Aligarh, India

Aligarh Muslim University

www.amu.ac.in
Aligarh, India

Aligarh Muslim University is a public university, funded by the central government of India is among the oldest central universities in India. It was established by Syed Ahmad Khan as Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College. The Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College became Aligarh Muslim University in 1920. The main campus of AMU is located in the city of Aligarh. Spread over 467.6 hectares in the city of Aligarh, AMU offers more than 300 courses in the traditional and modern branches of education. The University has consistently ranked among the best educational institutions in India. According to Times Higher Education, Asia Ranking 2014, AMU ranks 3rd among Universities in India. The university is open to all irrespective of caste, creed, religion or gender. Wikipedia.


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A novel compound 5,8a-di-1-propyl 1-octahydronapthalen-1-(2H) One, and a process for isolating the compound and provides the process for isolation of the compound 5,8a-di-1-propyl 1-octahydronapthalen-1-(2H) One from Trachyspermum ammi (Ajowan caraway) seeds involving washing the seeds, drying the same and crushing it to form a powder; subjecting the powder to solvent extraction; isolating the active compound by chromatography; cooling the fractions; and subjecting the fractions to the step of crystallization in pure methanol.


Chauhan A.,Aligarh Muslim University
International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2011

Nanomaterials are considered to be the pre-eminent component of the rapidly advancing field of nanotechnology. However, developments in the biologically inspired synthesis of nanoparticles are still in their infancy and consequently attracting the attention of material scientists throughout the world. Keeping in mind the fact that microorganism-assisted synthesis of nanoparticles is a safe and economically viable prospect, in the current study we report Candida albicans-mediated biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and various spectrophotometric analyses were performed to characterize the gold nanoparticles. The morphology of the synthesized gold particles depended on the abundance of C. albicans cytosolic extract. Transmission electron microscopy, nanophox particle analysis, and atomic force microscopy revealed the size of spherical gold nanoparticles to be in the range of 20-40 nm and nonspherical gold particles were found to be 60-80 nm. We also evaluated the potential of biogenic gold nanoparticles to probe liver cancer cells by conjugating them with liver cancer cell surface-specific antibodies. The antibody-conjugated gold particles were found to bind specifically to the surface antigens of the cancer cells. The antibody-conjugated gold particles synthesized in this study could successfully differentiate normal cell populations from cancerous cells.


Ansari S.A.,Aligarh Muslim University | Husain Q.,Jazan University
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2012

Several new types of carriers and technologies have been implemented in the recent past to improve traditional enzyme immobilization which aimed to enhance enzyme loading, activity and stability to decrease the enzyme biocatalyst cost in industrial biotechnology. These include cross-linked enzyme aggregates, microwave-assisted immobilization, click chemistry technology, mesoporous supports and most recently nanoparticle-based immobilization of enzymes. The union of the specific physical, chemical, optical and electrical properties of nanoparticles with the specific recognition or catalytic properties of biomolecules has led to their appearance in myriad novel biotechnological applications. They have been applied time and again for immobilization of industrially important enzymes with improved characteristics. The high surface-to-volume ratio offered by nanoparticles resulted in the concentration of the immobilized entity being considerably higher than that afforded by experimental protocols based on immobilization on planar 2-D surfaces. Enzymes immobilized on nanoparticles showed a broader working pH and temperature range and higher thermal stability than the native enzymes. Compared with the conventional immobilization methods, nanoparticle based immobilization served three important features; (i) nano-enzyme particles are easy to synthesize in high solid content without using surfactants and toxic reagents, (ii) homogeneous and well defined core-shell nanoparticles with a thick enzyme shell can be obtained, and (iii) particle size can be conveniently tailored within utility limits. In addition, with the growing attention paid to cascade enzymatic reaction and in vitro synthetic biology, it is possible that co-immobilization of multi-enzymes could be achieved on these nanoparticles. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Khan M.S.A.,Aligarh Muslim University | Ahmad I.,Aligarh Muslim University
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2012

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate four phytocompounds (cinnamaldehyde, citral, eugenol and geraniol) for their in vitro inhibitory activity against pre-formed biofilms of Candida albicans alone or in combination with fluconazole and amphotericin B. These compounds were also tested at subinhibitory concentrations for their ability to inhibit biofilm formation. Methods: The XTT reduction assay, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to determine the inhibitory effect of the test compounds on biofilms. A chequerboard method was used for combination studies. Results: Both clinical and reference strains of C. albicans (C. albicans 04 and C. albicans SC5314, respectively) displayed formation of strong biofilms. Pre-formed Candida biofilms showed ≥1024× increased resistance to antifungal drugs and 2× increased resistance to cinnamaldehyde and geraniol, but no increased tolerance of eugenol. The test compounds were more active against pre-formed biofilms than amphotericin B and fluconazole. At 0.5× MIC, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde were the most inhibitory compounds against biofilm formation. Light and electron microscopic studies revealed the deformity of three-dimensional structures of biofilms formed in the presence of sub-MICs of eugenol and cinnamaldehyde. The cell membrane appeared to be the target site of compounds in both planktonic and sessile C. albicans cells, as observed by SEM. Combination studies showed that synergy was highest between eugenol and fluconazole (fractional inhibitory concentration index=0.14) against pre-formed biofilms of C. albicans SC5314. Conclusions: Promising antibiofilm activity was displayed by eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, which also showed synergy with fluconazole in vitro. Further evaluation in in vivo systems is required to determine whether these findings can be exploited in treating biofilm-associated candidiasis. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.


Siddiqui Z.N.,Aligarh Muslim University
Tetrahedron Letters | Year: 2012

A facile, green synthetic route to new benzopyrano [2,3-b] pyridines in excellent yield via Friedlander condensation has been developed by the reaction of 2-amino-3-formylchromone 1a-b and cyclic active methylene compounds 2a-e in the presence of Zn(l-proline) 2 as an efficient, stable, and inexpensive Lewis acid catalyst in water. The present methodology offers several advantages such as shorter reaction time, mild reaction conditions, simple operational procedure, recyclable catalyst, and safe to the environment. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Husain Q.,Aligarh Muslim University
Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2010

In this article an effort has been made to review literature based on the role of peroxidases in the treatment and decolorization of a wide spectrum aromatic dyes from polluted water. Peroxidases can catalyze degradation/transformation of aromatic dyes either by precipitation or by opening the aromatic ring structure. Peroxidases from plant sources; horseradish, turnip, tomato, soybean, bitter gourd, white radish and Saccharum uvarum and microbial sources; lignin peroxidases, manganese peroxidases, vanadium haloperoxidases, versatile peroxidases, dye decolorizing peroxidases have been employed for the remediation of commercial dyes. Soluble and immobilized peroxidases have been successfully exploited in batch as well as in continuous processes for the treatment of synthetic dyes with complex aromatic molecular structures present in industrial effluents at large scale. However, recalcitrant dyes were also decolorized by the action of peroxidases in the presence of redox mediators. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.


A chance discovery of the tumoricidal action of a human milk fraction led to the characterization of the active component as oleic acid complex of the α-lactalbumin, which was given the acronym HAMLET. We report in this study that the oleic acid complex of bovine α-lactalbumin (BAMLET) is hemolytic to human erythrocytes as well as to those derived from some other mammals. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis suggested binding of BAMLET to erythrocytes prior to induction of hemolysis. Free OA was hemolytic albeit at higher concentrations, while sodium oleate caused hemolysis at far lower concentrations. Amiloride and BaCl2 offered protection against BAMLET-induced hemolysis suggesting the involvement of a cation leak channel in the process. BAMLET coupled to CNBr-activated Sepharose was not only hemolytic but also tumoricidal to Jurkat and MCF-7 cells in culture. The Sepharose-linked preparation was however not toxic to non-cancerous peritoneal macrophages and primary adipocytes. The tumoricidal action was studied using the MTT-assay while apoptosis induction measured by the annexin V-propidium iodide assay. Repeated incubation of the immobilized BAMLET with erythrocytes depleted oleic acid and decreased the hemolytic activity of the complex. Incubation of MCF-7 and Jurkat cells with OA, soluble or immobilized BAMLET resulted in increase in the uptake of Lyso Tracker Red and Nile red by the cells. The data presented support the contention that oleic acid plays the key role, both in BAMLET-induced hemolysis and tumoricidal action.


Khanam H.,Aligarh Muslim University
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2015

In nature's collection of biologically active heterocycles, benzofuran derivatives constitute a major group. The broad spectrum of pharmacological activity in individual benzofurans indicates that this series of compounds is of an undoubted interest. Benzofuran and its derivatives have attracted medicinal chemists and pharmacologists due to their pronounced biological activities and their potential applications as pharmacological agents. Due to the wide range of biological activities of benzofurans, their structure activity relationships have generated interest among medicinal chemists, and this has culminated in the discovery of several lead molecules in numerous disease conditions. The outstanding development of benzofuran derivatives in diverse diseases in very short span of time proves its magnitude for medicinal chemistry research. The present review is endeavour to highlight the progress in the various pharmacological activities of benzofuran derivatives in the current literature with an update of recent research findings on this nucleus. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Husain Q.,Aligarh Muslim University
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology | Year: 2010

β Galactosidases have been obtained from microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria and yeasts; plants, animals cells, and from recombinant sources. The enzyme has two main applications; the removal of lactose from milk products for lactose intolerant people and the production of galactosylated products. In order to increase their stability, reusability, and use in continuous reactors, these enzymes have been immobilized on both organic and inorganic support via adsorption, covalent attachment, chemical aggregation, microencapsulation, and entrapment. Free and immobilized preparations of β galactosidases have been exploited in various applications such as industrial, biotechnological, medical, analytical, and in different other applications. β galactosidase is widely used in food industry to improve sweetness, solubility, flavor, and digestibility of dairy products. Immobilized β galactosidases are employed for the continuous hydrolysis of lactose from whey and milk in a number of reactors such as hollow fiber reactors, tapered column reactors, packed bed reactors, fluidized bed reactors etc. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.


In this paper, we describe some bounds and inequalities relating h-index, g-index, e-index, and generalized impact factor. We derive the bounds and inequalities relating these indexing parameters from their basic definitions and without assuming any continuous model to be followed by any of them. We verify the theorems using citation data for five Price Medalists. We observe that the lower bound for h-index given by Theorem 2, h=Ω(g-e 2/g),f>1 comes out to be more accurate as compared to Schubert-Glanzel rlation, for a proportionality constant of of 1, where C is the number of citations and is the number of papers referenced. Also, the values of h-index obtained using Theorem 2 outperform those obtained using Egghe-Liang-Rousseau power law model for the given citation data of Price Medalists. Further, we computed the values of upper bound on g-index given by Theorem 3, g≤(h+ze), where e denotes the value of e-index. We observe that the upper bound on g-index given by Theorem 3 is reasonably tight for the given citation record of Price Medalists. © 2012 Ash Mohammad Abbas.

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