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Rohner C.A.,Marine Megafauna Foundation | Rohner C.A.,University of Queensland | Rohner C.A.,CSIRO | Richardson A.J.,CSIRO | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Fish Biology | Year: 2011

Laser photogrammetry was found to be a promising new cost-effective technique for measuring free-swimming whale sharks Rhincodon typus. Photogrammetric measurements were more precise than visual size estimates by experienced researchers, with results from the two methods differing by 9· 8 ± 1· 1% (mean ±s.e.). A new metric of total length and the length between the fifth gill and first dorsal fin (r 2 = 0· 93) is proposed to facilitate easy, accurate length measurements of whale sharks in the field. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles. Source


Pierce S.J.,Manta Ray and Whale Shark Research Center | Pierce S.J.,All Out Africa Research Unit | Mendez-Jimenez A.,All Out Africa Research Unit | Collins K.,All Out Africa Research Unit | And 2 more authors.
Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems | Year: 2010

The whale shark (Rhincodon typus) is a popular focal species within the global marine tourism industry. Although this has contributed to increased protection being granted to the species in several countries, tourism itself can be detrimental to the sharks in the absence of appropriate management. Potential impacts can be mitigated, at least in the short term, by adherence to well-designed interaction guidelines. A burgeoning marine tourism industry based on swimming with whale sharks has developed at Tofo Beach in Mozambique. However, no formal management is currently in place at this site. The behaviour of whale sharks during interactions with boats and swimmers were recorded during 137 commercial snorkelling trips run from Tofo Beach over a 20 month period. Whale sharks were encountered on 87% of trips, which operated year-round. Boat proximity and shark size were significant predictors of avoidance behaviour. No avoidance responses were recorded at >20 m boat distance. The mean in-water interaction time between sharks and swimmers was 8 min 48 s overall. There was a significant decrease in interaction times during encounters where sharks expressed avoidance behaviours, and also in cases where sharks had expressed boat avoidance behaviour before swimmers entered the water. It is suggested that mean encounter times can be extended through adherence to a basic Code of Conduct for operators and swimmers that enforces minimum distances between the sharks, boats and swimmers. Using encounter time as a measure of the 'success' of interactions holds promise, as longer encounters appear to be indicative of lower impacts on sharks while also providing higher customer satisfaction for swimmers. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Haskell P.J.,University of Exeter | McGowan A.,University of Exeter | Westling A.,All Out Africa Research Unit | Mendez-Jimenez A.,All Out Africa Research Unit | And 9 more authors.
ORYX | Year: 2015

The whale shark Rhincodon typus is a popular focal species in the marine tourism industry. We analysed 689 encounters with at least 142 individual sharks during 2008-2010 to assess their behaviour in the presence of swimmers at Tofo Beach, Mozambique. Sharks varied in size (estimated 3.0-9.5 m total length) and the majority (74%) were males. The sharks displayed avoidance behaviours during 64.7% of encounters. Encounter duration decreased significantly, from 12 minutes 37 s with undisturbed sharks to 8 minutes 25 s when sharks expressed avoidance behaviours, indicating that interactions with tourists affected the sharks' short-term behaviour. However, during the 2.5-year study period we found no trend in the mean encounter duration, the overall expression of avoidance behaviour or the likelihood of an individual shark exhibiting avoidance behaviours. Potential effects of tourism may be mitigated by the non-breeding status and transient behaviour of sharks at this aggregation site. © 2014 Fauna & Flora International. Source


Rohner C.A.,Manta Ray and Whale Shark Research Center | Rohner C.A.,University of Queensland | Rohner C.A.,CSIRO | Pierce S.J.,Manta Ray and Whale Shark Research Center | And 8 more authors.
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2013

Sightings of planktivorous elasmobranchs at their coastal aggregation sites are often linked to biological, environmental and temporal variables. Many large planktivorous elasmobranchs are also globally threatened species, so it is necessary to try and separate population trends from environmentally driven, short-term fluctuations. We investigated the influence of environmental variables on sightings of 3 species of planktivorous elasmobranchs off Praia do Tofo, Mozambique: the reef manta ray Manta alfredi, giant manta ray M. birostris and whale shark Rhincodon typus. We used 8- (2003 to 2011) and 6-yr (2005 to 2011) logbook data for manta rays and whale sharks, respectively, and constructed a generalised linear model with animal sightings as the response. Predictors included temporal (year, month, time of day), biological (plankton categories), oceanographic (water temperature, time from high tide, current direction and strength and wave height) and celestial (moon illumination) indices. These predictors best fitted reef manta ray sightings, a coastal species with high residency, but less so for the wider-ranging giant manta rays and whale sharks.We found a significant decline in the standardised sightings time series for the reef manta ray (88%) and whale shark (79%), but not for the giant manta ray. © Inter-Research 2013. Source


Williams J.L.,James Cook University | Williams J.L.,All Out Africa Research Unit | Pierce S.J.,Marine Megafauna Foundation | Pierce S.J.,All Out Africa Research Unit | And 2 more authors.
Endangered Species Research | Year: 2015

Five sea turtle species, all globally threatened, are found in southern Mozambican waters. Illegal hunting of foraging turtles, nest raiding and modification of coastal habitat are assumed to affect local sea turtle populations, but a lack of capacity and resource constraints hamper monitoring and compliance activities. Enlisting the recreational SCUBA diving community to report sea turtle sightings is a potential solution for population monitoring. The effectiveness of recreational divers as monitors was tested through the review of 2 approaches: the use of a routine dive logbook with sightings, and data from a dedicated survey. These approaches provided 37 consecutive months of data between 2008 and 2011 from dive sites in Inhambane Province, Mozambique. A total of 317 sightings of loggerhead Caretta caretta, green Chelonia mydas, hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata and unidentified turtle species were reported from 918 dives. While the dedicated survey collected more detailed behavioural data (e.g. response to divers and feeding behaviour), independent logbook records provided a more robust data set for analysis of sighting trends. Useful data on sea turtle species composition, size and distribution were obtained from both approaches, although there were concerns with regard to species identification and size estimates. With refined methodology, particularly the incorporation of photographic verification of species identification, reports from divers can provide cost-effective and useful data for monitoring foraging turtle populations. © The authors 2015. Source

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