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Tarascon J.-M.,CNRS Laboratory of Chemistry and Reactivity of Solids | Tarascon J.-M.,Alistore European Research Institute
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences | Year: 2010

Batteries are a major technological challenge in this new century as they are a key method to make more efficient use of energy. Although today's Li-ion technology has conquered the portable electronic markets and is still improving, it falls short of meeting the demands dictated by the powering of both hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles or by the storage of renewable energies (wind, solar). There is room for optimism as long as we pursue paradigm shifts while keeping in mind the concept of materials sustainability. Some of these concepts, relying on new ways to prepare electrode materials via eco-efficient processes, on the use of organic rather than inorganic materials or new chemistries will be discussed. Achieving these concepts will require the inputs of multiple disciplines. © 2010 The Royal Society.


Larcher D.,CNRS Laboratory of Chemistry and Reactivity of Solids | Larcher D.,Alistore European Research Institute | Larcher D.,CNRS RS2E | Tarascon J.-M.,Alistore European Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Nature Chemistry | Year: 2015

Ever-growing energy needs and depleting fossil-fuel resources demand the pursuit of sustainable energy alternatives, including both renewable energy sources and sustainable storage technologies. It is therefore essential to incorporate material abundance, eco-efficient synthetic processes and life-cycle analysis into the design of new electrochemical storage systems. At present, a few existing technologies address these issues, but in each case, fundamental and technological hurdles remain to be overcome. Here we provide an overview of the current state of energy storage from a sustainability perspective. We introduce the notion of sustainability through discussion of the energy and environmental costs of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries, considering elemental abundance, toxicity, synthetic methods and scalability. With the same themes in mind, we also highlight current and future electrochemical storage systems beyond lithium-ion batteries. The complexity and importance of recycling battery materials is also discussed. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Cabana J.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Cabana J.,Alistore European Research Institute | Monconduit L.,Charles Gerhardt Institute | Monconduit L.,Alistore European Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2010

Despite the imminent commercial introduction of Li-ion batteries in electric drive vehicles and their proposed use as enablers of smart grids based on renewable energy technologies, an intensive quest for new electrode materials that bring about improvements in energy density, cycle life, cost, and safety is still underway. This Progress Report highlights the recent developments and the future prospects of the use of phases that react through conversion reactions as both positive and negative electrode materials in Li-ion batteries. By moving beyond classical intercalation reactions, a variety of low cost compounds with gravimetric specific capacities that are two-to-five times larger than those attained with currently used materials, such as graphite and LiCoO2, can be achieved. Nonetheless, several factors currently handicap the applicability of electrode materials entailing conversion reactions. These factors, together with the scientific breakthroughs that are necessary to fully assess the practicality of this concept, are reviewed in this report. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.


Croguennec L.,CNRS Laboratory of Condensed Matter Chemistry, Bordeaux | Croguennec L.,Alistore European Research Institute | Croguennec L.,CNRS RS2E | Palacin M.R.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Palacin M.R.,Alistore European Research Institute
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2015

The lithium-ion battery technology is rooted in the studies of intercalation of guest ions into inorganic host materials developed ca. 40 years ago. It further turned into a commercial product, which will soon blow its 25th candle. Intense research efforts during this time have resulted in the development of a large spectrum of electrode materials together with deep understanding of the underlying structure-property relationships that govern their performance. This has enabled an ever increasing electrochemical yield together with the diversification of the technology into several subfamilies, tailoring materials to application requirements. The present paper aims at providing a global and critical perspective on inorganic electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries categorized by their reaction mechanism and structural dimensionality. Specific emphasis is put on recent research in the field, which beyond the chemistry and microstructure of the materials themselves also involves considering interfacial chemistry concepts alongside progress in characterization techniques. Finally a short personal perspective is provided on some plausible development of the field. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Scheers J.,Chalmers University of Technology | Fantini S.,Solvionic SA | Johansson P.,Chalmers University of Technology | Johansson P.,Alistore European Research Institute
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2014

To optimize the electrolyte is one of the most important directions to take in order to improve the Li/S battery in terms of performance - especially cell cyclability, rate capability, safety, and life-span. In this review we examine the state of the art for different choices of electrolytes; concepts, design, and materials, and how the resulting chemical and physical properties of the electrolyte affect the overall Li/S battery performance. The objective is to create an overall assessment of electrolytes in use at present and to provide a thorough basis for rational selection of future electrolytes for Li/S batteries. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Ponrouch A.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Ponrouch A.,Alistore European Research Institute | Goni A.R.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Goni A.R.,Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies | And 2 more authors.
Electrochemistry Communications | Year: 2013

Electrochemical performance of hard carbon prepared from sugar pyrolysis was investigated against sodium anodes. Specific surface area and graphitization degree are determinant for achieving the highest reversible capacity ever reported (more than 300 mAh/g at C/10 after 120 cycles) with excellent rate capability. Such results were obtained using additive free EC:PC based electrolyte which appears to induce the formation of a more conducting solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) than that produced in the presence of 2% fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC). © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Gershinsky G.,Bar Ilan Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials BINA | Bar E.,Bar Ilan Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials BINA | Monconduit L.,Alistore European Research Institute | Zitoun D.,Bar Ilan Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials BINA
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2014

One of the challenges in the development of batteries consists of investigating new electrode materials and comprehending the mechanism of lithium uptake. Herein, we report on the first operando measurements of electron magnetism in a battery during cycling. We have succeeded in designing a non-magnetic cell and have investigated the lithiation mechanism of FeSb 2, a high energy density anode material. The stepwise increase of the magnetic moment reveals an increase of amorphous Fe nanoparticle size, while Sb undergoes reversible alloying with Li. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Monconduit L.,Alistore European Research Institute | Monconduit L.,CNRS RS2E
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2014

Nowadays conversion-type electrode materials definitively lie as the core of any research programs related to Li-ion batteries. Requirements are high capacity, good rate capability, and a long cycle life. Indeed, the goal of much lithium battery research is to achieve the highest energy density battery as possible. In the case of pnictide materials, such performances are the results of the following conversion reaction: MxXy + 2yLi ↔ xM0 + yLi3X (X = P, Sb; M = Fe, Ni, Co,...). However, these materials are still suffering from serious issues such as (i) low Coulombic efficiency, (ii) high polarization, (iii) poor cycle life (volume expansion), and (iv) limited rate capability that unfortunately still prevent them for any close commercial viability. In this article, the most recent research developments of our group and through collaborations in this specific field will be reported. In the interest of overcoming the limitations listed above, a cautious and rigorous scrutinizing of the electrochemical behavior of any studied materials is necessary. In our research group, we have extensive experience in the use of sophisticated in and ex situ characterization tools, in the aim to probe bulk pnictide in the Li batteries and the electrolyte/ electrode surface as well. Indeed, thanks to these methods, we could unambiguously show that electrochemical conversion reactions are leading to some unstable phases, which cannot be synthesized via common chemical reaction paths. One can observe the key role of the solid/solid Li3X/M 0 interfaces in the reversibility of the conversion mechanism. Contrarily, during the process, the solid/liquid electrode/electrolyte interfaces are subject to continuous parasitic reactions which drastically limit the cycle life of the battery. Fortunately, both nanostructuration of the pnictide electrodes as well as the confinement of pnictide into a porous carbon matrix play a great role in improving the performance of the cell mainly due (i) to the shortening of the distance over which Li+ diffuses or (ii) to the buffer effect of the carbon matrix against the local volume change during the charge and discharge process. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Angenendt K.,Chalmers University of Technology | Johansson P.,Chalmers University of Technology | Johansson P.,Alistore European Research Institute
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2011

The solvation of lithium salts in ionic liquids (ILs) leads to the creation of a lithium ion carrying species quite different from those found in traditional nonaqueous lithium battery electrolytes. The most striking differences are that these species are composed only of ions and in general negatively charged. In many IL-based electrolytes, the dominant species are triplets, and the charge, stability, and size of the triplets have a large impact on the total ion conductivity, the lithium ion mobility, and also the lithium ion delivery at the electrode. As an inherent advantage, the triplets can be altered by selecting lithium salts and ionic liquids with different anions. Thus, within certain limits, the lithium ion carrying species can even be tailored toward distinct important properties for battery application. Here, we show by DFT calculations that the resulting charge carrying species from combinations of ionic liquids and lithium salts and also some resulting electrolyte properties can be predicted. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Darwiche A.,Alistore European Research Institute | Marino C.,Alistore European Research Institute | Sougrati M.T.,Alistore European Research Institute | Fraisse B.,Alistore European Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2012

Pure micrometric antimony can be successfully used as negative electrode material in Na-ion batteries, sustaining a capacity close to 600 mAh g -1 at a high rate with a Coulombic efficiency of 99 over 160 cycles, an extremely high capacity compared to any other compound tested against both Li and Na. The reaction mechanism with Na does not simply go through the alloying mechanism observed for Li where the intermediate species are those expected from the phase diagram. In the case of Na, the intermediate phases are mostly amorphous and could not be precisely identified. Surprisingly, we evidenced that a competition takes place at the end of the discharge of the Sb/Na cell between the formation of the hexagonal and the cubic polymorphs of Na3Sb, the last being described in the literature as unstable at atmospheric pressure and only synthesized under high pressure (1-9 GPa). In addition, fluoroethylene carbonate added to the electrolyte combined with an appropriate electrode formulation based on carboxymethyl cellulose, carbon black, and vapor ground carbon fibers seems to be determinant in the excellent performances of this material. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

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