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Fransson A.,Norwegian Polar Institute | Chierici M.,Norwegian Institute of Marine Research | Nomura D.,Norwegian Polar Institute | Granskog M.A.,Norwegian Polar Institute | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans | Year: 2015

In order to investigate the effect of glacial water on the CO2 system in the fjord, we studied the variability of the total alkalinity (AT), total dissolved inorganic carbon (CT), dissolved inorganic nutrients, oxygen isotopic ratio (δ18O), and freshwater fractions from the glacier front to the outer Tempelfjorden on Spitsbergen in winter 2012 (January, March, and April) and 2013 (April) and summer/fall 2013 (September). The two contrasting years clearly showed that the influence of freshwater, mixing, and haline convection affected the chemical and physical characteristics of the fjord. The seasonal variability showed the lowest calcium carbonate saturation state (Ω) and pH values in March 2012 coinciding with the highest freshwater fractions. The highest Ω and pH were found in September 2013, mostly due to CO2 uptake during primary production. Overall, we found that increased freshwater supply decreased Ω, pH, and AT. On the other hand, we observed higher AT relative to salinity in the freshwater end-member in the mild and rainy winter of 2012 (1142 μmol kg-1) compared to AT in 2013 (526 μmol kg-1). Observations of calcite and dolomite crystals in the glacial ice suggested supply of carbonate-rich glacial drainage water to the fjord. This implies that winters with a large amount of glacial drainage water partly provide a lessening of further ocean acidification, which will also affect the air-sea CO2 exchange. © 2015. The Authors. Source

Aksenov Y.,National Oceanography CentreSouthampton UK | Karcher M.,Alfred Wegener InstituteBremerhaven Germany | Gerdes R.,Alfred Wegener InstituteBremerhaven Germany | de Cuevas B.,National Oceanography CentreSouthampton UK | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans | Year: 2016

Pacific Water (PW) enters the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait and brings in heat, fresh water, and nutrients from the northern Bering Sea. The circulation of PW in the central Arctic Ocean is only partially understood due to the lack of observations. In this paper, pathways of PW are investigated using simulations with six state-of-the art regional and global Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs). In the simulations, PW is tracked by a passive tracer, released in Bering Strait. Simulated PW spreads from the Bering Strait region in three major branches. One of them starts in the Barrow Canyon, bringing PW along the continental slope of Alaska into the Canadian Straits and then into Baffin Bay. The second begins in the vicinity of the Herald Canyon and transports PW along the continental slope of the East Siberian Sea into the Transpolar Drift, and then through Fram Strait and the Greenland Sea. The third branch begins near the Herald Shoal and the central Chukchi shelf and brings PW into the Beaufort Gyre. In the models, the wind, acting via Ekman pumping, drives the seasonal and interannual variability of PW in the Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean. The wind affects the simulated PW pathways by changing the vertical shear of the relative vorticity of the ocean flow in the Canada Basin. © 2015. The Authors. Source

Sein D.V.,Alfred Wegener InstituteBremerhaven Germany | Mikolajewicz U.,Max Planck Institute for MeteorologyHamburg Germany | Groger M.,Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute | Fast I.,German Climate Computing CenterHamburg Germany | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems | Year: 2015

The general circulation models used to simulate global climate typically feature resolution too coarse to reproduce many smaller-scale processes, which are crucial to determining the regional responses to climate change. A novel approach to downscale climate change scenarios is presented which includes the interactions between the North Atlantic Ocean and the European shelves as well as their impact on the North Atlantic and European climate. The goal of this paper is to introduce the global ocean-regional atmosphere coupling concept and to show the potential benefits of this model system to simulate present-day climate. A global ocean-sea ice-marine biogeochemistry model (MPIOM/HAMOCC) with regionally high horizontal resolution is coupled to an atmospheric regional model (REMO) and global terrestrial hydrology model (HD) via the OASIS coupler. Moreover, results obtained with ROM using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and ECHAM5/MPIOM CMIP3 historical simulations as boundary conditions are presented and discussed for the North Atlantic and North European region. The validation of all the model components, i.e., ocean, atmosphere, terrestrial hydrology, and ocean biogeochemistry is performed and discussed. The careful and detailed validation of ROM provides evidence that the proposed model system improves the simulation of many aspects of the regional climate, remarkably the ocean, even though some biases persist in other model components, thus leaving potential for future improvement. We conclude that ROM is a powerful tool to estimate possible impacts of climate change on the regional scale. © 2015. The Authors. Source

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