Molecular Pharmaceutics | Year: 2014
There are now long-acting versions of six antipsychotic drugs on the U.S. market, and with them, five unique combinations of molecular form and delivery strategy long-acting-injectable-antipsychotics (LAIAs) show evidence of reduced relapses of schizophrenia, but their introduction has been slow, taking at least nine years after the approval of each oral drug. Oily solutions of lipophilic prodrugs were the first to enter the LAIA market, but they relied on esterification of a hydroxyl handle that was lost with the emergence of the atypical antipsychotics. A review of the literature and patents shows that companies tested many different approaches before reaching the currently marketed versions, including aqueous suspensions of poorly soluble salts, polymeric microspheres, and new approaches to making prodrugs. Yet, very little has been published to support faster development of safe long-acting injectables (LAIs). This review introduces some of the critical considerations in creating an LAI; then it analyzes the existing products and discusses areas where further research is needed. The available literature suggests that lipophilic prodrugs may be inherently safer than poorly soluble salts as LAIs. Other areas needing additional study include (1) the range of physical properties acceptable for LAIs and the effect of prodrug tail length in achieving them, and (2) the role of physiological responses at the injection site in the release of drug from a depot. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2011
Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX; Vivitrol ®), developed to address poor adherence in addictive disorders, is approved for use in alcohol and opioid-dependence disorders. In alcohol-dependent adults with ≥4-day initial abstinence, XR-NTX increased initial and 6-month abstinence. An fMRI study found that XR-NTX attenuated the salience of alcohol visual and olfactory cues in the absence of alcohol, and post hoc analyses demonstrated efficacy even during high cue-exposure holiday periods. Safety and tolerability have generally been good, without adverse hepatic impact or intractable acute pain management. XR-NTX use appears feasible in primary care and public systems, and retrospective claims analyses have found cost savings and decreased intensive service utilization relative to oral agents. In opioid dependence, following detoxification, XR-NTX shows efficacy for maintaining abstinence, improving retention, decreasing craving, and preventing relapse. Trials are also exploring its use for the treatment of stimulant dependence. XR-NTX appears compatible with counseling and self-help attendance. While more research is needed, current findings suggest that a formulation of naltrexone that was sought beginning over three decades ago is fulfilling its promise as an extended-release pharmacotherapeutic. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences. Source
Alkermes | Date: 2015-08-17
Described is a composition comprising (a) a population of particles of an aripiprazole prodrug having a volume based particle size (Dv50) of less than 1000 nm and (b) at least one surface stabilizer comprising an adsorbed component which is adsorbed on the surface of the aripiprazole prodrug particles and a free component available for solubilisation of the aripiprazole prodrug. The surface stabilizer to prodrug ratio provides the optimal quantity of free surface stabilizer for the purposes of producing a lead-in formulation. Also described are methods of treatment using the aforementioned composition.
Alkermes | Date: 2015-05-15
The present invention is directed to nanoparticulate compositions comprising megestrol. The megestrol particles of the composition have an effective average particle size of less than about
Alkermes | Date: 2015-05-22
The invention provides a method of sustained delivery of a lactam, imide, amide, sulfonamide, carbamate or urea containing parent drug by administering to a patient an effective amount of a prodrug compound of the invention wherein upon administration to the patient, release of the parent drug from the prodrug is sustained release. Prodrug compounds suitable for use in the methods of the invention are labile conjugates of parent drugs that are derivatized through carbonyl linked prodrug moieties. The prodrug compounds of the invention can be used to treat any condition for which the lactam, imide, amide, sulfonamide, carbamate or urea containing parent drug is useful as a treatment.