Alexandria, Egypt
Alexandria, Egypt

Alexandria University is a public research university in Alexandria, Egypt. It was established in 1938 as a satellite of Fuad University , becoming an independent entity in 1942. It was known as Farouk University until the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 when its name was changed to the University of Alexandria. Taha Hussein was the founding rector of Alexandria University. It is now the second largest university in Egypt and has many affiliations to various universities for ongoing research. Wikipedia.

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News Article | May 26, 2017

About 40-70% of the infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus strains are due to methicillin resistant ones. These isolates are usually multi-drug resistant and harder to treat endangering hundreds of thousands of patients worldwide and costing billions in added health care costs. Accurate numbers describing the prevalence and characteristics of these infections and the added burden they cause to developing countries in the eastern Mediterranean and African regions are lacking. Egypt is no exception. In this article that appeared in Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets, Dr. AlaaAbouelfetouh, Associate Professor of Microbiology at the Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, is gathering the published data describing methicillin resistance in S. aureus (MRSA) in Egypt. The reports described a general MRSA prevalence rate of 50-82% among hospitalized patients mainly in the largest two Egyptian cities Cairo and Alexandria and a lower rate of 24% in Minia, an important but less populated city in southern Egypt. The articles that investigated community acquired MRSA reported 19-47% prevalence. Some of these studies molecularly characterized the types of the MRSA isolates using different techniques; SCCmec typing, or spa typing and Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). SCCmec types V, IV and its subtypes were detected in two separate studies. A different study revealed a MRSA prevalence rate among retail chickens of 38% which could act as reservoir for resistance transfer to humans. "Although the numbers point to an increasing rate of MRSA occurrence, especially in large cities such as Cairo and Alexandria, in the absence of a national surveillance program it is not possible to extrapolate these results to cover the whole country", warns Dr. Abouelfetouh. Despite these alarming levels of MRSA in hospital and community settings, awareness of MRSA control measures among the medical staff at one of the major health centers in Egypt was at the 67% level. For more information about the article, please visit http://www. Reference: Abouelfetouh A. (2017). The Status of Methicillin Resistance Among Egyptian Staphylococcus aureus Isolates: An Overview, Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets., DOI: 10.2174/1871526516666160802111200

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2013.1.3-01 | Award Amount: 3.92M | Year: 2013

The project intends to address the risk of emerging viral vector borne diseases in two main categories of arthropods known to transmit important animal and zoonotic diseases: mosquitoes (Aedes and Culex), and Culicoides biting midges. A research proposal targeting potential emerging viral disease risks related to these vectors will be carried out through original and integrated multidisciplinary approaches including: - Study of virus and microbial communities by next-generation sequencing (NGS) methodsin vectors collected in targeted ecosystems, providing an unprecedented global understanding of the role of the microbial and environmental ecology in virus emergence and transmission. It will also permit the discovery of new potential pathogens and the development of innovative diagnostic methods for surveillance and new tools for intervention strategies; - Characterization of vector competence mechanisms in selected vector-virus couples, including mosquitoes / Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Culicoides / Schmallenberg virus (SBV) and Orbiviruses; - Development of vector distribution and disease transmission models; - Development of better maps of high-risk areas for vector presence, as well as disease emergence and spread taking into account the impact of globalization, including climate changes and intensification of human and animal movements; - Design of new surveillance frameworks accounting for these new diagnostic methods, new knowledge and risk assessment analyses, for improved strategies of vectors, domestic and wild susceptible speciessurveillance by national and regional authorities; - Improvement of intervention strategies against vector borne diseases; Owing to this field of investigations, the project has a high potential for industrial and commercial outputs in Europethrough diagnostic kits, vaccines and computational software.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: INCO.2012-1.3 | Award Amount: 4.48M | Year: 2013

The main aim of the Project is to contribute to the quality of the Euro-Mediterranean research area, with a particular focus on the bi-regional Euro-Mediterranean S&T cooperation, research & innovation, policy dialogue and cooperation monitoring. The proposal aims at tackling the key issues and policy objectives outlined in the Work Programme by creating a dialogue and coordination platform of governmental institutions, research organizations, associations and NGOs helping integrate society in the institutional dialogue. To this end, the Project foresees a comprehensive analysis of selected societal challenges and will address capacity building to increase research capacity, shared knowledge and cooperation. It will also support synergies and networking to strengthen joint activities and EU- MS-MPCs cooperation in EU programmes, as well as a monitoring of regional RTD cooperation and policies. In particular, the proposal is structured to address three societal challenges: energy, high quality affordable food, scarcity of resources. These challenges have been selected on the basis of the result of the long-standing and ongoing EU-MPCs policy dialogue and represent the most significant areas of common interest in current Euro-Mediterranean cooperation. The specific objectives of the Project are thus: enhancing EU-MPCs co-ownership in research cooperation; creating synergies in order to reduce fragmentation of research actions; involving the civil society in the institutional dialogue on research and innovation; developing cooperation instruments to tackle societal challenges with a view to sustainability; supporting research and innovation capacity building through comprehensive training and contributing build an Euro-Mediterranean shared knowledge space in order to develop common EU-MPCs planning capacity and a sustainable regional RDT policy and cooperation.

Elzoghby A.O.,Alexandria University
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2013

Gelatin is one of the most versatile natural biopolymers widely used in pharmaceutical industries due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, low cost and numerous available active groups for attaching targeting molecules. These advantages led to its application in the synthesis of nanoparticles for drug and gene delivery during the last thirty years. The current article entails a general review of the different preparation techniques of gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs): desolvation, coacervation-phase separation, emulsification-solvent evaporation, reverse phase microemulsion, nanoprecipitation, self-assembly and layer-by-layer coating, from the point of view of the methodological and mechanistic aspects involved. Various crosslinkers used to improve the physicochemical properties of GNPs includintg aldehydes, genipin, carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide, and transglutaminase are reported. An analysis is given of the physicochemical behavior of GNPs including drug loading, release, particle size, zeta-potential, cytotoxicity, cellular uptake and stability. This review also attempts to provide an overview of the major applications of GNPs in drug delivery and gene therapy and their in vivo pharmacological performances, as well as site-specific drug targeting using various ligands modifying the surface of GNPs. Finally, nanocomplexes of gelatin with polymers, lipids or inorganic materials are also discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Elzoghby A.O.,Alexandria University | Samy W.M.,Alexandria University | Elgindy N.A.,Alexandria University
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2012

Albumin, a versatile protein carrier for drug delivery, has been shown to be nontoxic, non-immunogenic, biocompatible and biodegradable. Therefore, it is ideal material to fabricate nanoparticles for drug delivery. Albumin nanoparticles have gained considerable attention owing to their high binding capacity of various drugs and being well tolerated without any serious side-effects. The current review embodies an in-depth discussion of albumin nanoparticles with respect to types, formulation aspects, major outcomes of in vitro and in vivo investigations as well as site-specific drug targeting using various ligands modifying the surface of albumin nanoparticles with special insights to the field of oncology. Specialized nanotechnological techniques like desolvation, emulsification, thermal gelation and recently nano-spray drying, nab-technology and self-assembly that have been investigated for fabrication of albumin nanoparticles, are also discussed. Nanocomplexes of albumin with other components in the area of drug delivery are also included in this review. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: ENERGY.2013.2.9.1 | Award Amount: 6.30M | Year: 2013

The scientific targets of the EUROSUNMED project are the development of new technologies in three energy field areas, namely photovoltaics (PV), concentrated solar power (CSP) and grid integration (GI), in strong collaboration with research institutes, universities and SMEs from Europe in the north side of the Mediterranean sea and from Morocco and Egypt from the south of the sea. The focus in PV will be on thin film (Si, CZTS) based solar cells and modules while the goal in CSP field is to design and test new heliostats as well as novel solutions for energy storage compatible with these technologies. The project aims at producing components that will be tested under specific conditions of MPC (hot climate, absence of water, etc.). Such investigations are complemented with studies on grid integration of energy sources from PV and CSP in Morocco and Egypt context. Additionally, the consortium envisages to train PhD students and Post-Docs in these interdisciplinary fields in a close and fruitful collaboration between academic institutions and industry from EU and MPCs. The consortium is well placed around leading academic groups in materials science and engineering devices and equipments for the development of PV and CSP, and also in the promotion of the renewable energies in general. Moreover, technology transfer and research infrastructure development in the targeted areas will be provided. Disseminating the results of the projects will be done through the organization of summer schools, workshops and conferences towards large public from universities, engineering schools and stakeholders involved in the three selected energy areas and beyond. Another outreach of the project will be the proposal for a roadmap on the technological aspects (research, industry, implementation) of the PV, CSP and grid area as well as on the best practice for the continuation of strong collaboration between the EU and MPCS partners and beyond for for mutual interest and benefits.

Elsayed M.M.A.,Alexandria University
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2015

The human nail plate is a formidable barrier to drug permeation. Development of therapeutics for management of nail diseases thus remains a challenge. This article reviews the current knowledge and recent advances in the field of transungual drug delivery and provides guidance on development of topical/ungual therapeutics for management of nail diseases, with special emphasis on management of onychomycosis, the most common nail disease. Selection of drug candidates, drug delivery approaches, and evaluation of formulations are among the topics discussed. A comprehensive mathematical description for transungual permeation is also introduced. ©2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

BACKGROUND: The modified Karydakis flap and the modified Limberg flap are commonly used in the surgical management of sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to compare short- term results of these techniques. DESIGN: The modified Karydakis flap and the modified Limberg flap were compared in a randomized controlled trial. SETTINGS: The study was conducted in the day-case surgery department of a large academic teaching hospital in Alexandria, Egypt, from February 2009 through September 2011. PATIENTS: Patients undergoing surgery for chronic sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease were eligible for the study. Patients with sepsis were eligible only after aggressive treatment to eliminate sepsis. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomly allocated to undergo surgery with either the modified Karydakis flap or the modified Limberg flap. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary end point was operative time. Secondary endpoints included proportion of patients with postoperative complications, proportion of patients who were satisfied with the cosmetic results, and the rate of recurrence. LIMITATIONS: Follow-up times were not sufficient to evaluate long-term recurrence rates. RESULTS: Of 154 patients screened, 125 were enrolled, and 120 patients completed the study. The median operative time was significantly shorter in patients with the modified Karydakis flap than in those with the modified Limberg flap: 33 (range, 28-40) min vs 52 (range, 48-62) min; p < 0.001). No significant differences were found between study groups regarding overall complication rate (23% vs 40%, p = 0.08), wound infection (3% vs 5%, p > 0.99), subcutaneous fluid collection (5% vs 0%, p = 0.24), or hypoesthesia (10% vs 23%, p = 0.09). Full-thickness wound disruption was encountered in 9 patients (15%) in the modified Limberg group vs no patient in the modified Karydakis group (p = 0.003). The median follow-up duration was 20.5 months in each study group. One patient (2%) in the modified Karydakis group developed recurrent disease vs 2 patients (3%) in the modified Limberg group (p > 0.99). In the modified Karydakis group, 58 patients (97%) were satisfied with the cosmetic outcome and were willing to recommend the operation to others vs 43 patients (72%) in the modified Limberg group (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Both techniques provide effective treatment for pilonidal sinus disease and can be performed safely as day-case surgery. The modified Karydakis flap is associated with significantly shorter operative time, a lower full-thickness wound disruption rate, and a higher patient satisfaction rate. © The ASCRS 2013.

Bahey-El-Din M.,Alexandria University
Vaccine | Year: 2012

Developing effective vaccines is an important weapon in the battle against potential pathogens and their evolving antibiotic resistance trends. Several vaccine delivery vectors have been investigated among which the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) Lactococcus lactis has a distinguished position. In this review, different factors affecting the efficacy of L. lactis-based vaccines are discussed. In addition, the issues of biological containment and pharmaceutical quality assurance of L. lactis vaccines are highlighted. These issues are critical for the success of medical translation of L. lactis-based vaccines from research laboratories to clinical use by ensuring consistent manufacturing of safe and efficacious vaccines. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Koraitim M.M.,Alexandria University
Journal of Urology | Year: 2014

Purpose We sought to determine the incidence of erectile dysfunction following pelvic fracture urethral injuries in children, and to identify the related causes and risk factors. Materials and Methods All consecutive children who had undergone repair of a pelvic fracture urethral injury between 1980 and 2010 were invited to participate in the study. All responders were queried after a median of 13 years (range 3 to 28) following trauma to assess erectile function using the erectile function domain of the International Index of Erectile Function. Patients who had erectile dysfunction underwent penile duplex ultrasonography. Medical records and imaging studies were reviewed with a focus on 4 variables, ie pattern of pelvic fracture, pubic diastasis, prostatic displacement and urethral gap length. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify parameters predictive of erectile dysfunction at puberty. Results A total of 60 patients participated in the study, of whom 28 (47%) had erectile dysfunction. On univariate analysis all 4 parameters were significant predictors of erectile dysfunction, while on multivariate analysis only 2 parameters remained strong and independent predictors, namely urethral gap length 2.5 cm or greater and prostatic displacement in a lateral direction. Duplex ultrasound revealed the cause of erectile dysfunction as arteriogenic in 19 patients (76%), arteriovenogenic in 2 (8%) and likely neurogenic in 4 (16%). Conclusions For every 2 children sustaining a pelvic fracture urethral injury 1 will exhibit erectile dysfunction at puberty. The risk of erectile dysfunction is appreciably increased in the presence of a long urethral gap and/or lateral prostatic displacement. The cause of erectile dysfunction is most commonly primarily arteriogenic and less commonly neurogenic. © 2014 by American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc.

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