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Alferov D.F.,All Russia Electrotechnical Institute | Krastelev E.G.,RAS Joint Institute for High Temperatures | Maslennikov S.P.,National Research Nuclear University
Instruments and Experimental Techniques | Year: 2016

A trigger generator (TG) with a discharge of a storage capacitor through the trigger gap of a triggered vacuum switch (TVS) was developed. It provides a voltage amplitude of up to 7 kV across the trigger gap. After a gap breakdown, the TG provides an ignition current in the form of a damped sinusoid with an amplitude of ≥1 kA. It differs from analogous devices by pulsed charging of the storage capacitor and the use of an output self-breakdown gas-filled switch. The developed design of the gas switch with gas preionization in the spark gap by an additional corona discharge provides high stability of both the pulsed-breakdown voltage and the switching-on time. The TG tests showed reliable and stable switching-on of high-current TVSs of different modifications with a discharge-current rise rate of up to 3 × 1010 А/s. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


Mnatsakanov T.T.,All Russia Electrotechnical Institute | Levinshtein M.E.,RAS Ioffe Physical - Technical Institute | Tandoev A.G.,All Russia Electrotechnical Institute | Yurkov S.N.,All Russia Electrotechnical Institute
Semiconductors | Year: 2011

The effect of the carrier mobility dependence on the electric field strength, μ(F), on the propagation of waves of injected carriers in n- and p-type layers in the quasi-neutral drift mode has been studied. It is shown that consideration of the dependence μ(F) differently affects the motion of minority carriers in n- and p-type layers. The motion of an electron wave in the p-type base of a p+-p-n+ structure is slowed down, and that of a hole wave in the n-base of a p+-n-n+ structure is speeded up. The results obtained supplement the previously suggested classical description of the propagation of a wave of minority carriers, which disregarded the effect of μ(F) dependences. The results of an analytical calculation are confirmed using a numerical experiment. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Mnatsakanov T.T.,All Russia Electrotechnical Institute | Tandoev A.G.,All Russia Electrotechnical Institute | Levinshtein M.E.,RAS Ioffe Physical - Technical Institute | Yurkov S.N.,All Russia Electrotechnical Institute
Solid-State Electronics | Year: 2011

Criteria for occurrence of the quasineutral diffusion mode have been investigated in terms of a generalized approach that takes into account the dependences of the electron and hole velocities on the electric field. These criteria should be used to describe the carrier transport in bases of forward biased bipolar semiconductor devices (diodes, thyristors, and power bipolar transistors in the saturation mode). The criteria appreciably differ from the previously obtained commonly accepted criteria. It is demonstrated that equations describing the carrier transport in the quasineutral approximation in n-and p-type semiconductors are different. These equations are used to obtain analytical conditions in which the diffusion mode is operative. The applicability limits of the diffusion approximation in simulation of semiconductor structures are found. The analytical results are confirmed by a numerical experiment. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Shumilin N.,National Research University Higher School of Economics | Shumilin V.,All Russia Electrotechnical Institute | Chumachenko E.,National Research University Higher School of Economics
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2013

At laboratory testing of Hall thrusters analysis of stability of ion beam in a drift tube is an important problem. The limiting current of the quasineutral ion beam with the total current of the order of one ampere and a small amount of kinetic energy (100 ÷300 eV) in laboratory conditions, namely in the drift tube filled with own gas, is considered. The total time of neutralization of the ion beam in a drift tube and the duration of the process of ion- beam plasma formation are estimated. The problem of electrostatic instability of quasineutral ion beam in a drift tube is considered. The limiting current of electrostatic instability of the quasineutral ion beam represents threshold value of a current above which instability develops without any initial perturbations from infinitely small random fluctuation of potential. In real conditions practically always there are initial perturbations of the ion beam current. For this reason the problem of dynamic decompensation at a finite depth current modulation of the quasineutral ion beam is also considered. Modulation of the ion current leads to a pulsation of the ion beam charge, that, in turn, leads to modulation of ion-beam plasma potential and, hence, of accelerating voltage. It is shown, that the limiting current of electrostatic instability of the quasineutral ion beam in a drift tube is proportional to the concentration of residual gas, to the radius of a drift tube, to the cube of an accelerating voltage and inversely proportional to the potential of ion-beam plasma raised to power of one and a half. It is shown, that the influence of finite modulation of the ion beam current leads to decrease of the instability threshold.Copyright ©2013 by the International Astronautical Federation.


Sapronova T.M.,All Russia Electrotechnical Institute | Syrovoi V.A.,All Russia Electrotechnical Institute
Journal of Communications Technology and Electronics | Year: 2016

A solution to the problem of formation of toroidal cuts from classic 1D Brillouin flows (solid, hollow, and electrostatic beams) and a 2D Brillouin flow in a nonuniform magnetic field is presented. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


Ul'yanov D.K.,All Russia Electrotechnical Institute | Ul'yanov K.N.,All Russia Electrotechnical Institute
Technical Physics Letters | Year: 2011

The effect of a transverse magnetic field on the characteristics of planar diffusion positive column of electric discharge has been studied. It is shown that, as the magnetic induction increases, the distributions of plasma density and particle fluxes to walls become asymmetric; the density maximum shifts in the direction of Ampere's force action, and the ion flux in this force direction can significantly exceed the reverse flux. It is established that there is a maximum value of magnetic induction, which bounds from above the region of magnetic fields in which a stationary state of the positive column is possible. In the region where a stationary state of the positive column is possible, each value of the magnetic induction corresponds to two positive-column regimes with different values of the electron energy, drift velocity, and electric field strength. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Zav'yalov M.A.,All Russia Electrotechnical Institute | Syrovoi V.A.,All Russia Electrotechnical Institute
Journal of Communications Technology and Electronics | Year: 2016

Cylindrical and spherical bipolar diodes with divergent electron beams are analyzed. A tendency related to the application of plasma structures in the classical devices of vacuum electronics working in the steady-state and pulsed regimes is discussed. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


Syrovoi V.A.,All Russia Electrotechnical Institute
Journal of Communications Technology and Electronics | Year: 2016

Two approximations of the geometrized theory are constructed, which make it possible to consider nonparaxial plane relativistic beams emitted in the T-mode with an improved description of the nearcathode region with allowance for the third derivatives of the electric field on the emitting surface and the second derivative of its curvature. In the region of influence of the singularity, the cathode shape and the field on the cathode are related to the configuration of the basic current tube and the variation of the potential on it. The results are adapted to the case of a relativistic planar gyrotron. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


Londer Ya.I.,All Russia Electrotechnical Institute | Ulyanov K.N.,All Russia Electrotechnical Institute
High Temperature | Year: 2011

A two-dimensional kinetic model of a short high-current vacuum arc discharge has been developed in which magnetized electrons move in the hydrodynamic regime and fast cathode ions move in the free-flight regime in a two-dimensional electric field. The model includes the distribution of ions over the emission angles at the cathode boundary of the plasma. A method has been proposed for calculating the distribution of the plasma density in the gap. The two-dimensional distributions of the plasma density, electric field, discharge current density, and trajectories of ions in an external longitudinal magnetic field have been calculated. It has been shown that ion trajectories intersect each other and some ion trajectories return to the cathode. The number of ion trajectories reaching the anode decreases with a decrease in the external magnetic field. The ion "starvation" effect appears near the anode and can lead to the violation of steady-state current transfer and to the formation of an anode spot. It has been found that the kinetic description of the motion of ions does not indicate the appearance of a shock wave. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Prozorov E.F.,All Russia Electrotechnical Institute | Ul'Yanov K.N.,All Russia Electrotechnical Institute | Fedorov V.A.,All Russia Electrotechnical Institute | Londer Ya.I.,All Russia Electrotechnical Institute
High Temperature | Year: 2011

We study experimentally the influence of an external nonuniform magnetic field with transverse and longitudinal components on the electric characteristics, plasma configuration, and cathode spot arrangement of vaccum-arc discharge. It is revealed that for a cylindrical cathode, cathode spots are nonuniformly distributed on the cathode surface, the spot configuration has no axial symmetry, and the arrangement of spots changes in time depending on the induction value of the external pulsed magnetic field. With an increase in induction, spots (on average) are arranged closer to the cathode, i.e.; displaced to the region of weaker transverse field. For two cathode geometries, the probabilities of direct current breakage depending on the induction of the external nonuniform magnetic field are experimentally determined. To determine the conditions of current breakage, a three-dimensional mathematical model of ion motion is suggested and the current breakage criterion is formulated. The trajectories of fast cathode ions in an electrode system with a ring cathode have been calculated using the model. Calculations were performed in a nonuniform magnetic field, the radial and axial components of which have been measured experimentally. It is shown that conditions of current breakage determined with this criterion agree with the results of experiment. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

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