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Ilic D.,Alfred Center | Nordin R.B.,Monash University | Glasziou P.,Bond University | Tilson J.K.,University of Southern California | Villanueva E.,Monash University
BMC Medical Education | Year: 2015

Background: Few studies have been performed to inform how best to teach evidence-based medicine (EBM) to medical trainees. Current evidence can only conclude that any form of teaching increases EBM competency, but cannot distinguish which form of teaching is most effective at increasing student competency in EBM. This study compared the effectiveness of a blended learning (BL) versus didactic learning (DL) approach of teaching EBM to medical students with respect to competency, self-efficacy, attitudes and behaviour toward EBM. Methods: A mixed methods study consisting of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) and qualitative case study was performed with medical students undertaking their first clinical year of training in EBM. Students were randomly assigned to receive EBM teaching via either a BL approach or the incumbent DL approach. Competency in EBM was assessed using the Berlin questionnaire and the 'Assessing Competency in EBM' (ACE) tool. Students' self-efficacy, attitudes and behaviour was also assessed. A series of focus groups was also performed to contextualise the quantitative results. Results: A total of 147 students completed the RCT, and a further 29 students participated in six focus group discussions. Students who received the BL approach to teaching EBM had significantly higher scores in 5 out of 6 behaviour domains, 3 out of 4 attitude domains and 10 out of 14 self-efficacy domains. Competency in EBM did not differ significantly between students receiving the BL approach versus those receiving the DL approach [Mean Difference (MD)=-0.68, (95% CI-1.71, 0.34), p=0.19]. No significant difference was observed between sites (p=0.89) or by student type (p=0.58). Focus group discussions suggested a strong student preference for teaching using a BL approach, which integrates lectures, online learning and small group activities. Conclusions: BL is no more effective than DL at increasing medical students' knowledge and skills in EBM, but was significantly more effective at increasing student attitudes toward EBM and self-reported use of EBM in clinical practice. Given the various learning styles preferred by students, a multifaceted approach (incorporating BL) may be best suited when teaching EBM to medical students. Further research on the cost-effectiveness of EBM teaching modalities is required. © 2015 Ilic et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source


Hoy D.G.,University of Queensland | Smith E.,Royal North Shore Hospital | Cross M.,Royal North Shore Hospital | Sanchez-Riera L.,University of Barcelona | And 16 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2014

The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of methods used for estimating the burden from musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions in the Global Burden of Diseases 2010 study. It should be read in conjunction with the disease-specific MSK papers published in Annals of Rheumatic Diseases. Burden estimates (disability-adjusted life years (DALYs)) were made for five specific MSK conditions: hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA), low back pain (LBP), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), gout and neck pain, and an 'other MSK conditions' category. For each condition, the main disabling sequelae were identified and disability weights (DW) were derived based on short lay descriptions. Mortality (years of life lost (YLLs)) was estimated for RA and the rest category of 'other MSK', which includes a wide range of conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus, other autoimmune diseases and osteomyelitis. A series of systematic reviews were conducted to determine the prevalence, incidence, remission, duration and mortality risk of each condition. A Bayesian meta-regression method was used to pool available data and to predict prevalence values for regions with no or scarce data. The DWs were applied to prevalence values for 1990, 2005 and 2010 to derive years lived with disability. These were added to YLLs to quantify overall burden (DALYs) for each condition. To estimate the burden of MSK disease arising from risk factors, population attributable fractions were determined for bone mineral density as a risk factor for fractures, the occupational risk of LBP and elevated body mass index as a risk factor for LBP and OA. Burden of Disease studies provide pivotal guidance for governments when determining health priority areas and allocating resources. Rigorous methods were used to derive the increasing global burden of MSK conditions. Source


Salamonsen M.,Royal Brisbane and Womens Hospital | Ellis S.,Alfred Hospital | Paul E.,Alfred Center | Steinke K.,Royal Brisbane and Womens Hospital | Fielding D.,Royal Brisbane and Womens Hospital
Respiration | Year: 2012

Background: Ultrasound (US) guidance is advocated to reduce complications from thoracocentesis or intercostal catheter (ICC) insertion. Although imaging of the intercostal artery (ICA) with Doppler US has been reported, current thoracic guidelines do not advocate this, and bleeding from a lacerated ICA continues to be a rare but serious complication of thoracocentesis or ICC insertion. Objectives: It was the aim of this study to describe a method to visualise the ICA at routine US-guided thoracocentesis and map its course across the posterior chest wall. Method: The ICA was imaged in 22 patients undergoing US-guided thoracocentesis, at 4 positions across the back to the axilla. Its location, relative to the overlying rib, was calculated as the fraction of the intercostal space (ICS) below the inferior border of that rib. Results: An ICA was identified in 74 of 88 positions examined. The ICA migrated from a central 'vulnerable' location within the ICS near the spine (0.28, range 0.21-0.38; p < 0.001) towards the overlying rib (0.08, range 0.05-0.11; p < 0.001) in the axilla. Conclusions: The ICA can be visualised with US and is more exposed centrally within the ICS in more posterior positions; however, there is a marked variation between individuals, such that the ICA may lie exposed in the ICS even as far lateral as the axilla. Future studies need to identify which patients are at risk for a 'low-lying' ICA to further define the role of US imaging of the ICA during thoracocentesis or ICC insertion. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG. Source


Suzuki S.,Austin Hospital | Suzuki S.,Okayama University | Eastwood G.M.,Austin Hospital | Bailey M.,Alfred Center | And 6 more authors.
Critical Care | Year: 2015

Introduction: In this study, we aimed to examine the association between paracetamol administration in the intensive care unit (ICU) and mortality in critically ill patients. Methods: We conducted a multicenter retrospective observational study in four ICUs. We obtained information on paracetamol use, body temperature, demographic, clinical and outcome data from each hospital's clinical information system and admissions and discharges database. We performed statistical analysis to assess the association between paracetamol administration and hospital mortality. Results: We studied 15,818 patients with 691,348 temperature measurements at 4 ICUs. Of these patients, 10,046 (64%) received at least 1g of paracetamol. Patients who received paracetamol had lower in-hospital mortality (10% vs. 20%, P <0.001), and survivors were more likely to have received paracetamol (66% vs. 46%; P <0.001). However, patients treated with paracetamol were also more likely to be admitted to the ICU after surgery (70% vs. 51%; P <0.001) and/or after elective surgery (55% vs. 37%; P <0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis including a propensity score for paracetamol treatment, we found a significant and independent association between the use of paracetamol and reduced in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio =0.60 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.53 to 0.68), P <0.001). Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that patients who received paracetamol also had a significantly longer time to death (adjusted hazard ratio =0.51 (95% CI, 0.46 to 0.56), P <0.001). The association between paracetamol and decreased mortality and/or time to death was broadly consistent across surgical and medical patients. It remained present after adjusting for paracetamol administration as a time-dependent variable. However, when such time-dependent analysis was performed, the association of paracetamol with outcome lost statistical significance in the presence of fever and suspected infection and in patients in the lower tertiles of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores. Conclusions: Paracetamol administration is common in the ICU and appears to be independently associated with reduced in-hospital mortality and time to death after adjustment for multiple potential confounders and propensity score. This association, however, was modified by the presence of fever, suspected infection and lesser illness severity and may represent the effect of indication bias. © Suzuki et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source


Ly L.,Alfred Center | Kelly J.W.,Alfred Center | O'Keefe R.,Dermpath Pty Ltd. | Sutton T.,Alfred Center | And 8 more authors.
Archives of Dermatology | Year: 2011

Objective: To determine the efficacy of imiquimod cream, 5%, in the treatment of lentigo maligna (LM). Design: Open-label before-and-after interventional study. Setting: A multidisciplinary melanoma clinic at a major tertiary hospital. Patients: Forty-three patients with biopsy-proven LM of greater than 5 mm in diameter completed this study. Interventions: Imiquimod cream, 5%, was applied to the lesion 5 days a week for 12 weeks. The original lesion was excised with a 5-mm margin. Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome was histopathologic evidence of LM in the excision specimen assessed independently by 2 of 3 dermatopathologists. Visible inflammation during treatment and macroscopic clearance were recorded. Results: When 5 of the 43 patients with discordant histopathologic assessment of the excision specimen were excluded, 20 of 38 patients (53% [95% confidence interval, 36%-69%]) demonstrated histopathologic clearance of LM after imiquimod treatment. Visible inflammation was significantly associated with histopathologic clearance (P=.04), but the positive predictive value was low (62%). Macroscopic clearance showed some association with histopathologic clearance (P=.11). Dermatopathologist concordance for all 43 specimens was substantial (κ=0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.96). Conclusions: Imiquimod cream, 5%, has limited efficacy in the treatment of LM when determined by histopathologic assessment of the entire treated area. The clinical signs of visible inflammation during treatment and apparent lesion clearance cannot be relied on to assess efficacy. Trial Registration: anzctr.org.au Identifier: ACTRN12610000066088 ©2011 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source

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