All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health

Kolkata, India

All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health

Kolkata, India
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Sarkar J.,Calcutta Medical College | Dasgupta A.,All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health | Dutt D.,All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology | Year: 2012

Background: Both magnitude and severity of disability in new leprosy patients measure indirectly the disease transmission in the community and rapidity of case detection. Various factors might be associated with the presence of impairment at registration. Aims: To find out the prevalence of both grade 1 and grade 2 disability among new leprosy patients along with association of some clinical and sociodemographic factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Skin out patient department (OPD) of a Tertiary care hospital in West Bengal, which is situated in a highly endemic district of leprosy (prevalence was 6.5/10000, year 2007). About 244 new leprosy patients were interviewed and clinically examined during Aug'06-Jun'07. Data was analysed in percentages, χ 2 test, Anova. Results: Proportion of disability was quite high among the studied new leprosy patients, 11.5% had grade-1 and 8.6% had grade-2. Disability was more among the patients with pure neuritic type of leprosy (<0.001), multibacillary leprosy (P=0.000), patients with delayed registration (P=0.000) and who were engaged as manual laborers (P=0.001). Feet were commonly involved site and nerve function impairment, both sensory and motor were the commonest nature of disability found in this study. Conclusion: To reduce new leprosy cases with grade-2 disability, early diagnosis of the leprosy patients and searching for grade-1 disability should be routine procedure in our health system, for which thorough neurological examination along with appropriate preventive measures is the need of the hour.


Bhattacharya S.M.,Science Das Memorial Medical and Research Center | Bhattacharya S.M.,KPC Medical College and Hospital | Jha A.,All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health
Maturitas | Year: 2010

Objective: To compare the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of women at surgical menopause with that of women at natural menopause, utilizing the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS-II). Study design: An institution-based cross-sectional study design was used, with 32 participants in each of two groups: women who had undergone surgical menopause of 9-12 months previously; and women who were more than 40 years of age and had had oligomenorrhoea for at least 1 year. The MRS-II was used to assess HRQOL. None of the women had received any hormonal therapy before assessment. Main outcome measures: Total MRS-II scores along with the scores on the somato-vegetative, psychological and urogenital sub-scales were compared between the two groups. Results: HRQOL was rated as worse by the surgical menopause group than by the natural menopause group: the total MRS-II scores were much higher for the surgical menopause group (mean = 29.4, SD = 6.7) than for natural menopause group (mean = 20.7, SD = 6.5), and this difference was significant (p < 0.0001). Similar results were obtained on the three sub-scales - somato-vegetative (p = 0.030), psychological (p < 0.0001) and urogenital (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: HRQOL is worse after surgical than in natural menopause. Routine surgical castration at hysterectomy should be avoided because of adverse short-term effects and, potentially, long-term consequences. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Borthakur A.K.,Assam Medical College and Hospital | Das N.,All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health | Bora B.J.,Government of India and World Health Organisation Initiative
Journal of Global Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Aim: Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is the leading cause of viral neurologic disease and disability in Asia. In the present study JE virus-specific IgM in serum and CSF from acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) patients, attending Assam Medical College and Hospital (AMC and H), Dibrugarh, Assam from 2007 to 2009 were detected and different epidemiological parameters namely age, season and vaccination campaign were enumerated. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study on patients with AES admitted in AMC and H, Dibrugarh, Assam was done during 2007 to 2009. The different epidemiological features were characterized depending on a pretested structured questionnaire called the clinical information form (CIF). Serum and CSF obtained were tested by a Panbio JE-Dengue IgM Combo ELISA kit and JEV Chex kit (Xycton). Statistical Analysis: A z-test was used for the statistical analytic assessment. Results: Detection rate of JE was 39.4%, 51.1%, and 51.3% in the years 2007, 2008, and 2009 respectively. Cases of JE increased in the age group more than 15 years in the district where the vaccination program was undertaken. This increase of cases from pediatric to adults is also statistically significant by the z-test (P<0.05). Conclusion: There was an increase in AES cases and also JE cases from 2007 to 2009. JE also showed a seasonal variation with maximum cases in the months of July and August. Although vaccination campaigns with the live attenuated vaccine SA-14-14-2 have started and are protecting the under-15 children, there is a shift of disease pattern in the older population.


Bhattacharya S.M.,KPC Medical College and Hospital | Jha A.,All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health
International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics | Year: 2010

Objective: To study the effects of 6 months of treatment with transdermal estradiol gel versus oral tibolone on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after surgical menopause. Methods: In a randomized single-blind trial, Indian women received either oral tibolone tablets (2.5 mg) or transdermal estradiol gel (0.06%) daily. Each woman scored herself on the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) II at the beginning of the study and after 6 months. Independent t tests were used to determine the significance of changes in HRQOL. Results: In total, 31 (81.6%) women who received estradiol gel and 38 (100.0%) women who received tibolone completed treatment. Intent-to-treat analysis showed that, after 6 months of treatment, the total MRS score was significantly reduced in the tibolone group compared with the transdermal estradiol gel group (-9.5 ± 5.1 versus-4.9 ± 5.7; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-7.0; P < 0.01). Significant improvements were also noted in the tibolone group in terms of somatovegetative (P = 0.04) and psychologic (P < 0.01) domains. Conclusion: Oral tibolone treatment was more effective than transdermal estradiol gel at improving HRQOL in Indian women with surgical menopause. © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Bhattacharya S.M.,Vivekananda Institute of Medical science | Jha A.,All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health
Fertility and Sterility | Year: 2010

This comparative cross-sectional study found that women with polycystic ovary syndrome are at a significantly higher risk of depression compared with non-PCOS women. The study fails to find enough evidence to explain the high prevalence of depression among PCOS patients by the selected sociodemographic, clinical, and biochemical parameters. © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine.


Pandey A.,All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health
Tropical Doctor | Year: 2010

Endemic fluorosis is an important public health problemin certain parts of the Durg district of Chhattisgarh.The aim of the study was to find out the prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis among the population and to assess the relation between drinking water fluoride level and prevalence of fluorosis. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in Gureda Village, of the Durg district of Chhattisgarh state in October 2009.The survey covered 805 individuals - 362 males and 443 females. The prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was assessed based on clinical examinations of individuals. Drinking and eating habits of individuals were recorded as per checklist. Water fluoride levels of prime water sources were also determined by lab examination.The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 8.2%. Both skeletal and dental fluorosis were more common in males. Dental fluorosis was higher in the 8-45 age group, whereas the prevalence of skeletal fluorosis increased with age. Genu varum (38.1%) and genu vulgum (6.3%) were the common skeletal deformities. Water fluoride levels ranged from 0.2 to 7.8 ppm.


Dobe M.,All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health
Journal of Public Health Policy | Year: 2015

Over the past decade, India's economic growth has been remarkable-yet almost half of India's children under 5 remain stunted. The National Food Security Bill is the country's response to this critical situation. Studies reveal that Indian children are chronically undernourished, not only because of lack of food but also because of recurring gastrointestinal infections. The stunting problem revolves more around lack of sanitation than food insecurity. Despite acknowledging that malnutrition is 'complex and multidimensional', government action has consisted largely of nutritional interventions and subsidized food. Although improvements in sanitation would be the most effective way to reduce excessively high levels of chronic undernutrition and stunting, a review of policy formulation and implementation reveals deficits and disconnects with available scientific evidence. It is time to change these mistaken assumptions and focus on improving access and use of safe sanitation facilities to achieve India's nutritional goals. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.


Saha A.,All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health | Nag Chaudhury A.,Lady Brabourne College | Bhowmik P.,All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health | Chatterjee R.,Lady Brabourne College
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2010

In the absence of any nationwide cervical screening program, cancer of cervix remains a major public health problem for India. We here assessed knowledge levels of female college students about cervical cancer, its risk factors, the human papillomavirus (HPV) etiologic agent and Pap (Papanicolaou) smear testing for screening. We conducted a questionnaire survey of the students (N=630), aged 17 to 24 years, in Kolkata, India. Only 20% correctly identified cervix cancer as the most prevalent female cancer in India, while 43% were aware of the ages of occurrence. Though 41% thought sexual activity to be associated with cervical cancer, its risk factors, like, 'smoking', 'having multiple sex partners', 'cervical infections', 'early onset of sexual intercourse', 'multiple parity' were recognized by 29%, 3%, 4%, 13% and 15%, respectively. The terms 'Pap test' and HPV had been heard by 11% and 15 % of the students, respectively, and 75% of the students desired to have protective vaccination. Bivariate analysis revealed that educational stream, standard of the college and family size were significantly associated with knowledge levels. Additionally, multivariate regression analysis indicated city students were more knowledgeable than those from outside the city. It is imperative that women gather adequate knowledge on cervical cancer for the success of any program to control the disease. Wide and effective spreading of awareness about the disease among women must form an integral part of public health policy of government.


Dobe M.,All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health
Indian journal of public health | Year: 2012

The magnitude of Non Communicable diseases demands urgent attention. Common, preventable risk factors underlie most NCDs. These include behavioural risk factors and metabolic risk factors. The prevalence of these, varies between income groups and differs with gender. Majority of events occur in individuals with modest elevations of multiple risks rather than with significant elevation of a single risk factor. The need of the hour is to adopt a process which addresses the upstream determinants through enabling people, to increase control over their health and its determinants, thereby promoting and sustaining good health The answer lies in Health Promotion which involves changing behaviour at multiple levels. In order to change, there is need to understand and apply the models which have been widely used to empower people to make healthy choices. These include the Health Belief, Self-Efficacy, Social Learning and Self-empowerment models.Changing behaviour, however, is a process, not an event. Different strategies are most effective at different Stages of Change. The contextual determinants of health and health behaviour also significantly influence the risks of NCDs.Till date, there has been limited focus on these issues. We urgently, need a close look at policies and their impact on health. With increasing burden of NCDs, the Health Sector will face strain on services delivery and budgets. Special policies and programs are necessary for the disadvantaged poor to address their differential vulnerabilities and risks. The unfinished agenda of NCD prevention and control needs to be addressed urgently with an integrated comprehensive framework of Health Promotion.


Pal D.,All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health | Das N.,All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences | Year: 2010

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine bacterium which is also responsible for acute diarrhoeal illness in human beings. Eating raw seafish or contaminated seafood is responsible for acute gastroenteritis. The aim of this study was to investigate the isolation, identification and molecular characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from the fish samples in Kolkata, India. Materials and Methods: In this study 90 fish samples were collected from 8 different market places in Kolkata, India. Fish samples collected were shrimp, prawn, bhetki, pamfret and hilsa. VP-toxR PCR was performed to confirm the presence of species specific toxR. tdh and trh genes PCR for detection of virulence genes were performed separately. GS-PCR was performed in tdh, trh gene positive strains to determine whether they belong to pandemic genotype. Serotyping was also done on the tdh, trh positive strains. Results: Out of the 90 fish samples collected from different local fish markets 60 were positive for Vibrio parahaemolyticus. 21 (35%) out of 60 Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from fish samples harboured the tdh gene. 1 (1.7%) out of 60 Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from fish samples carried trh gene. Out of 22 isolates only 2 were positive for GS-PCR. O10: KUT was the serovar maximum isolated. Conclusion: Considerable percentage of Vibrio parahaemolyticus carrying the virulence genes and pandemic genotype among fish in Kolkata indicates that there is potential reservoir in Kolkata and consumption of sea fish or contaminated fish might cause Vibrio parahaemolyticus mediated diarrhea in this region.

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