Aligarh, India

Aligarh Muslim University
Aligarh, India

Aligarh Muslim University is a public university, funded by the central government of India is among the oldest central universities in India. It was established by Syed Ahmad Khan as Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College. The Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College became Aligarh Muslim University in 1920. The main campus of AMU is located in the city of Aligarh. Spread over 467.6 hectares in the city of Aligarh, AMU offers more than 300 courses in the traditional and modern branches of education. The University has consistently ranked among the best educational institutions in India. According to Times Higher Education, Asia Ranking 2014, AMU ranks 3rd among Universities in India. The university is open to all irrespective of caste, creed, religion or gender. Wikipedia.

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A novel compound 5,8a-di-1-propyl 1-octahydronapthalen-1-(2H) One, and a process for isolating the compound and provides the process for isolation of the compound 5,8a-di-1-propyl 1-octahydronapthalen-1-(2H) One from Trachyspermum ammi (Ajowan caraway) seeds involving washing the seeds, drying the same and crushing it to form a powder; subjecting the powder to solvent extraction; isolating the active compound by chromatography; cooling the fractions; and subjecting the fractions to the step of crystallization in pure methanol.

Misra M.,Aligarh Muslim University
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Background Hyperglycemia is an important pathogenic component in the development of microvascular and macrovascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Inhibition of renal tubular glucose reabsorption that leads to glycosuria has been proposed as a new mechanism to attain normoglycemia and thus prevent and diminish these complications. Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) has a key role in reabsorption of glucose in kidney. Competitive inhibitors of SGLT2 have been discovered and a few of them have also been advanced in clinical trials for the treatment of diabetes. Objective To discuss the therapeutic potential of SGLT2 inhibitors currently in clinical development. Key findings A number of preclinical and clinical studies of SGLT2 inhibitors have demonstrated a good safety profile and beneficial effects in lowering plasma glucose levels, diminishing glucotoxicity, improving glycemic control and reducing weight in diabetes. Of all the SGLT2 inhibitors, dapagliflozin is a relatively advanced compound with regards to clinical development. Summary SGLT2 inhibitors are emerging as a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of diabetes. Their unique mechanism of action offers them the potential to be used in combination with other oral anti-diabetic drugs as well as with insulin. © 2012 The Author. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

Danishuddin,Aligarh Muslim University | Khan A.U.,Aligarh Muslim University
Drug Discovery Today | Year: 2016

The screening of chemical libraries with traditional methods, such as high-throughput screening (HTS), is expensive and time consuming. Quantitative structure-activity relation (QSAR) modeling is an alternative method that can assist in the selection of lead molecules by using the information from reference active and inactive compounds. This approach requires good molecular descriptors that are representative of the molecular features responsible for the relevant molecular activity. The usefulness of these descriptors in QSAR studies has been extensively demonstrated, and they have also been used as a measure of structural similarity or diversity. In this review, we provide a brief explanation of descriptors and the selection approaches most commonly used in QSAR experiments. In addition, some studies have also demonstrated the positive influence of features selection for any drug development model. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Mehdi S.H.,Aligarh Muslim University | Qamar A.,Aligarh Muslim University
Toxicological Sciences | Year: 2013

Paraquat (PQ), a quaternary nitrogen herbicide, is commonly used as a pesticide despite of its high toxicity. Our study evaluated the effect of subchronic PQ exposure on the neuropathology, genotoxicity, and antioxidant activity on the nervous tissue of Drosophila melanogaster. We also explored the behavioral effect of PQ on D. melanogaster. Furthermore, we attempted to validate the mechanism by evaluating PQ-induced cytotoxicity on the D-Mel2 cell lines. The fruit fly D. melanogaster serves as a feasible model to understand the mechanism of neurodegenerative diseases. Our study shows a dose-dependent PQ-induced neuropathology in the brain tissue of D. melanogaster as evidenced by hematoxylin and eosin staining, silver nitrate staining, and transmission electron microscopy. Electron microscopic study of D. melanogaster brain tissue exhibited vacuolar degeneration and significant neuronal damage across the nervous tissue structure in comparison with control. Our findings also indicate a dose-dependent locomotor impairment and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) specific activity in PQ-treated D. melanogaster. These PQ-induced neuroanatomical changes and decreased SOD specific activity showed a significant association with oxidative DNA damage as observed by alkaline comet assay. Additionally, we show, for the first time, a dose-dependent PQ-induced cytotoxicity in the D-Mel2 cells suggesting loss of neuronal cell viability via cytotoxic damage. Our data suggest that PQ exposure results in neurodegeneration in D. melanogaster and that fruit fly is a suitable in vivo model for correlating the neuroanatomical changes with neurotoxic damages to nervous system.©The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology.All rights reserved.

Chauhan A.,Aligarh Muslim University
International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2011

Nanomaterials are considered to be the pre-eminent component of the rapidly advancing field of nanotechnology. However, developments in the biologically inspired synthesis of nanoparticles are still in their infancy and consequently attracting the attention of material scientists throughout the world. Keeping in mind the fact that microorganism-assisted synthesis of nanoparticles is a safe and economically viable prospect, in the current study we report Candida albicans-mediated biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and various spectrophotometric analyses were performed to characterize the gold nanoparticles. The morphology of the synthesized gold particles depended on the abundance of C. albicans cytosolic extract. Transmission electron microscopy, nanophox particle analysis, and atomic force microscopy revealed the size of spherical gold nanoparticles to be in the range of 20-40 nm and nonspherical gold particles were found to be 60-80 nm. We also evaluated the potential of biogenic gold nanoparticles to probe liver cancer cells by conjugating them with liver cancer cell surface-specific antibodies. The antibody-conjugated gold particles were found to bind specifically to the surface antigens of the cancer cells. The antibody-conjugated gold particles synthesized in this study could successfully differentiate normal cell populations from cancerous cells.

Ansari S.A.,Aligarh Muslim University | Husain Q.,Jazan University
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2012

Several new types of carriers and technologies have been implemented in the recent past to improve traditional enzyme immobilization which aimed to enhance enzyme loading, activity and stability to decrease the enzyme biocatalyst cost in industrial biotechnology. These include cross-linked enzyme aggregates, microwave-assisted immobilization, click chemistry technology, mesoporous supports and most recently nanoparticle-based immobilization of enzymes. The union of the specific physical, chemical, optical and electrical properties of nanoparticles with the specific recognition or catalytic properties of biomolecules has led to their appearance in myriad novel biotechnological applications. They have been applied time and again for immobilization of industrially important enzymes with improved characteristics. The high surface-to-volume ratio offered by nanoparticles resulted in the concentration of the immobilized entity being considerably higher than that afforded by experimental protocols based on immobilization on planar 2-D surfaces. Enzymes immobilized on nanoparticles showed a broader working pH and temperature range and higher thermal stability than the native enzymes. Compared with the conventional immobilization methods, nanoparticle based immobilization served three important features; (i) nano-enzyme particles are easy to synthesize in high solid content without using surfactants and toxic reagents, (ii) homogeneous and well defined core-shell nanoparticles with a thick enzyme shell can be obtained, and (iii) particle size can be conveniently tailored within utility limits. In addition, with the growing attention paid to cascade enzymatic reaction and in vitro synthetic biology, it is possible that co-immobilization of multi-enzymes could be achieved on these nanoparticles. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Husain Q.,Aligarh Muslim University
Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2010

In this article an effort has been made to review literature based on the role of peroxidases in the treatment and decolorization of a wide spectrum aromatic dyes from polluted water. Peroxidases can catalyze degradation/transformation of aromatic dyes either by precipitation or by opening the aromatic ring structure. Peroxidases from plant sources; horseradish, turnip, tomato, soybean, bitter gourd, white radish and Saccharum uvarum and microbial sources; lignin peroxidases, manganese peroxidases, vanadium haloperoxidases, versatile peroxidases, dye decolorizing peroxidases have been employed for the remediation of commercial dyes. Soluble and immobilized peroxidases have been successfully exploited in batch as well as in continuous processes for the treatment of synthetic dyes with complex aromatic molecular structures present in industrial effluents at large scale. However, recalcitrant dyes were also decolorized by the action of peroxidases in the presence of redox mediators. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

A chance discovery of the tumoricidal action of a human milk fraction led to the characterization of the active component as oleic acid complex of the α-lactalbumin, which was given the acronym HAMLET. We report in this study that the oleic acid complex of bovine α-lactalbumin (BAMLET) is hemolytic to human erythrocytes as well as to those derived from some other mammals. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis suggested binding of BAMLET to erythrocytes prior to induction of hemolysis. Free OA was hemolytic albeit at higher concentrations, while sodium oleate caused hemolysis at far lower concentrations. Amiloride and BaCl2 offered protection against BAMLET-induced hemolysis suggesting the involvement of a cation leak channel in the process. BAMLET coupled to CNBr-activated Sepharose was not only hemolytic but also tumoricidal to Jurkat and MCF-7 cells in culture. The Sepharose-linked preparation was however not toxic to non-cancerous peritoneal macrophages and primary adipocytes. The tumoricidal action was studied using the MTT-assay while apoptosis induction measured by the annexin V-propidium iodide assay. Repeated incubation of the immobilized BAMLET with erythrocytes depleted oleic acid and decreased the hemolytic activity of the complex. Incubation of MCF-7 and Jurkat cells with OA, soluble or immobilized BAMLET resulted in increase in the uptake of Lyso Tracker Red and Nile red by the cells. The data presented support the contention that oleic acid plays the key role, both in BAMLET-induced hemolysis and tumoricidal action.

Husain Q.,Aligarh Muslim University
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology | Year: 2010

β Galactosidases have been obtained from microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria and yeasts; plants, animals cells, and from recombinant sources. The enzyme has two main applications; the removal of lactose from milk products for lactose intolerant people and the production of galactosylated products. In order to increase their stability, reusability, and use in continuous reactors, these enzymes have been immobilized on both organic and inorganic support via adsorption, covalent attachment, chemical aggregation, microencapsulation, and entrapment. Free and immobilized preparations of β galactosidases have been exploited in various applications such as industrial, biotechnological, medical, analytical, and in different other applications. β galactosidase is widely used in food industry to improve sweetness, solubility, flavor, and digestibility of dairy products. Immobilized β galactosidases are employed for the continuous hydrolysis of lactose from whey and milk in a number of reactors such as hollow fiber reactors, tapered column reactors, packed bed reactors, fluidized bed reactors etc. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.

In this paper, we describe some bounds and inequalities relating h-index, g-index, e-index, and generalized impact factor. We derive the bounds and inequalities relating these indexing parameters from their basic definitions and without assuming any continuous model to be followed by any of them. We verify the theorems using citation data for five Price Medalists. We observe that the lower bound for h-index given by Theorem 2, h=Ω(g-e 2/g),f>1 comes out to be more accurate as compared to Schubert-Glanzel rlation, for a proportionality constant of of 1, where C is the number of citations and is the number of papers referenced. Also, the values of h-index obtained using Theorem 2 outperform those obtained using Egghe-Liang-Rousseau power law model for the given citation data of Price Medalists. Further, we computed the values of upper bound on g-index given by Theorem 3, g≤(h+ze), where e denotes the value of e-index. We observe that the upper bound on g-index given by Theorem 3 is reasonably tight for the given citation record of Price Medalists. © 2012 Ash Mohammad Abbas.

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