes it possible to initiate the studies based on up-to-date genome screening technologies and aimed at the issues of genetic integration of organisms into supraspecies complexes, ratios of the macro- and microevolutionary mechanisms, and development of cooperative adaptations based on altruistic interaction between the symbiotic partners. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Couzigou J.-M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Zhukov V.,All Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology | Mondy S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Heba G.A.E.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 11 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2012

During their symbiotic interaction with rhizobia, legume plants develop symbiosis-specific organs on their roots, called nodules, that house nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The molecular mechanisms governing the identity and maintenance of these organs are unknown. Using Medicago truncatula nodule root (noot) mutants and pea (Pisum sativum) cochleata (coch) mutants, which are characterized by the abnormal development of roots from the nodule, we identified the NOOT and COCH genes as being necessary for the robust maintenance of nodule identity throughout the nodule developmental program. NOOT and COCH are Arabidopsis thaliana BLADE-ON-PETIOLE orthologs, and we have shown that their functions in leaf and flower development are conserved in M. truncatula and pea. The identification of these two genes defines a clade in the BTB/POZ-ankyrin domain proteins that shares conserved functions in eudicot organ development and suggests that NOOT and COCH were recruited to repress root identity in the legume symbiotic organ. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists.

Ivanova K.A.,All Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology | Tsyganova A.V.,All Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology | Brewin N.J.,John Innes Center | Tikhonovich I.A.,Saint Petersburg State University | Tsyganov V.E.,All Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology
Protoplasma | Year: 2015

Rhizobia are able to establish a beneficial interaction with legumes by forming a new organ, called the symbiotic root nodule, which is a unique ecological niche for rhizobial nitrogen fixation. Rhizobial infection has many similarities with pathogenic infection and induction of defence responses accompanies both interactions, but defence responses are induced to a lesser extent during rhizobial infection. However, strong defence responses may result from incompatible interactions between legumes and rhizobia due to a mutation in either macro- or microsymbiont. The aim of this research was to analyse different plant defence reactions in response to Rhizobium infection for several pea (Pisum sativum) mutants that result in ineffective symbiosis. Pea mutants were examined by histochemical and immunocytochemical analyses, light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy and quantitative real-time PCR gene expression analysis. It was observed that mutations in pea symbiotic genes sym33 (PsIPD3/PsCYCLOPS encoding a transcriptional factor) and sym40 (PsEFD encoding a putative negative regulator of the cytokinin response) led to suberin depositions in ineffective nodules, and in the sym42 there were callose depositions in infection thread (IT) and host cell walls. The increase in deposition of unesterified pectin in IT walls was observed for mutants in the sym33 and sym42; for mutant in the sym42, unesterified pectin was also found around degrading bacteroids. In mutants in the genes sym33 and sym40, an increase in the expression level of a gene encoding peroxidase was observed. In the genes sym40 and sym42, an increase in the expression levels of genes encoding a marker of hypersensitive reaction and PR10 protein was demonstrated. Thus, a range of plant defence responses like suberisation, callose and unesterified pectin deposition as well as activation of defence genes can be triggered by different pea single mutations that cause perception of an otherwise beneficial strain of Rhizobium as a pathogen. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Wien.

Osipova M.A.,Saint Petersburg State University | Mortier V.,Vlaams Institute for Biotechnology | Mortier V.,Ghent University | Demchenko K.N.,RAS Komarov Botanical Institute | And 6 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2012

In legumes, the symbiotic nodules are formed as a result of dedifferentiation and reactivation of cortical root cells. A shootacting receptor complex, similar to the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CLAVATA1 (CLV1)/CLV2 receptor, regulating development of the shoot apical meristem, is involved in autoregulation of nodulation (AON), a mechanism that systemically controls nodule number. The targets of CLV1/CLV2 in the shoot apical meristem, the WUSCHEL (WUS)-RELATED HOMEOBOX (WOX) family transcription factors, have been proposed to be important regulators of apical meristem maintenance and to be expressed in apical meristem "organizers." Here, we focus on the role of the WOX5 transcription factor upon nodulation in Medicago truncatula and pea (Pisum sativum) that form indeterminate nodules. Analysis of temporal WOX5 expression during nodulation with quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and promoter-reporter fusion revealed that the WOX5 gene was expressed during nodule organogenesis, suggesting that WOX genes are common regulators of cell proliferation in different systems. Furthermore, in nodules of supernodulating mutants, defective in AON, WOX5 expression was higher than that in wild-type nodules. Hence, a conserved WUS/WOX-CLV regulatory system might control cell proliferation and differentiation not only in the root and shoot apical meristems but also in nodule meristems. In addition, the link between nodule-derived CLE peptides activating AON in different legumes and components of the AON system was investigated. We demonstrate that the identified AON component, NODULATION3 of pea, might act downstream from or beside the CLE peptides during AON. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists.

Chen L.,Lancaster University | Dodd I.C.,Lancaster University | Theobald J.C.,Lancaster University | Belimov A.A.,All Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology | Davies W.J.,Lancaster University
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2013

Many plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) associated with plant roots contain the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and can metabolize ACC, the immediate precursor of the plant hormone ethylene, thereby decreasing plant ethylene production and increasing plant growth. However, relatively few studies have explicitly linked ethylene emission and/or action to growth promotion in these plant-microbe interactions. This study examined effects of the PGPR Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2 containing ACC deaminase on the growth and development of Arabidopsis thaliana using wild-type (WT) plants and several ethylene-related mutants (etr1-1, ein2-1, and eto1-1). Soil inoculation with V. paradoxus 5C-2 promoted growth (leaf area and shoot biomass) of WT plants and the ethylene-overproducing mutant eto1-1, and also enhanced floral initiation of WT plants by 2.5 days. However, these effects were not seen in ethylene-insensitive mutants (etr1-1 and ein2-1) even though bacterial colonization of the root system was similar. Furthermore, V. paradoxus 5C-2 decreased ACC concentrations of rosette leaves of WT plants by 59% and foliar ethylene emission of both WT plants and eto1-1 mutants by 42 and 37%, respectively. Taken together, these results demonstrate that a fully functional ethylene signal transduction pathway is required for V. paradoxus 5C-2 to stimulate leaf growth and flowering of A. thaliana. © 2013 The Authors.

Provorov N.A.,All Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology | Vorobyov N.I.,All Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology
Theoretical Population Biology | Year: 2010

We created the mathematical model for the evolution of the Efficiency of Mutualistic Symbioses (EMS) which was estimated as the microsymbiont impacts on the host's reproductive potential. Using the example of rhizobia-legume interaction, the relationships were studied between EMS and Functional Integrity of Symbiosis (FIS) which is represented as a measure for concordance of changes in the partners' genotypic frequencies under the environmental fluctuations represented by the minor deviations of the systemic model parameters. The FIS indices correlate positively with EMS values suggesting an enhancement of FIS via the natural selection operating in the partners' populations in favor of high EMS. Due to this selection, nodular habitats may be closed for colonization by the non-beneficial bacterial strains and the Genotypic Specificity of Mutualism (GSM) in partners' interactions is enhanced: the selective advantage of host-specific vs non-host-specific mutualists is increasing. The novelty of our model is to suggest a selective background for macroevolutionary events reorganizing the structure and functions of symbiotic systems and to present its evolution as a result of shifting the equilibrium between different types of mutualists under the impacts of the symbiosis-stipulated modes of natural selection. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Dodd I.C.,Lancaster University | Zinovkina N.Y.,All Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology | Safronova V.I.,All Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology | Belimov A.A.,All Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology
Annals of Applied Biology | Year: 2010

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria are commonly found in the rhizosphere (adjacent to the root surface) and may promote plant growth via several diverse mechanisms, including the production or degradation of the major groups of plant hormones that regulate plant growth and development. Although rhizobacterial production of plant hormones seems relatively widespread (as judged from physico-chemical measurements of hormones in bacterial culture media), evidence continues to accumulate, particularly from seedlings grown under gnotobiotic conditions, that rhizobacteria can modify plant hormone status. Since many rhizobacteria can impact on more than one hormone group, bacterial mutants in hormone production/degradation and plant mutants in hormone sensitivity have been useful to establish the importance of particular signalling pathways. Although plant roots exude many potential substrates for rhizobacterial growth, including plant hormones or their precursors, limited progress has been made in determining whether root hormone efflux can select for particular rhizobacterial traits. Rhizobacterial mediation of plant hormone status not only has local effects on root elongation and architecture, thus mediating water and nutrient capture, but can also affect plant root-to-shoot hormonal signalling that regulates leaf growth and gas exchange. Renewed emphasis on providing sufficient food for a growing world population, while minimising environmental impacts of agriculture because of overuse of fertilisers and irrigation water, will stimulate the commercialisation of rhizobacterial inoculants (including those that alter plant hormone status) to sustain crop growth and yield. Combining rhizobacterial traits (or species) that impact on plant hormone status thereby modifying root architecture (to capture existing soil resources) with traits that make additional resources available (e.g. nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilisation) may enhance the sustainability of agriculture. © 2010 Association of Applied Biologists.

Tikhonovich I.A.,All Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology | Provorov N.A.,All Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology
Annals of Applied Biology | Year: 2011

Agricultural microbiology is presented as a synthetic research field responsible for knowledge transfer from general microbiology and microbial ecology to the agricultural biotechnologies. The major goal of agricultural microbiology is a comprehensive analysis of symbiotic micro-organisms (bacteria, fungi) interacting with agriculturally important plants and animals: here we have focussed on plants. In plants, interactions with micro-organisms are diverse, ranging from two-partite symbioses (e.g. legume-rhizobia N 2-fixing nodular symbioses or arbuscular mycorrhiza) to multipartite endophytic and epiphytic (root-associated, phyllosphere) communities. Two-partite symbioses provide the clearest models for addressing genetic cooperation between partners, resulting in the formation of super-organism genetic systems, which are responsible for host productivity. Analysis of these systems has now been extended considerably by using the approaches of metagenomics, which allow the dissection of taxonomic/population structures and the metabolic/ecological functions of microbial communities, which have resulted from the adaptation of free-living, soil microflora in the endosymbiotic niches. Both beneficial (nutritional, defensive, regulatory) and antagonistic (biocontrol) functions expressed by symbiotic microbes towards their hosts are the potential subjects of effective agronomic use. A fundamental knowledge of the genetics, molecular biology, ecology and evolution of symbiotic interactions could enable the development of microbe-based sustainable agriculture. This could achieve: (a) an improvement of major adaptive functions and productivity in crop plants by manipulating their microbial cohabitants; (b) partial or even full substitution of ecologically hazardous agrochemicals (mineral fertilizers, pesticides) by microbial preparations; (c) a decrease in the cost and an improvement of the quality of agricultural products. © 2011 Association of Applied Biologists.

Belimov A.A.,All Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology | Dodd I.C.,Lancaster University | Safronova V.I.,All Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology | Malkov N.V.,All Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2015

Heavy metals have multiple effects on plant growth and physiology, including perturbation of plant water status. These effects were assessed by exposing the unique Cd-tolerant and Cd-accumulating pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutant SGECdt and its wild-type (WT) line SGE to either cadmium (1, 4 μM CdCl2) or mercury (0.5, 1, 2 μM HgCl2) in hydroponic culture for 12 days. When exposed to Cd, SGECdt accumulated more Cd in roots, xylem sap, and shoot, and had considerably more biomass than WT plants. WT plants lost circa 0.2 MPa turgor when grown in 4 μM CdCl2, despite massive decreases in whole-plant transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. In contrast, root Hg accumulation was similar in both genotypes, but WT plants accumulated more Hg in leaves and had a higher stomatal conductance, and root and shoot biomass compared with SGECdt. Shoot excision resulted in greater root-pressure induced xylem exudation of SGECdt in the absence of Cd or Hg and following Cd exposure, whereas the opposite response or no genotypic differences occurred following Hg exposure. Exposing plants that had not been treated with metal to 50 μM CdCl2 for 1h increased root xylem exudation of WT, whereas 50 μM HgCl2 inhibited and eliminated genotypic differences in root xylem exudation, suggesting differences between WT and SGECdt plants in aquaporin function. Thus, root water transport might be involved in mechanisms of increased tolerance and accumulation of Cd in the SGECdt mutant. However, the lack of cross-tolerance to Cd and Hg stress in the mutant indicates metal-specific mechanisms related to plant adaptation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved.

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