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Kharaishvili G.,Palacky University | Simkova D.,Palacky University | Makharoblidze E.,Alexandre Natishvili Institute of Morphology | Trtkova K.,Palacky University | And 2 more authors.
Biomedical Papers | Year: 2011

Background. The Wnt signaling pathway is crucial for cell fate decisions, stem cell renewal, regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. Deregulated Wnt signaling is also implicated in a number of hereditary and degenerative diseases and cancer. Methods and results. This review highlights the role of the Wnt pathway in the regulation of stem/progenitor cell renewal and prostate gland development and how this signaling is altered in prostate cancer. Recent evidence suggests that Wnt signaling regulates androgen activity in prostate cancer cells, enhances androgen receptor expression and promotes the growth of prostate cancer even after androgen ablation therapy. There is also strong evidence that Wnt signaling is enhanced in androgen-ablation resistant tumors and bone metastases. Conclusions. Further study of the modulators of this pathway will be of therapeutic relevance as inhibition of Wnt signaling may have the potential to reduce the self-renewal and aggressive behaviour of prostate cancer while Wnt signaling activation might enhance stem cell activity when tissue regeneration is required. © G. Kharaishvili, D. Simkova, E. Makharoblidze, K. Trtkova, Z. Kolar, J. Bouchal.

Alibegashvili T.,Alexandre Natishvili Institute of Morphology | Clifford G.M.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Vaccarella S.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Baidoshvili A.,VU University Amsterdam | And 9 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology | Year: 2011

Background: No accurate estimates of cervical cancer incidence or mortality currently exist in Georgia. Nor are there any data on the population-based prevalence of high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which, in the absence of good-quality screening, is known to correlate with cervical cancer incidence. Methods: We obtained cervical cell specimens from 1309 women aged 18-59 years from the general population of Tbilisi, and also from 91 locally diagnosed invasive cervical cancers (ICC). DNA of 44 HPV types was tested for using a GP5+/6+-based PCR assay. Results: In the general population (of whom 2% reported a previous Pap smear) HPV prevalence was 13.5% (95% CI: 11.6-15.9), being highest in women aged 25-34 years (18.7%) and falling to between 8.6% and 9.5% for all age groups above 34 years. HR HPV prevalence was 8.6% overall, being 6.8% and 38.9% among women with normal and abnormal cytology, respectively. HPV45 (1.6%) was the most common type in women with normal cytology, whereas HPV16 predominated among women with cervical abnormalities (including 7 of 10 histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3) and among ICC (57.6%). The next most common types in ICC in Georgia were HPV45 and 18 (13.2 and 11.0%, respectively). Conclusions: We report a relatively high burden of HPV infection in Tbilisi, Georgia. Improving cervical cancer prevention, through screening and/or HPV vaccination, is an important public health issue in Georgia, where 70% of ICC are theoretically preventable by HPV16/18 vaccines. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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