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Shende V.D.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya | Seth T.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya | Mukherjee S.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya | Chattopadhyay A.,All India Coordinated Research Project on Vegetable Crops
Sabrao Journal of Breeding and Genetics

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) has the potential for improvement through heterosis breeding which can further be utilized for development of desirable recombinants. A 3 × 3, line × tester mating design was used to determine heterosis over better parent, combining ability and gene action for eleven characters in tomato. Preponderance of non-additive gene action was evident for control of all characters studied except TSS content of fruit for which both additive and non-additive gene actions were evident. Amongst the parental lines, 'CLN2498-D', 'CLN2762-A' and 'BCT-110' were the best general combiners for fruit yield and component characters along with good processing traits and thus could be used in tomato hybridization programs. Crosses showing high specific combining ability (SCA) for fruit yield involved parents showing high general combining ability (GCA) for numbers of fruit per flower cluster or numbers of fruit per plant or fruit weight or fruit diameter. The promising hybrids of the CLN2498-D x DVRT-2 and CLN2777-C x BCT-53 were selected on the basis of their performance per se; heterosis manifested in them and the SCA effects. These two hybrids could be used commercially for high yield. However, the cross CLN2498D x BCT-110 could be exploited for better processing qualities. Source

Chattopadhyay A.,All India Coordinated Research Project on Vegetable Crops | Dutta S.,All India Coordinated Research Project on Vegetable Crops
Vegetable Crops Research Bulletin

Twelve genotypes of pole type dolichos bean (Lablab purpureus var. typicus) were evaluated for their genetic variability and character association among nine quantitative traits under the Gangetic plains of eastern India. The study revealed significant variation in days to 50% flowering (57-115), length of pod (7.15-15.05 cm), breadth of pod (1.44-3.11 cm), weight of pod (2.92-8.92 g), 100 seed weight (22.2-45.50 g), number of pods/plant (768.3-1897), protein content of pod (0.70-5.45%) and pod yield/plant (5.07-12.21 kg). Genotypes showed differential reaction against Cercospora leaf spot and dolichos yellow mosaic virus. High yielding genotypes generally showed fewer incidences of diseases than the poor yielding genotypes. Characters like number of protein content of pod, number of pods/plant, breadth of pod, weight of pod and pod yield/plant exhibited high GCV, PCV, heritability and genetic advance as percent of mean indicating that such situation may arise due to the action of additive genes controlling the characters. From the correlation and path coefficient analysis, it revealed that the top priority should be given to selection based on the weight of pod, 100 dry seed weight and number of pods per plant for green pod yield improvement and could be considered while formulating selection indices in the improvement of pole type dolichos bean. © Copyright by RIVC. Source

Chattopadhyay A.,All India Coordinated Research Project on Vegetable Crops | Dutta S.,All India Coordinated Research Project on Vegetable Crops
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research

Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) is regarded as one of the main commercial vegetable and spice crops at the global level. Maximum diversity can be noted among the cultivars/landraces available in India with respect to shape, size, yield, quality, and other traits. The present experiment was conducted to identify the most promising chilli variety suited for green and dry purposes, to study the genetic variability for different traits and to assess the association of different yield attributing traits with the green and dry yield of chilli. Thirty four genotypes were characterized during a 2-yr period. Most of the genotypes possessed the character constellation of C. annuum. Two genotypes, 'Chaitali Pointed' and 'BC CH Sel-4' were found most promising with respect to green fruit yield (272.79 g, 221.10 g per plant) and dry fruit yield (54.56 g, 44.44 g per plant). Phenotypic and Genotypic Coefficient of Variation values for green fruit weight (119.95%, 111.26%), green fruit girth (89.76%, 48.93%), weight of red ripe fruit (112.02%, 111.93%), weight of dry fruit (111.63%, 110.97%) and number of fruits per plant (86.05%, 85.02%) were recorded to be high. Green fruit yield per plant, ascorbic acid content, and number of fruits per plant also showed very high broad-sense heritability and genetic advance. From the study of correlation and path coefficient analyses, the number of fruits per plant, green fruit length for green chilli, weight of dry fruit and the number of fruits per plant for dry chilli were found to the most important selection indices. Source

Chattopadhyay A.,All India Coordinated Research Project on Vegetable Crops
International Journal of Vegetable Science

Information on fruit setting in teasle gourd [Momordica subangulata Blume subsp. renigera (G. Don) WJJ de Wilde] has received little attention, and the precise nature of its breeding system has never been described. A study was undertaken on the pollination mechanism, fruit setting, and interspecific and intergeneric crossability for genetic improvement of teasle gourd. The first flower produced by the male clone reached full bloom 75 days after emergence from the soil; those produced by female clones required an average of 53 days. Number of nodes producing the first flower varied from plant to plant and subsequent flowers also did not develop in any definite sequence. The time required by male and female flower buds to reach anthesis was 15 and 10 days, respectively. Opening of either type of flower occurred between 6 and 7 am, and dehiscence of anthers began at time of opening of female flower. The stigma became receptive 12 hours before anthesis. No fruit set was obtained by hybridization between teasle gourd and other cucurbits, indicating little likelihood for recombination of desirable characters from others cucurbits into teasle gourd using fresh pollen. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Dutta S.,All India Coordinated Research Project on Vegetable Crops | Chattopadhyay A.,All India Coordinated Research Project on Vegetable Crops
Scientia Horticulturae

Development of chilli hybrids having high pungency, antioxidant vitamins and appreciable tolerance against leaf curl virus is the present need in major part of the tropics. Five genetically diverse parents were selected out of twenty two genotypes of diverse origin through multivariate analysis. They were crossed in diallel fashion without reciprocals to produce 10 F1 hybrids to determine mode of gene action, extent of heterosis and dominance effect, and to estimate combining ability for 14 quantitative characters. The predictability ratio revealed overwhelming response of non-additive gene action in controlling the expression of fresh fruit yield per plant and most of the yield components, antioxidant vitamins (vitamin C and beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A) content of fruit and severity of leaf curl virus disease. The breeding procedures applicable to improvement of studied characters are discussed. The maximum extent of significant heterobeltiosis in desired directions was recorded from hybrids in a five-parent diallel of chilli for fruit yield per plant (71.06%*, significant at the 5% level), PDI of leaf curl virus (-47.61%**, significant at the 1% level), capsaicin content of fruit (46.67%**), beta carotene content of fruit (36.17%**) and vitamin C content of fruit (28.93%**). The study depicted that hybrid vigour is available for commercial production of chilli hybrid, and that isolation of pure lines from the segregating generation of heterotic F1's is an alternative approach to improve fruit yield, quality and viral disease tolerance. Partial- to over-dominance effects were found to be involved in the inheritance of fruit yield and other horticultural traits. Two inbred lines BCCH Sel-4 and Chaitali were the most promising general combiners for fruit yield per plant and other important traits that could be utilized in future chilli improvement programmes. We could also able to isolate a promising hybrid, BCCH Sel-4×AC-575 on the basis of its per se performance; heterosis manifested in them and the sca effects, and this hybrid could make a dent by fulfilling the major horticultural attributes in commercial chilli growing zones of the tropics. © 2014. Source

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