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Schonhardt A.,University of Bremen | Altube P.,University of Bremen | Altube P.,University of Barcelona | Gerilowski K.,University of Bremen | And 5 more authors.
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques | Year: 2015

The Airborne imaging differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP) has been developed for the purpose of trace gas measurements and pollution mapping. The instrument has been characterized and successfully operated from aircraft. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns were retrieved from the AirMAP observations. A major benefit of the push-broom imaging instrument is the spatially continuous, gap-free measurement sequence independent of flight altitude, a valuable characteristic for mapping purposes. This is made possible by the use of a charge coupled device (CCD) frame-transfer detector. A broad field of view across track of around 48° is achieved with wide-angle entrance optics. This leads to a swath width of about the same size as the flight altitude. The use of fibre coupled light intake optics with sorted light fibres allows flexible instrument positioning within the aircraft and retains the very good imaging capabilities. The measurements yield ground spatial resolutions below 100 m depending on flight altitude. The number of viewing directions is chosen from a maximum of 35 individual viewing directions (lines of sight, LOS) represented by 35 individual fibres. The selection is adapted to each situation by averaging according to signal-to-noise or spatial resolution requirements. Observations at 30 m spatial resolution are obtained when flying at 1000 m altitude and making use of all 35 viewing directions. This makes the instrument a suitable tool for mapping trace gas point sources and small-scale variability. The position and aircraft attitude are taken into account for accurate spatial mapping using the Attitude and Heading Reference System of the aircraft. A first demonstration mission using AirMAP was undertaken in June 2011. AirMAP was operated on the AWI Polar-5 aircraft in the framework of the AIRMETH-2011 campaign. During a flight above a medium-sized coal-fired power plant in north-west Germany, AirMAP clearly detected the emission plume downwind from the exhaust stack, with NO2 vertical columns around 2 × 1016 molecules cmg'2 in the plume centre. NOx emissions estimated from the AirMAP observations are consistent with reports in the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register. Strong spatial gradients and variability in NO2 amounts across and along flight direction are observed, and small-scale enhancements of NO2 above a motorway are detected. © Author(s) 2015. Source

Kaiser J.,Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research | Ruggieri N.,Alfred Wegener Institute AWI Bremerhaven | Hefter J.,Alfred Wegener Institute AWI Bremerhaven | Siegel H.,Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research | And 3 more authors.
Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers | Year: 2014

A series of molecular organic markers were determined in surface sediments from the Gulf of Genoa (Ligurian Sea) in order to evaluate their potential for palaeo-environmental reconstructions. Allochthonous input can be characterized by the distributions of n-C29 and n-C31 alkanes, n-C26 and n-C28 alkanols and branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs), whose concentrations are generally highest near the river mouths. In the open basin however, terrestrial n-alkanes and n-alkanols may have an additional, eolian source. Autochthonous input is represented by crenarchaeol and isoprenoid GDGTs. Their concentrations are highest in the open basin showing the preference of Thaumarchaeota for oligotrophic waters. Indications of a significant degradation of sterols and C37 alkenones exclude these lipids as reliable productivity proxies. Using terrestrial and aquatic lipids as end-members allows estimating the percentage of terrestrial organic matter between 20% and 58% in the coastal area decreasing to 1-30% in the deep basin. The spatial distribution of sea surface temperature (SST) estimates using the alkenone-based UK' 37 index is very similar to the autumnal (November) mean satellite-based SST distribution. Conversely, TEXH 86-derived SST estimates are close to winter SSTs in the coastal area and summer SSTs in the open basin. This pattern reflects presumably a shift in the main production of Thaumarchaeota from the coastal area in winter to the open basin in summer. This study represents a major prerequisite for the future application of lipid biomarkers on sediment cores from the Gulf of Genoa. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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