Alderson Broaddus College

Alderson, WV, United States

Alderson Broaddus College

Alderson, WV, United States
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Ritchie S.K.,West Virginia University | Murphy E.C.-S.,West Virginia University | Ice C.,West Virginia University | Cottrell L.A.,West Virginia University | And 3 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVES: The goal was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of family history in identifying children with severe or genetic hyperlipidemias in a rural, predominantly white population. METHODS: A total of 20 266 fifth-grade children in West Virginia, from the Coronary Artery Risk Detection in Appalachian Communities (CARDIAC) Project, who completed a family history and fasting lipid profile were used in analyses. The relationship between hyperlipidemia and family history was determined, and the use of family history to predict the need for pharmacologic treatment among children with dyslipidemia was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 71.4% of children met the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) guidelines for cholesterol screening on the basis of positive family history. Of those, 1204 (8.3%) were considered to have dyslipidemia (low-density lipoprotein ≥ 130 mg/dL), and 1.2% of these children with dyslipidemia warranted possible pharmacologic treatment (low-density lipoprotein ≥ 160 mg/dL). Of the 28.6% who did not have a positive family history (did not meet NCEP guidelines), 548 (9.5%) had dyslipidemia, 1.7% of whom warranted pharmacologic treatment. Sensitivity and specificity data demonstrated that family history does not provide a strong indication as to whether pharmacologic treatment may be warranted. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that the use of family history to determine the need for cholesterol screening in children would have (1) missed many with moderate dyslipidemia and (2) failed to detect a substantial number with likely genetic dyslipidemias that would require pharmacologic treatment. The use of universal cholesterol screening would identify all children with severe dyslipidemia, allowing for proper intervention and follow-up and leading to the prevention of future atherosclerotic disease. Copyright © 2010 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Chen A.Y.,West Virginia University | Chen Y.C.,Alderson Broaddus College
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Kaempferol is a polyphenol antioxidant found in fruits and vegetables. Many studies have described the beneficial effects of dietary kaempferol in reducing the risk of chronic diseases, especially cancer. Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between kaempferol intake and cancer. Kaempferol may help by augmenting the body's antioxidant defence against free radicals, which promote the development of cancer. At the molecular level, kaempferol has been reported to modulate a number of key elements in cellular signal transduction pathways linked to apoptosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, and metastasis. Significantly, kaempferol inhibits cancer cell growth and angiogenesis and induces cancer cell apoptosis, but on the other hand, kaempferol appears to preserve normal cell viability, in some cases exerting a protective effect. The aim of this review is to synthesize information concerning the extraction of kaempferol, as well as to provide insights into the molecular basis of its potential chemo-preventative activities, with an emphasis on its ability to control intracellular signaling cascades that regulate the aforementioned processes. Chemoprevention using nanotechnology to improve the bioavailability of kaempferol is also discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Zegre N.P.,West Virginia University | Miller A.J.,West Virginia University | Maxwell A.,Alderson Broaddus College | Lamont S.J.,Natural Resources Analysis Center
Journal of the American Water Resources Association | Year: 2014

In the Appalachian region of the eastern United States, mountaintop removal mining (MTM) is a dominant driver of land-cover change, impacting 6.8% of the largely forested 4.86 million ha coal fields region. Recent catastrophic flooding and documented biological impairment downstream of MTM has drawn sharp criticism to this practice. Despite its extent, scale, and use since the 1970s, the impact of MTM on hydrology is poorly understood. Therefore, the goal of this study was a multiscale evaluation to establish the nature of hydrologic impacts associated with MTM. To quantify the extent of MTM, land-cover change over the lifetime of this practice is estimated for a mesoscale watershed in southern West Virginia. To assess hydrologic impacts, we conducted long-term trend analyses to evaluate for systematic changes in hydrology at the mesoscale, and conducted hydrometric and response time modeling to characterize storm-scale responses of a MTM-impacted headwater catchment. Results show a general trend in the conversion of forests to mines, and significant decreases in maximum streamflow and variability, and increases in base-flow ratio attributed to valley fills and deep mine drainage. Decreases in variability are shown across spatial and temporal scales having important implications for water quantity and quality. However, considerable research is necessary to understand how MTM impacts hydrology. In an effort to inform future research, we identify existing knowledge gaps and limitations of our study. © 2014 American Water Resources Association.

Zegre N.P.,West Virginia University | Maxwell A.,Alderson Broaddus College | Lamont S.,West Virginia University
Applied Geography | Year: 2013

Mountaintop removal mining is a dominant driver of land use/land cover changes in the Appalachian Region of the eastern United States and is expected to increase in scale in the coming decades. While several studies quantify land use/land cover changes attributed to traditional surface mining and at regional scales, no studies we are aware of focus specifically on mountaintop removal/valley fill mining practices at the watershed scale. Further, despite its scale and extent, its impact on runoff, particularly at larger spatial scales (103 km2), is poorly understood due to the complex relationships between climate, land use, and hydrology. To explore the impacts of this practice at broader scales, we estimated land use/land cover changes using Landsat 5 TM imagery over five periods between 1994 and 2010; used a simple rainfall-runoff model to estimate hydrologic response time; and conducted non-parametric trend analyses on annual hydrologic metrics (streamflow, Q/P, response time) for the Big Coal River watershed located in the southern West Virginia coalfields. No statistically significant trends were detected in any of the timeseries. The lack of detectable trends and correlations between land use changes and hydrology at the basin scale are not entirely unexpected due to the history and mosaic of land cover changes that span timescales larger than our study period. Further interannual variation likely overwhelms our ability to detect potential changes using monotonic trend analysis at the annual time scale, particularly in light of strong streamflow seasonality. Future studies therefore should include different methods of change detection applied to different timescales to more appropriately account seasonal and interannual variations. Until the significance of this practice on water resources (quality and quality) are understood, efforts to reduce the environmental problems associated with mountaintop mining will be difficult to achieve. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Pal M.,West Virginia University | Maxwell A.E.,Alderson Broaddus College | Warner T.A.,West Virginia University
Remote Sensing Letters | Year: 2013

This letter evaluates the effectiveness of a new kernel-based extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm for a land cover classification using both multi-and hyperspectral remote-sensing data. The results are compared with the most widely used algorithms-support vector machines (SVMs). The results are compared in terms of the ease of use (in terms of the number of user-defined parameters), classification accuracy and computation cost. A radial basis kernel function was used with both the SVM and the kernel-based extreme-learning machine algorithms to ensure compatibility in the comparison of the two algorithms. The results suggest that the new algorithm is similar to, or more accurate than, SVM in terms of classification accuracy, has notable lower computational cost and does not require the implementation of a multiclass strategy. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Lohcharoenkal W.,West Virginia University | Wang L.,U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health | Chen Y.C.,Alderson Broaddus College | Rojanasakul Y.,West Virginia University
BioMed Research International | Year: 2014

Nanoparticles have increasingly been used for a variety of applications, most notably for the delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents. A large number of nanoparticle drug delivery systems have been developed for cancer treatment and various materials have been explored as drug delivery agents to improve the therapeutic efficacy and safety of anticancer drugs. Natural biomolecules such as proteins are an attractive alternative to synthetic polymers which are commonly used in drug formulations because of their safety. In general, protein nanoparticles offer a number of advantages including biocompatibility and biodegradability. They can be prepared under mild conditions without the use of toxic chemicals or organic solvents. Moreover, due to their defined primary structure, protein-based nanoparticles offer various possibilities for surface modifications including covalent attachment of drugs and targeting ligands. In this paper, we review the most significant advancements in protein nanoparticle technology and their use in drug delivery arena. We then examine the various sources of protein materials that have been used successfully for the construction of protein nanoparticles as well as their methods of preparation. Finally, we discuss the applications of protein nanoparticles in cancer therapy. © 2014 Warangkana Lohcharoenkal et al.

Luo H.,Alderson Broaddus College | Rankin G.O.,Marshall University | Juliano N.,Alderson Broaddus College | Jiang B.-H.,West Virginia University | Chen Y.C.,Alderson Broaddus College
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Kaempferol has been reported to reduce the risk of ovarian cancer, but the mechanism is not completely understood. In this study, we tend to expand our understanding on how kaempferol regulates VEGF expression and angiogenesis in ovarian cancer cells. We timed VEGF secretion, and studied in vitro angiogenesis by kaempferol treatment. Gene expression was examined by qRT-PCR, ELISA, western blotting, or luciferase assay, and pathways were examined by manipulating genetic components with plasmid or siRNA transfection. It was found that kaempferol time-dependently inhibited VEGF secretion, and suppressed in vitro angiogenesis. Kaempferol down-regulated ERK phosphorelation as well as NFκB and cMyc expression, but promoted p21 expression. Examination of relationship between these genes suggested a novel ERK-NFκB-cMyc-p21-VEGF pathway, which accounts for kaempferol's angioprevention effects in ovarian cancer cells. This data supplements our comprehension of the mechanisms behind kaempferol's biological influence in ovarian cancer cells, and better characterised kaempferol toward chemoprevention. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Gao Y.,Zhejiang University | Li W.,Zhejiang University | Jia L.,Zhejiang University | Li B.,Alderson Broaddus College | And 2 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2013

Tea polyphenols (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and theaflavin-3-3'-digallate (TF3) are two prospective compounds in cancer prevention and treatment. Ascorbic acid (Vc) is essential to a healthy diet as well as being a highly effective antioxidant. In this work, the effects of the combination of EGCG or TF3 with Vc on the apoptosis and caspases-3/9 activities in human lung adenocarcinoma SPC-A-1 cells and esophageal carcinoma Eca-109 cells were determined. Furthermore, the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathways in the apoptosis induced by TF3 or EGCG together with Vc were studied using three MAPK inhibitors (ERK inhibitor PD98059, JNK inhibitor SP600125 and p38 inhibitor SB203580). Our results showed that Vc could enhance the EGCG and TF3 induced apoptosis in SPC-A-1 and Eca-109 cells, and this effect involved the activation of caspase-3 and 9. EGCG, TF3 and Vc could activate MAPK pathways respectively, and each compound activated different MAPK subfamilies in different cells. This may explain the enhancement of EGCG and TF3 induced apoptosis by Vc in SPC-A-1 and Eca-109 cells, and will ultimately aid the design of more effective anti-cancer treatments. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Luo H.,Alderson Broaddus College | Rankin G.O.,Marshall University | Li Z.,Alderson Broaddus College | DePriest L.,Alderson Broaddus College | Chen Y.C.,Alderson Broaddus College
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Ovarian cancer is a significant malignancy for women in the Western world, and its death rate has remained unchanged over the past 50 years, leaving room for proper chemoprevention. Kaempferol is a natural flavonoid widely distributed in fruits and vegetables, and epidemiological studies have found a negative correlation between kaempferol consumption and ovarian cancer risk. To understand the mechanism behind this negative correlation, we investigated kaempferol's ability to induce apoptosis in A2780/CP70, A2780/wt, and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cell lines. Kaempferol inhibited cell proliferation but did not cause necrosis in all 3 cell lines. For the apoptosis, caspase 3/7 levels were induced in a concentration-dependent manner by kaempferol treatment, with A2780/wt cells being the most responsive. This induction can be diminished by pre-treatment with a caspase-9 inhibitor, indicating an intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Western blot analysis revealed that protein levels of Bcl-xL were decreased in ovarian cancer cells, whilst p53, Bad, and Bax proteins were up-regulated by kaempferol treatment. Our data indicate that kaempferol induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells through regulating pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic protein expressions in the intrinsic apoptosis pathways, and is a good candidate for the chemoprevention of ovarian cancers in humans. Further studies in animal models and clinical trials are therefore warranted. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Hunter K.M.,Alderson Broaddus College
Online Journal of Nursing Informatics | Year: 2011

Technology designed to facilitate the medication administration process in healthcare facilities promises to reduce medication errors. This article describes one hospital's journey on the road to medication safety. © 2011 OJNI.

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