Entity

Time filter

Source Type


Mirza S.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Sharma G.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Parshad R.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Gupta S.D.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Breast Cancer | Year: 2013

Purpose: The DNA methylation mediated by specific DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), results in the epigenetic silencing of multiple genes which are implicated in human breast cancer. We hypothesized that the natural compounds modulate the expression of DNMTs and their associated proteins in the breast cancer cell lines and affect the methylation mediated gene silencing. Methods: The DNMTs transcript expression was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the tumors and the adjacent normal breast tissues of the patients with invasive ductal breast carcinoma. We tested the hypothesis that the natural compounds, viz., epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), genistein, withaferin A, curcumin, resveratrol, and guggulsterone, have demethylation potential. To investigate this hypothesis, we analyzed the DNMTs expression at the transcript levels, followed by the analysis of DNMT1 and its associated proteins (HDAC1, MeCP2, and MBD2). Results: The increased DNMTs transcripts expression, viz., DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b, in the breast cancer tissues suggest involvement of the DNMTs in the breast carcinogenesis. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the treatment with natural compounds, viz., EGCG, genistein, with- aferin A, curcumin, resveratrol, and guggulsterone, resulted in a significant decrease in the transcript levels of all the DNMTs investigated. Importantly, these natural compounds decreased the protein levels of DNMT1, HDAC1, and MeCP2. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the natural compounds, EGCG, genistein, withaferin A, curcumin, resveratrol, and guggulsterone, have the potential to reverse the epigenetic changes. Moreover, their lack of toxicity makes these natural compounds promising candidates for the chemoprevention of the breast cancer. In-depth future mechanistic studies aimed to elucidate how these compounds affect the gene transcription are warranted. © 2013 Korean Breast Cancer Society. All rights reserved. Source


Macha M.A.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Matta A.,York University | Chauhan S.S.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Siu K.M.,York University | And 4 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2010

Background: The five-year survival rates for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients are less than 50%, and the prognosis has not improved, despite advancements in standard multi-modality therapies. Hence major emphasis is being laid on identification of novel molecular targets and development of multi-targeted therapies. 14-3-3 zeta, a multifunctional phospho-serine/phospho-threonine binding protein, is emerging as an effector of pro-survival signaling by binding to several proteins involved in apoptosis (Bad, FKHRL1 and ASK1) and may serve as an appropriate target for head and neck cancer therapy. Herein, we determined effect of guggulsterone (GS), a farnesoid X receptor antagonist, on 14-3-3 zeta associated molecular pathways for abrogation of apoptosis in head and neck cancer cells.Methods: Head and neck cancer cells were treated with guggulsterone (GS). Effect of GS-treatment was evaluated using cell viability (MTT) assay and apoptosis was verified by annexin V, DNA fragmentation and M30 CytoDeath antibody assay. Mechanism of GS-induced apoptosis was determined by western blotting and co-IP assays using specific antibodies.Results: Using in vitro models of head and neck cancer, we showed 14-3-3 zeta as a key player regulating apoptosis in GS treated SCC4 cells. Treatment with GS releases BAD from the inhibitory action of 14-3-3 zeta in proliferating HNSCC cells by activating protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). These events initiate the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, as revealed by increased levels of cytochrome c in cytoplasmic extracts of GS-treated SCC4 cells. In addition, GS treatment significantly reduced the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2, xIAP, Mcl1, survivin, cyclin D1 and c-myc, thus committing cells to apoptosis. These events were followed by activation of caspase 9, caspase 8 and caspase 3 leading to cleavage of its downstream target, poly-ADP-ribose phosphate (PARP).Conclusion: GS targets 14-3-3 zeta associated cellular pathways for reducing proliferation and inducing apoptosis in head and neck cancer cells, warranting its investigation for use in treatment of head and neck cancer. © 2010 Macha et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Macha M.A.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Matta A.,York University | Chauhan S.S.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Siu K.W.M.,York University | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Epidemiological association of head and neck cancer with smokeless tobacco (ST) emphasizes the need to unravel the molecular mechanisms implicated in cancer development, and identify pharmacologically safe agents for early intervention and prevention of disease recurrence. Guggulsterone (GS), a biosafe nutraceutical, inhibits the PI3K/Akt pathway that plays a critical role in HNSCC development. However, the potential of GS to suppress ST and nicotine (major component of ST) induced HNSCC remains unexplored. We hypothesized GS can abrogate the effects of ST and nicotine on apoptosis in HNSCC cells, in part by activation of PI3K/Akt pathway and its downstream targets, Bax and Bad. Methods and Results: Our results showed ST and nicotine treatment resulted in activation of PI3K, PDK1, Akt, and its downstream proteins - Raf, GSK3β and pS6 while GS induced a time dependent decrease in activation of PI3K/Akt pathway. ST and nicotine treatment also resulted in induction of Bad and Bax phosphorylation, increased the association of Bad with 14-3-3ζresulting in its sequestration in the cytoplasm of head and neck cancer cells, thus blocking its pro-apoptotic function. Notably, GS pre-treatment inhibited ST/nicotine induced activation of PI3K/Akt pathway, and inhibited the Akt mediated phosphorylation of Bax and Bad. Conclusions: In conclusion, GS treatment not only inhibited proliferation, but also induced apoptosis by abrogating the effects of ST/nicotine on PI3K/Akt pathway in head and neck cancer cells. These findings provide a rationale for designing future studies to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of GS in ST/nicotine associated head and neck cancer. © 2011 Macha et al. Source


Kumar M.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Matta A.,Alex and Simona Shnaider Laboratory of Molecular Oncology | Masui O.,York University | Srivastava G.,Alex and Simona Shnaider Laboratory of Molecular Oncology | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Translational Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: Post-transcriptional regulation by heterogeneous ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) is an important regulatory paradigm in cancer development. Our proteomic analysis revealed hnRNPD overexpression in oral dysplasia as compared with normal mucosa; its role in oral carcinogenesis remains unknown. Here in we determined the hnRNPD associated protein networks and its clinical significance in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods: Immunoprecipitation (IP) followed by tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the binding partners of hnRNPD in oral cancer cell lines. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was carried out to unravel the protein interaction networks associated with hnRNPD and key interactions were confirmed by co-IP-western blotting. hnRNPD expression was analyzed in 183 OSCCs, 44 oral dysplasia and 106 normal tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and correlated with clinico-pathological parameters and follow up data over a period of 91 months. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox-multivariate-regression analyses were used to evaluate the prognostic significance of hnRNPD in OSCC. Results: We identified 345 binding partners of hnRNPD in oral cancer cells. IPA unraveled novel protein-protein interaction networks associated with hnRNPD and suggested its involvement in multiple cellular processes: DNA repair, replication, chromatin remodeling, cellular proliferation, RNA splicing and stability, thereby directing the fate of oral cancer cells. Protein-protein interactions of hnRNPD with 14-3-3ζ, hnRNPK and S100A9 were confirmed using co-IP-western blotting. IHC analysis showed significant overexpression of nuclear hnRNPD in oral dysplasia [p = 0.001, Odds ratio (OR) = 5.1, 95 % CI = 2.1-11.1) and OSCCs (p = 0.001, OR = 8.1, 95 % CI = 4.5-14.4) in comparison with normal mucosa. OSCC patients showing nuclear hnRNPD overexpression had significantly reduced recurrence free survival [p = 0.026, Hazard ratio = 1.95, 95 % CI = 1.0-3.5] by Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox-multivariate-regression analyses and has potential to define a high-risk subgroup among OSCC patients with nodal negative disease. Conclusions: Our findings suggest novel functions of hnRNPD in cellular proliferation and survival, besides RNA splicing and stability in oral cancer. Association of nuclear hnRNPD with poor prognosis in OSCC patients taken together with its associated protein networks in oral cancer warrant future studies designed to explore its potential as a plausible novel target for molecular therapeutics. © 2015 Kumar et al. Source


Kumar M.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Srivastava G.,Alex and Simona Shnaider Laboratory of Molecular Oncology | Kaur J.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Assi J.,Alex and Simona Shnaider Laboratory of Molecular Oncology | And 18 more authors.
Journal of Translational Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients are at high risk of loco-regional recurrence and 5-year survival rates are about 50%. Identification of patients at high risk of recurrence will enable rigorous personalized post-treatment management. Most novel biomarkers have failed translation for clinical use because of their limited successful validation in external patient cohorts. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic significance of alterations in sub-cellular expression of S100A2, a pro-tumorigenic calcium binding protein, identified as a candidate biomarker in our proteomic analysis in OSCC and validation of its clinical utility in an external cohort. Methods: In a retrospective study, immunohistochemical analysis of S100A2 was carried out in 235 Indian OSCC (Test set) and 129 normal oral tissues, correlated with clinicopathological parameters and disease outcome over 122 months for OSCC patients following the REMARK criteria. The findings were validated in an external cohort (Validation set 115 Canadian OSCC and 51 normal tissues) and data analyzed using the R package. Results: Significant increase in cytoplasmic and decrease in nuclear S100A2 expression was observed in OSCC in comparison with normal tissues. Cox multivariable regression analysis internally and externally validated cytoplasmic S100A2 association with tumor recurrence. Kaplan Meier analysis of patients stratified to high and low risk groups showed significantly different recurrence free survival (Test set- log rank test, p = 0.005, median survival 16 and 69 months respectively and Validation set - p < 0.00001, median survival 9.4 and 59.9 months respectively). 86% and 81% of patients who had recurrence were correctly stratified into the high risk group. Seventy percent and 81% patients stratified into low risk group did not show cancer recurrence within 1 year in Test and Validation sets. Conclusions: Our study provided clinical evidence for the potential of cytoplasmic S100A2 overexpression as a predictor of recurrence risk in OSCC patients. A unique translational aspect of our study is validation of S100A2 as prognostic marker in two independent cohorts (Canadian and Indian) suggesting this protein is likely to find widespread utility in clinical practice for identifying oral cancer patients at high risk of disease recurrence. © 2014 Kumar et al. Source

Discover hidden collaborations