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Ålesund, Norway

Background: In high-risk prostate cancer (PCa), no study with observation times beyond 10 yr has demonstrated survival improvement after addition of prostatic radiotherapy (RAD) to endocrine treatment (ET) alone. Objective: To compare mortality rates in patients receiving ET alone versus ET + RAD. Design, settings, and participants: From 1996 to 2002, 875 Scandinavian patients with high-risk (90%) or intermediate PCa were randomized to ET or ET + RAD (The Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group-7). After 3 mo with total androgen blockade in all patients, all individuals continued lifelong antiandrogen monotherapy. Those randomized to ET + RAD started prostate radiotherapy (70. Gy) at 3 mo. Outcome, measurements and statistical analysis: PCa-specific 15-yr mortality represented the primary endpoint. Assessment of the combination treatment effect and prognostic factors was performed in competing risk analyses and Cox proportional-hazard models. Intervention: RAD added to ET. Results and limitations: With a median observation time of 12 yr, the 15-yr PCa-specific mortality rates were 34% (95% confidence interval, 29-39%) and 17% (95% confidence interval, 13-22%) in the ET and ET + RAD arms respectively (p <. 0.001). Compared with the ET arm, the median overall survival in the ET + RAD arm was prolonged by 2.4 yr. Treatment with ET alone, age ≥65 yr and increasing histology grade independently increased the risk of PCa-specific and overall mortality. Limitations include nonformal evaluation of comorbidity, the inability to calculate progression-free survival, and lack of information about salvage therapy and toxicity. Conclusions: In patients with nonmetastatic locally advanced or aggressive PCa, ET + RAD reduces the absolute risk of PCa-specific death by 17% at 15 yr compared with ET alone; the comparable 15-yr PCa-specific mortality rates being 17% and 34%. The results warrant a phase 3 study comparing ET + RAD with radical prostatectomy in high-risk PCa. Patient summary: Adding prostatic therapy to lifelong antiandrogen therapy halves the absolute risk of death from prostate cancer from 34% to 17% 15 yr after diagnosis. In high-risk prostate cancer, radiotherapy (70 Gy) added to life-long oral antiandrogen monotherapy results in 91% cause-specific survival compared with 81% after antiandrogens alone. The results after combined treatment are similar to those after radical prostatectomy. © 2016 European Association of Urology.

Andersen F.H.,Alesund Hospital | Andersen F.H.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Kvale R.,University of Bergen
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica | Year: 2012

Background: The number of elderly (≥ 80 years) will increase markedly in Norway over the next 20 years, increasing the demand for health-care services, including intensive care. The aims of this study were to see if intensive care unit (ICU) resource use and survival are different for elderly ICU patients than for younger adult ICU patients. Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort study comparing ICU patients between 50 and 79.9 years (Group I) with patients over 80 years (Group II) registered in the Norwegian Intensive Care Registry from 2006 to 2009. A subgroup analysis of 5-year age groups was performed. Results: A total of 27,921 patients were analysed. The ICU/hospital mortalities were 14.3%/21.4% (Group I) and 19.8%/32.4% (Group II). Overall mortality increased with increasing age, and hospital mortality rate increased more than ICU mortality. The observed difference in admission categories could not explain the significant difference in median length of stay (LOS), 2.3 days (Group I) vs. 2.0 days (Group II). The elderly received less mechanical ventilatory support (40.6% vs. 56.1%) and had shorter median ventilatory support time, 0.8 days vs. 1.9 days. Median LOS dropped from around 80 years on, ventilator support time from around 65-70 years. Conclusion: Octogenarians had shorter ICU stays, had higher overall mortality, had a shift of dying at the ward rather than in the ICU, and received less and shorter mechanical ventilatory support. © 2012 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

Hellebust T.P.,University of Oslo | Hellebust T.P.,Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority | Tanderup K.,Aarhus University Hospital | Tanderup K.,University of Aarhus | And 7 more authors.
Radiotherapy and Oncology | Year: 2013

Purpose and background: To study the dosimetric impact of interobserver delineation variability (IODV) in MRI-based cervical cancer brachytherapy. Materials and methods: MR images of six patients were distributed to 10 experienced observers worldwide. They were asked to delineate the target volumes and the organs at risk (OARs) for each patient. Two types of reference contours were created (Expert Consensus-EC and Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation-STAPLE). Optimised plans based on both EC- and STAPLE-contours were prepared. These plans were transferred to each of the observer contour sets and the resulting DVH parameters (D90 and D2cc) were calculated. For each patient the standard deviation (SD) for the 10 observers was calculated. Results: A mean relative SD of 8-10% was found for GTV and High Risk CTV (HR-CTV) D90 analysing one single fraction. For rectum and bladder the mean relative SD for D2cc was 5-8% while sigmoid was at 11%. For the whole treatment the IODV in HR-CTV caused an uncertainty of ±5 Gyα/β=10 (1SD). The corresponding figure for OARs was ±2-3 Gyα/β=3. The results were not sensitive as to which structure set was used for the optimisation. Conclusions: For the target volumes the dosimetric impact of IODV was smallest for the GTV and HR-CTV, while IODV had an even smaller impact on the bladder and rectum. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rognmo O.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Moholdt T.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Bakken H.,Roros Rehabilitation Center | Hole T.,Alesund Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2012

Backround-: Exercise performed at higher relative intensities has been found to elicit a greater increase in aerobic capacity and greater cardioprotective effects than exercise at moderate intensities. An inverse association has also been detected between the relative intensity of physical activity and the risk of developing coronary heart disease, independent of the total volume of physical activity. Despite that higher levels of physical activity are effective in reducing cardiovascular events, it is also advocated that vigorous exercise could acutely and transiently increase the risk of sudden cardiac death and myocardial infarction in susceptible persons. This issue may affect cardiac rehabilitation. Methods and Results-: We examined the risk of cardiovascular events during organized high-intensity interval exercise training and moderate-intensity training among 4846 patients with coronary heart disease in 3 Norwegian cardiac rehabilitation centers. In a total of 175 820 exercise training hours during which all patients performed both types of training, we found 1 fatal cardiac arrest during moderate-intensity exercise (129 456 exercise hours) and 2 nonfatal cardiac arrests during high-intensity interval exercise (46 364 exercise hours). There were no myocardial infarctions in the data material. Because the number of high-intensity training hours was 36% of the number of moderate-intensity hours, the rates of complications to the number of patient-exercise hours were 1 per 129 456 hours of moderate-intensity exercise and 1 per 23 182 hours of high-intensity exercise. CONCLUSIONS-: The results of the current study indicate that the risk of a cardiovascular event is low after both high-intensity exercise and moderate-intensity exercise in a cardiovascular rehabilitation setting. Considering the significant cardiovascular adaptations associated with high-intensity exercise, such exercise should be considered among patients with coronary heart disease. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.

Roaldset J.O.,Alesund Hospital | Roaldset J.O.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Roaldset J.O.,University of Oslo | Linaker O.M.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Suicide Research | Year: 2012

The aim of the study was to explore the predictive validity of the Suicidal Scale of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview as a screen for suicidal behavior and non-suicidal self-injury following discharge from an acute psychiatric ward. Using a prospective, naturalistic design, the patients were screened with the Suicidal Scale when discharged (n = 307). At 12 months post-discharge, the Suicidal Scale was a significant predictor of suicidal behavior (n = 48) and suicidal behavior+non-suicidal self-injury (n = 49) but not for non-suicidal self-injury (n = 15). For patients without any known previous suicide attempts (n = 180), the Suicidal Scale was a significant predictor of suicidal behavior (n = 21) and suicidal behavior+non-suicidal self-injury (n = 11). Further research is needed to determine the overall utility of the routine screening of self-harm. © 2012 Copyright International Academy for Suicide Research.

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