Species diversity and abundance of zoophages as a basic resource of the ecological pest management program for suppression of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) and secondary arthropod pests in the apple orchard agroecosystems of southern Russia
Sugonyaev E.S.,Russian Academy of Sciences |
Balakhnina I.V.,All Russia Institute for Biological Plant Protection |
Doroshenko T.N.,Kuban State Agricultural University |
Yakovuk V.A.,All Russia Institute for Biological Plant Protection |
And 3 more authors.
Entomological Review | Year: 2014
The species diversity and number of zoophagous arthropods as estimated by Margalef’s d index (1958) are the main biological sources of agroecosystem stability. This fact forms the basis of the ecological pest and its enemy management (EPEM) program, which has demonstrated high technical and ecological efficiency, the former referring to the main task of pest control, and the latter, to survival of the natural enemies of the pest and reducing the level of ecological hazard in orchards. Complete and reduced EPEM programs involving five (EPEM-5), four (EPEM-4) and three (EPEM-3) treatments per season with environment friendly synergistic compounds were tested in the ecological and organic apple orchards in the North Caucasus. The results confirm the possibility to protect the orchards by complete (6 treatments) and reduced (4 treatments) versions of EPEM using ecopreparations (bioregulators: Insegar, Match, Dimilin; biopesticides: Fitoverm™, Fermovirin™, Lepidocide™, etc.) to suppress the codling moth and secondary pests while increasing the activity of natural enemies. The EPEM-4 treatment cost in Krasnodar Territory, Northwestern Caucasus is on average half that of the conventional orchard protection measures. © 2014, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Kosheleva O.V.,All Russia Institute for Biological Plant Protection
Entomological Review | Year: 2013
The following trends in oligomerization of the male and female antennae in Tetrastichinae were determined. (1) Reduction (shortening) of the basal segment of the funicle. (2) Reduction (shortening) of the middle segments of the funicle (not recorded in chalcids before). (3) Loss of homonomy by the funicle. (4) Fusion of the claval segments. (5) Reduction (shortening) of the apical claval segment. (6) Incorporation of the apical funicular segment into the clava (not recorded in eulophids before). Sex dimorphism in the antenna structure apparently results from different rates of the evolution of parts of antennae in males and females, in particular from different rates of oligomerization and appearance of novel structures in the male antennae. © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.