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Alcala L.M.,Alejandro Volta 655
Geotermia | Year: 2013

The acid treatments are among the most common treatments used for increasing formation permeability in undamaged wells as well as removing formation damage, due to the ability of the acid to dissolve depositions of minerals that cause decreased mass flow rate or low injection capacity. One of the acid treatments is called matrix acidizing, which is a technique that involves the injection of acid into the formation through the well at pressure below the pressure at which a fracture can be opened. In several countries such as México, El Salvador and the Philippines, this stimulation technique has been used for several years, in both production and injection wells with successful results. Although the matrix acidizing technique applied in each country is based on the same treatment, there exist differences among them. The main differences consist of the injected acid concentration and volume used in each stage. Other variations include the omission of postflush in the Philippines and also in some cases in El Salvador, and use of fresh water for the overflush in El Salvador and the Philippines, whereas geothermal water is used in México. Some wells in El Salvador and also in the Philippines have been treated with Sandstone Acid (RPHF) instead of HCl as is used in regular Mud Acid for the mainflush, and that could be the most important difference between the treatment design in México and the other countries. Source


Abraham III M.M.,Alejandro Volta 655
Geotermia | Year: 2013

The conceptual model provides a descriptive representation of a geothermal system, based on geological, geophysical and geochemical information and the analysis of data and measurements made in the drilled wells in order to define the main reservoir characteristics such as shape, limits, dimensions, probable recharge and discharge areas and temperature and pressure distribution. In this paper, the conceptual model of Los Azufres geothermal reservoir is presented. This geothermal field is a complex formed by extruding a series of lavas with an extension of 20 km2, of basaltic and acidic quaternary age composition on a basement of tertiary andesitic composition. The unit Mil Cumbres andesite is the one that contains the reservoir while the unit Agua Fria rhyolite operates locally as a cap rock. The hydrothermal alteration is typical of a high-temperature geothermal system. Faulting has occurred along three principal trends NW-SE, NE-SW and the youngest E-W. The chemical composition of the fluid is sodium chloride type. The fluid seem to flow vertical with limited lateral movement, a high resistivity rock body existing at the central of the field, separates the geothermal reservoir as the north and the south sectors. The production zones of the wells in most of the cases are located to intercept a zone associated with a permeable structure. The thermodynamic state is conceptualized as a reservoir with three different areas, the deepest one composed of compress liquid, the middle one of two phases layer of liquid dominated reservoir and the shallow one of two phases steam dominated reservoir. Source


Roberto C.T.,Alejandro Volta 655 | Carlos S.C.,Alejandro Volta 655 | Antonio Z.L.A.,Alejandro Volta 655
Geotermia | Year: 2013

In order to promote the diversification of the energy sources on the national grid, and the use of alternate energy sources, the Mexican Utility CFE completed the construction of the Pilot Photovoltaic Plant of 1 MW in Santa Rosalía BCS on April 2012. This is the first grid connected solar photovoltaic plant in the Mexican grid exclusively for public service. This PV plant is part of the isolated grid of Santa Rosalía, where a geothermal plant of 10 MW and now the photovoltaic plant, produce more than 74% of the total yearly consumed energy. Source


Cruz-Noe E.,Alejandro Volta 655 | Lorenzo-Pulido C.,Alejandro Volta 655 | Soto-Peredo J.,Alejandro Volta 655 | Pulido-Arreola S.,Alejandro Volta 655
Geotermia | Year: 2013

Seismic networks in the geothermal fields of México have operated since the 1990's. This paper reports the results and applications of the micro seismicity recordings in Los Azufres, Los Humeros and Las Tres Virgenes Geothermal fields in México. The information generated in those fields is useful since microseismicity is a support tool for defining drill targets of production and injection wells, as well as to identify fluid movement in the subsurface, which can be related to permeable zones. Source

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