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Mihalte L.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca | Sestras R.E.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca | Feszt G.,Alexandru Borza Botanical Garden
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2011

Responses of seed germination to different chemical treatments were investigated for species belonging to Rebutia, Aylostera, Mediolobivia and Sulcorebutia genera (Cactaceae). Germination was optimal when the seeds immersed for 8 hours in aqueous solution, which contained sodium nitrofenolate (1.8%), and the germination percentage decreased when just tap water has been used. Maximal germination obtained for seeds that immersed for 8 hours in an aqueous solution, which contained 9% naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The germination was completely blocked when the seeds were treated with salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid. Whatever treatment option has applied, the species A. kieslingii recorded the lowest percentage of germination energy and germination capacity. The species M. orurensis recorded the highest percentage of germination energy, and R. var. spiniflorum kupperiana the highest percentage of germination capacity. In addition, high values of germination capacity were present in A. buniningiana, A. narvacensis, A. pseudodeminuta, R. var. luteispina violaciflora. As the process to obtain new plants in cacti is a difficult one, a database designed to improve cacti seed germination using different chemical treatments can be extremely useful for seed production industry. Source


Mihalte L.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca | Sestras R.E.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca | Feszt G.,Alexandru Borza Botanical Garden
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Four genera and 75 species belonging to Cactaceae family were investigated regarding their morphology and their molecular polymorphism. The botanical classification that described the phenotypic aspects of different characters, such as number of spines/areoles, length of spines and flower diameter, was used to describe the main peculiarities (morphological method). In Rebutia genus, the floral diameter varied between small limits: 2 cm (R. xanthocarpa v. splendens, and R. brachyantha) to 4.5 cm in R. calliantha and R. marsoneri (the greatest floral diameter from all the studied species). Of the studied species of Aylostera genus, A. fiebrigii has the greatest length of the spines and A. narvaecensis the smallest one. The analysis of the plants morphology showed a relatively low variability of biological material, according to genus and species. The genetic diversity was calculated with Nei and Li's index, and the phylogenetic tree (dendrogram) was generated with a neighbor-joining program. The dendrogram indicates the diversity of the genotypes, which are grouped into three distinctive large groups. The largest group includes species from the Mediolobivia and Rebutia genera, which clearly share a common ancestor; the group shares a common ancestor with B and C as well; A includes some but all not descendents. Species from Rebutia genus were present in all the described groups. The genetic distance between species from Rebutia, Mediolobivia, Aylostera and Sulcorebutia genera is small and the differences between the main characters was also quite small, so the trend of combining these species in one genus is justified. © 2011 Academic Journals. Source


Mihalte L.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca | Feszt G.,Alexandru Borza Botanical Garden | Baciu A.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca | Vilcan A.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca
International Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

The family Cactaceae is one of the most popular, easily recognizable and morphologically distinct families of plants. In this study, we analysed 41 genotypes with taxonomic and molecular marker methods (random amplification of polymorphic DNA). The botanical classification that describe the phenotypic aspects of different characters, such as plant diameter, number of spines, length of spines, spine diameter and flower colour, was used like taxonomic method. In Rebutia species, the plant diameter varied from 2 cm (R. atrovirens, R. mamillosa var. australis, R. violaciflora) to 4.5 cm (R. almeyeri). Of the species of the genus Mediolobivia examined in this study, M. orurensis f. SE had the greatest plant diameter (3.5 cm), whereas M. steinmannii var. parvula had the smallest (10-15 mm). The species of the genus Sulcorebutia have larger plant diameters than those of the species of Rebutia and Mediolobivia. Sulcorebutia grandiflora is 7.5 cm in diameter. DNA was isolated from 41 genotypes of cacti. The average DNA yield from all the genotypes was 106.40 ng μg -1. The DNA yield per individual ranged from 29.13 ng μg -1 (Sulcorebutia grandiflora) to 352.59 ng μg -1 (S. rauschii WR 299). The genetic diversity was calculated with Jaccard's index and the phylogenetic tree (dendrogram), based on a similarity matrix, was generated with a neighbour-joining programme. The dendrogram indicates the diversity of the genotypes, which are grouped into six distinctive large groups. The largest group includes species from the Mediolobivia and Rebutia genera, which clearly share a common ancestor. © 2010 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source


Mihalte L.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca | Sestras R.E.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca | Feszt G.,Alexandru Borza Botanical Garden | Sestras A.F.,Fruit Research Station
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca | Year: 2010

Based on aesthetic consideration of cacti plants and germination capacity of the pollen grains (more than 30%), 19 genotypes of cacti (including Aylostera narvaecensis, A. buiningiana, Rebutia kupperiana var. spiniflorum, R. donaldiana) have been used in cyclic cross-pollination pattern. Fruits and seeds obtained from 24 interspecific and intergeneric combinations were analyzed by studying their main traits. The highest weight was registered for fruit belonging to R. pseudodeminuta var. schumaniana × R. senilis (23.3 mg) and A. buiningiana × A. vallegardensis (20.4 mg). Coefficient of variability for fruit weight had large amplitude, between 12.3% (A. spinosissima × A. albiflora) and 98.4% (A. favistyla × A. archibuinigiana). The fruits belonging to A. muscula × A. vallegardensis were registered with the highest value of number of seeds/fruit (93.2). In the cross between genera, the greatest value of fruits weight's mean was registered on R. senilis × A. archibuinigiana (29.2 mg) and R. cajasensis × A. muscula (23.1 mg). Peculiarities of the fruits and seeds resulted from intergeneric combinations presented closer connections than interspecific ones. The phenotypic traits of fruits and seeds did not influence the seeds germination, but germination was clearly influenced by compatibility between genitors. Source


Mihalte L.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca | Sestras R.E.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca | Feszt G.,Alexandru Borza Botanical Garden | Tamas E.,University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca
Plant OMICS | Year: 2011

The genetic diversity for twenty species belonging to four genera of Cacataceae (Rebutia, Aylostera, Mediolobivia and Sulcorebutia) was analyzed employing taxonomic methods, chromosomes number and RAPD markers. The botanical classification that describes the phenotypic aspects of different characters, such as plant diameter, number of spines/areole, mean spines length, flower diameter, and flower color, was employed. Chromosome analysis revealed both diploids and polyploids in the studied species. Polyploidy was represented by two tetraploids species (S. crispata and R. kupperiana var. spiniflorum, 2n =4x =44) and by five triploids species (R. pseudodeminuta var. schumaniana, R. senilis var. liliacinorosea, R. calliantha, R. donaldiana and M. diersiana, 2n =3x =33). Thirteen species were diploid with 2n =2x =22. The total number of amplified bands was 448, and 400 bootstrap samples for generating the dendrogram, were used. The dendrogram indicates the diversity of the genotypes, which are grouped into four distinctive large groups. Almost all groups include species from the Rebutia, Aylostera, Mediolobivia and Sulcorebutia genera, which clearly share a common ancestor. M. diersiana and R donaldiana, two triploid species (2n=3x=33) formed the same subgroup in the frame of the dendrogram. In addition, those species also present common phenotypical peculiarities like: colour of flower (orange), diameter of flower (2.5 cm). The taxonomic methods were less precisely, regarding to assess genetic variation, comparing with cytological methods, and molecular markers methods. Source

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